ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Read pages 1-14 carefully (the content is related to ‘academic writing’ and various types of ‘essays’) and briefly answer the following questions (in your own words).
- What is a ‘narrative’ essay? What are the essential characteristics of a ‘narrative essay’? Write down a narrative essay on ‘A Visit to Zoo’.
A narrative essay tells a story. In most cases, this is a story about a personal experience you had. This type of essay, along with the descriptive essay, allows you to get personal and creative, unlike most academic writing. Narrative essays test your ability to express your experiences in a creative and compelling way, and to follow an appropriate narrative structure. They are often assigned in high school or in composition classes at university. You can also use these techniques when writing a personal statement for an application. A narrative essay is a way of testing your ability to tell a story in a clear and interesting way. You’re expected to think about where your story begins and ends, and how to convey it with eye-catching language and a satisfying pace.
It is not always possible for the common people to visit remote jungles or famous national parks to watch various animals. It is very difficult to spot all of these animals in their natural habitats. Also, it is very dangerous for people to take their children on forest safaris to watch animals, birds, reptiles, etc. So, they prefer visiting a zoo, and it is very entertaining for them to watch various animals in the zoo, with all the protection.
There is a wide variety of animals, birds, and beasts that are kept in cages in a zoo. Zoos also keep animals of rare species. Many animals and birds are brought from foreign lands. This gives the visitors an opportunity to watch such animals and birds of rare species brought from the foreign lands, which they could have never seen otherwise. An African lion, a kangaroo from Australia, the gorilla, the chimpanzee, the zebra, the white tiger, the white peacocks, the polar bear, the different varieties of parrots and parakeets, the huge pythons, or the giant crocodiles – all of these amazing animals from so many different terrains and climatic zones are nurtured and kept in a zoo.
Zoos are in fact helping to save such animals and birds that may become extinct in this world. The species that are being threatened or endangered gets to be saved in the zoos. There are almost a thousand species of animals, birds, and beasts, that are kept in the zoos.
These zoos and their maintenance actually show that mankind has an immense love for animals. Man cannot ignore the fact that these animals, birds, reptiles, and beasts are a part of nature. People get to see the variety of animals that exist on this earth. Visiting a zoo brings human beings closer to these living beings. It makes human beings develop a liking for animals and birds. They get to learn so much about these animals too. Zoos have an aspect of geographical importance as well. When we as visitors watch a species of an animal brought from a foreign land, we get to learn about how and where these animals live, about the climate and the habitat in which they thrive naturally.
The maintenance of a zoo is a humongous task. Animals, birds, reptiles, and fishes, from foreign lands with different climatic conditions are to be kept in such surroundings, climate, and temperature that matches to that of their natural habitat. If that arrangement is not done properly these animals would not survive. The tigers or lions need to have a waterbody to cool themselves in hot summers. A gorilla or a chimpanzee needs trees and lush green lands to roam around. All these animals also need to be fed according to their original tastes and appetites. A leopard, a lion, or a tiger has to be served its due quantity of raw meat for every meal. A gorilla or a monkey should be served a vegetarian diet. There are some animals that are to be fed with fishes. The python is capable of devouring a whole goat and so, it should be fed accordingly, without harming any other living being around it. A zoo needs to have its own medical staff and veterinary doctors who are qualified, efficient, and competent. Sometimes these animals undergo major surgeries and treatments for the ailments. All of it has to be taken care of in a zoo.
We visitors, at times, cause a great deal of risk to the lives of these animals and birds. Out of excitement, to feed the animals, we throw food in plastic bags to the animals inside their cages. The animals tend to swallow the plastic bags along with the food. The plastic gets stuck in their intestines and causes serious problems, and can even result in death sometimes. The visitors coming to zoos, mainly children should be properly oriented and refrained from such activities.
- Define ‘Cause and Effect’ essay. How it is different than other types of essays? Provide one brief example of a ‘Cause and Effect’ essay.
The cause-and-effect essay is a form of argumentative essay that details the effect relationships between two subjects. In standard cause-and-effect essay writing and academic papers, the author shows how one person, thing, idea, or event directly influences another person, thing, idea, or event.
In a school environment, teachers assign cause-and-effect essays to teach critical thinking, logic, and persuasive writing. In the world of academic writing or a professional setting, this type of essay can take the form of a lab report abstract, a scientific case study, or a scholarly research paper. In all of these formats, an author describes a phenomenon and tries to identify its main causes.
The cause-and-effect writing process requires critical thinking and an orderly cause-and-effect essay outline. Follow these six steps to write a cause-and-effect paper.
