# AIOU Course Code 9408-2 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

ASSIGNMENT No. 2

Q.1   Read about ‘Comparison and Contrast’ (as given on pages 147-149) carefully. Now decide among the following statements that which one is a CAUSE and which one is an EFFECT:

 a.    The passengers got late. b.    The boat driver swam to the shore. c.     Seema is really happy. d.    He stood first in his class. e.     The roads were damaged. f.     There was an earthquake. g.    she has won the scholarship. h.    the bus broke down. i.     The boat sank. j.     His happiness knows no limits.

 Causes Effects The passengers got late the bus broke down The boat driver swam to the shore The boat sank Seema is really happy she has won the scholarship He stood first in his class His happiness knows no limits The roads were damaged There was an earthquake

Q.2   Read about the text titled as ‘What’s Good for You’ (as given on pages 161-162) carefully and complete Exercise 11 [on Chocolates and Chips] (given on page 166).

I think this is a good contrast essay because it’s describing difference between chocolate and chips.

Completely different products. Chocolate melts relatively easy and can then be transformed and reshaped. Chips, instead, are a chocolate flavored product made to withstand oven temperatures in final baking applications.

Chocolate chips are formulated to hold their shape in high heat. Notice when you bake them in cookies at 350 degrees, they come out looking the same. Although, these can be used for melting, they are not ideal. Be careful because they will melt quickly around 80 degrees, but will still hold their shape. If you were to touch them with a spoon, then their shape will break. They don’t melt smoothly, and often set with streaks and lumps. Save them for your cookies!

Ribbon coating is not a couverture chocolate. It’s a compound coating that is used to cover popcorn. It does not need to be tempered.

Ribbon Coating: Do not need to be tempered

Brands: Each brand of chocolate carries it’s own distinct flavor. It’s up to you to decide which brand of chocolate you prefer. Here are the brands we carry:

• Peter’s Chocolate
• Guittard
• Merckens
• Ghirardelli
• Hershey’s

Q.3   Read about ‘Comparison and Contrast’ (as given on pages 147-149) carefully and do complete Exercise 2 (given on Pages 151-152).

Aero planes and helicopters are both important forms of air travel, but there are great differences between them. Aero planes and helicopters have very different shapes but they both carry passengers. They also do not travel at the same speeds. Aero planes have long, slender bodies with wings. They travel extremely fast, reaching speed of over 1,875 miles (3,000 kilometers) per hour. Aero planes take off horizontally and can move in a forward direction only. They need a lot of space for takeoff and landing. Aero planes regularly carry several hundred passengers. Helicopters, on the other hand, have round bodies and propellers rather than wings. They move at much slower speed than aero planes. They take off vertically and can move in any direction. Helicopters require a very small takeoff or landing space. Most helicopters carry only 2-5 passengers.

helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by horizontally spinning rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forward, backward and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of STOL (Short TakeOff and Landing) or STOVL (Short TakeOff and Vertical Landing) aircraft cannot perform without runway.

Although most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, the configuration of a single main rotor accompanied by a vertical anti-torque tail rotor (i.e. unicopter, not to be confused with the single-blade monocopter) has become the most common helicopter configuration. However, twin-main rotor helicopters (bicopters), in either tandem or transverse rotors configurations, are sometimes in use due to their greater payload capacity than the monorotor design, and coaxial-rotortiltrotor and compound helicopters are also all flying today.

1. Formal vs informal definitions

A formal definition is based upon a concise, logical pattern that includes as much information as it can within a minimum amount of space. The primary reason to include definitions in your writing is to avoid misunderstanding with your audience. A formal definition consists of three parts. •The term (word or phrase) to be defined •The class of object or concept to which the term belongs. •The differentiating characteristics that distinguish it from all others of its class. For example: •Comic books (term) are sequential and narrative publications (class) consisting of illustrations, captions, dialogue balloons, and often focus on super-powered heroes (differentiating characteristics). Informal Definition is the writer uses known words or examples to explain an unknown term. These definitions may be synonyms or antonyms introduced by or, in other words, or like. It could also be stipulation, analogy, or illustration. Informal definition example: • Freedom, also referred to as liberty or independence, is a state people reach when they are free to think and do whatever they please.

1. Restatement and repeating

In the past, you may have been told that your conclusion should summarize what you have already said by restating your thesis and main points. It is often helpful to restate your argument in the conclusion, particularly in a longer paper, but most professors and instructors want students to go beyond simply repeating what they have already said. Restating your thesis is just a short first part of your conclusion. Make sure that you are not simply repeating yourself; your restated thesis should use new and interesting language.

1. Exemplification

Exemplification writing uses specific, vivid examples for the purpose of adding more information to explain, persuade, define, or illustrate a general idea. Likewise, exemplification provides solid support and strong evidence to prove the writer’s main statement.

1. Compare and contrast

Compare and contrast are words that are often used to talk about the similarities and differences between two things or objects. These two words are very commonly used.

Compare means to see the similarity and contrast means to see the difference. According to various dictionaries, compare means ‘to represent things or objects in respect of similarity’ and contrast means ‘to represent things in respect of differences.’

Apart from these meanings, one struggles to find any differences between the two. If a person is looking at the similarities between two objects or things, then he may be comparing the two. On the other hand, if a person is looking at the dissimilarity between two things or objects, then he may be contrasting the two.

The word compare has been derived from the Latin word ‘comparare’, which means ‘to liken or to compare.’ The word contrast has been derived from the Latin words ‘contra’ and ‘stare’, which means ‘against’ and ‘to stand.’ In Middle English, contrast was used for meaning ‘fight against’ or ‘to withstand’ in a battle. Contrast lost its sheen during the end of 17th century but was later adopted in art forms.

1. Synonyms and antonyms

Synonyms are words that have the same, or almost the same, meaning as another word. You can say an “easy task” or a “simple task” because easy and simple are synonyms. You can say Hong Kong is a “large city” or a “metropolis” because city and metropolis are synonyms.

However, it is important to remember that not all pairs of words in the English language are so easily interchangeable. The slight but important differences in meaning between synonyms can make a big difference in your writing. For example, the words boring and insipid may have similar meanings, but the subtle differences between the two will affect the message your writing conveys. The word insipid evokes a scholarly and perhaps more pretentious message than boring.

Antonyms are words that have the opposite meaning of a given word. The study of antonyms will not only help you choose the most appropriate word as you write; it will also sharpen your overall sense of language.

Q.5   In Unit 7 you have read about ‘Implied Meaning and Making Inferences’. Now read about the essay titled as ‘Life in the Indus Valley’ given on Pages 238-243 carefully. When you are done, complete the following exercise:

Based on your reading about the features of the Indus Valley civilization and on the basis of your inference of the information given in the story, complete the following table by putting the relevant terms (words) below each category of information. You should add at least TEN words for each category:

 Category of Information Customs Agriculture Transportation Ornamentation Animals Words ·   Seals ·   Poetry ·   Jewelry ·   Terracotta ·   Metal ·   Stone ·   Vedic ·   Material ·   Funerary ·   Sculpture ·   Wheat ·   Barely ·   Peas ·   Lentils ·   Linseed ·   Mustard Seeds ·   Millet ·   Sesame ·   Rice ·   Bullock Cart ·   Boats ·   Ships ·   Bactrian Camel ·   Donkey Carrier ·   Wheeled Vehicles ·   Car ·   Bus ·   Cycle ·   Horse Ride Gold Silver Copper Ivory Precious Stone Semi-precious Stones Bones Shells Bangles Rings Cattle Dog Cat Domestic Animal Fowl Pig Camel Buffalo Uncrown Cow

Q.6   Read about ‘Denotation and Connotation’ given on pages 249-260. Now carefully define the following terms with appropriate examples (so that we can distinguish between the two terms in each pair):

1. Denotation vs connotation

Denotation is the dictionary meaning of a word.

Connotation refers to the emotional suggestions or associations that are connected to a word.

A word has both denotation or literal meaning and connotation suggestive or emotional meaning. Meanings of words go beyond the dictionary meaning and readers have to infer or guess the implied meaning of a word using the emotional and imaginative association surrounding it.

1. Negative vs positive connotation

Connotation is an idea or feeling that a word evokes. If something has a positive connotation, it will evoke warm feelings. Meanwhile, something with a negative connotation will make someone feel less than pleasant. To call someone “verbose” when you want to say they’re a “great conversationalist” may not convey that. Your tone could imply they talk too much or that they’re lovely to be around. In the positive and negative connotation example sentences below, you’ll be able to take a look at both sides of the coin.

1. Inferring vs predicting meaning

‘Inference’ is a noun and its meaning is the act or process of reaching a conclusion about something from known facts or evidence. An ‘inference’ can be a verbal statement, but more commonly it refers to a thought process. For example: It seems like a reasonable inference that it is cold outside, because everyone I see is wearing a coat. An inference is usually made about something with a degree of certainty, based on facts like statistics, calculations, observations or generalizations. ‘Infer’ is the verb form of ‘inference’, having the same meaning, to form an opinion or reach a conclusion based on known facts. For example: We can infer that it is cold outside based on what we see people wearing. Synonyms include words like ‘surmise’, ‘deduce’, ‘reason’ and ‘conclude’.

Prediction’ is also a noun. It means a statement about what will or might happen in the future. A ‘prediction’ generally is a verbal statement, but it can mean just a mental thought. For example: I made a prediction that it will snow tomorrow. There is also a commonly used verb form of ‘prediction’, ‘predict’. ‘To predict’ means to say that something might or definitely will happen in the future. For example: I predict it will snow tomorrow. While ‘prediction’ and ‘predict’ are usually based on some sort of fact, observation, experience or scientific reason, these meaning behind these words does not have definite certainty of occurring. Something that someone predicts may or may not actually happen. A good example of an everyday prediction is the weather forecast. What is forecasted, or predicted, is based on scientific evidence, but it is not a known certainty, just a probability.

1. Skimming vs scanning

Skimming and scanning are reading techniques that use rapid eye movement and keywords to move quickly through text for slightly different purposes. Skimming is reading rapidly in order to get a general overview of the material. Scanning is reading rapidly in order to find specific facts. While skimming tells you what general information is within a section, scanning helps you locate a particular fact. Skimming is like snorkeling, and scanning is more like pearl diving. Use skimming in previewing (reading before you read), reviewing (reading after you read), determining the main idea from a long selection you don’t wish to read, or when trying to find source material for a research paper. Use scanning in research to find particular facts, to study fact-heavy topics, and to answer questions requiring factual support.

1. Dictionary vs associative meaning

“A word can sweep by your ear and by its very sound suggest hidden meanings, preconscious association. Listen to these words: blood, tranquil, democracy. You know what they mean literally but you have associations with those words that are cultural, as well as your own personal associations.” “A good example of a common noun with an almost universal associative meaning is ‘nurse.’ Most people automatically associate ‘nurse’ with ‘woman.’ This unconscious association is so widespread that the term ‘male nurse’ has had to be coined to counteract its effect.” “We can … make a broad distinction between conceptual meaning and associative meaning. Conceptual meaning covers those basic, essential components of meaning that are conveyed by the literal use of a word. It is the type of meaning that dictionaries are designed to describe. Some of the basic components of a word like “needle” in English might include ‘thin, sharp, steel instrument.’ These components would be part of the conceptual meaning of “needle.” However, different people might have different associations or connotations attached to a word like “needle.” They might associate it with ‘pain,’ or ‘illness,’ or ‘blood,’ or ‘drugs,’ or ‘thread,’ or ‘knitting,’ or ‘hard to find’ (especially in a haystack), and these associations may differ from one person to the next. These types of associations are not treated as part of the word’s conceptual meaning.

Q.7   Keeping in mind the definitions of ‘Denotation’ and ‘Connotation’ given on pages 249-260. Now write an academic essay on ‘Flowers and their Connotations’ in your own words. You can also take help from information given on pages 277-78.

Flowers have meaning. While popular blooms such as roses are known to be linked to romance and passion although there are different meanings for different colored roses there are others with meanings you might not be aware of. While it’s always thoughtful to gift a loved one their favorite flowers for Valentine’s Day, choosing a bouquet that symbolizes your thoughts on them can make the day all the more special. From the significance of loyalty and devotion with violets to the celebration of new beginnings with daffodils, the right bouquet can turn into a powerful message for the recipient.

 general Fascination; distinction; love red Deep romantic love, passion green Secret symbol of the followers of Oscar Wilde, love between two men white Sweet and lovely, innocence, pure love, faithfulness pink A woman’s love, a mother’s love, I’ll never forget you yellow Rejection, disdain, disappointment purple Capriciousness, whimsical, changeable, unreliability mauve Dreams of fantasy striped Refusal solid color Yes, affirmative

Q.8   Select the last Sunday Edition of your favourite English newspaper and carefully read it. Collect the information related to ‘Sports’ given in them and comment on any FIVE games of your choice.

While commenting you can add the following points:

Sport pertains to any form of competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to spectators. Sports can, through casual or organized participation, improve one’s physical health. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest (a match) is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a “tie” or “draw”, in which there is no single winner; others provide tie-breaking methods to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs.

1. Do you like that particular games? Why or why not?

Yes, I like particular games because games keep us healthy and fresh.

1. b) Would you play those games? Why or why not?

Yes, I play these games because it keep mentally fresh.

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