1. Brainstorm Essay Topics.
Coming up with a good cause-and-effect topic involves observing the world and speculating about possible causes for what you see. Consider natural phenomena, social and cultural movements, or the development of ideas. Or perhaps you’ll write a cause-and-effect essay about a work of literature, highlighting the interconnectedness of characters, settings, and events.
2. Establish a Thesis.
Your thesis statement can highlight a single cause-and-effect relationship, or it can also show how one event causes multiple effects. You can also explore how a phenomenon has multiple causes.
3. Arrange Your Main Points Into Body Paragraphs.
Each of your body paragraphs should provide a specific illustration of why your thesis is true. Outline your entire essay to ensure that every paragraph explores a different facet of the relationship between your subject and its causes.
4. Write a First Draft.
Using your thesis statement and your body paragraph ideas, craft the first draft of your essay. You should be making a specific argument about how one person, thing, idea, or event affects another one. Use clear topic sentences and transition words to keep each body paragraph anchored to your thesis.
5. Review Your Work for Clarity and Logic.
Ask yourself the following questions: Do I present a clear point of view? Do my examples show how one event caused another? Are my transitions and topic sentences clear and informative? Have I convincingly argued my point?
6. Write a Final Draft.
After giving your work an honest self-assessment, re-draft your essay with an eye toward a final product. If you haven’t already written a conclusion, now is the time to do so. Remember that a cause-and-effect essay depends on your critical thinking and your ability to express your logic in writing. If you’ve done those things well, you probably have a very convincing essay on your hands.
Q.2 Read pages 31-34 carefully (the content is about formal and informal styles of writing) and decide what type of writing style (formal/informal) is used in the following sentences and how?
- Hurray! We are going to Murree next week.
- Ain’t you be happy on it? Aye?
iii. They may able to work together for the cause.
- I was poking around for my old college pics.
- Quick, run – there is cop coming.
- The two statesmen have a very cordial relationship.
vii. The kids may be visiting zoo next.
viii. I don’t understand. Say it again.
- I don’t understand. You will have to elucidate.
- Her sad face emanated the sorrow.
Q.3 Carefully read the text titled as ‘Chronology of the Mughal Kings’ on pages 51-52 carefully.
|Rank||Mughal Ruler||Period of Rule|
|1||Babur||1526 – 1530|
|2||Humayun||1530 – 1540 1555 – 1556|
|3||Akbar||1556 – 1605|
|4||Jahangir||1605 – 1627|
|5||Shahryar (de facto)||1627 – 1628|
|6||Shah Jahan||1628 – 1658|
|7||Aurangzeb||1658 – 1707|
|8||Muhammad Azam Shah (titular)||1,707|
|9||Bahadur Shah I||1707 – 1712|
|10||Jahandar Shah||1712 – 1713|
|11||Farrukhsiyar||1713 – 1719|
|13||Shah Jahan II||1,719|
|14||Muhammad Shah||1719 – 1748|
|15||Ahmad Shah Bahadur||1748 – 1754|
|16||Alamgir II||1754 – 1759|
|17||Shah Jahan III (titular)||1759 – 1760|
|18||Shah Alam II||1760 – 1806|
|19||Jahan Shah IV (titular)||1,788|
|20||Akbar II||1806 – 1837|
|21||Bahadur Shah II||1837 – 1857|
Now WRITE down a narrative essay about the Mughal Kings ‘Shah Jahan and his son Alamgir’ by using appropriate SEQUENCE MARKERS. You are required to use at least FIFTEEN sequence markers in your answer.
Date of Birth: January 5, 1592
Place of Birth: Lahore, Pakistan
Birth Name: Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram
Date of Death: January 22, 1666
Place of Death: Agra, India
Reign: January 19, 1628 to July 31, 1658
Spouses: Kandahari Mahal, Akbarabadi Mahal, Mumtaz Mahal, Fatehpuri Mahal, Muti Begum
Children: Aurangzeb, Dara Shukoh, Jahanara Begum, Shah Shuja, Murad Bakhsh, Roshanara Begum, Gauhara Begum, Parhez Banu Begum, Husnara Begum, Sultan Luftallah, Sultan Daulat Afza, Huralnissa Begum, Shahzadi Surayya Banu Begum, Sultan Ummid Baksh
Mother: Jagat Gosaini
Shah Jahan (Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram) was one of the most successful emperors of the Mughal Empire. He was the fifth Mughal ruler after Babur, Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir. After winning the war of succession post the demise of his father Jahangir, Shah Jahan successfully ruled the empire for 30 years. During his reign, the Mughal Empire thrived, making his reign the golden era of the empire. Though Shah Jahan was an able administrator and commander, he is best known for the construction of the Taj Mahal, which he built in the memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Architecture in general saw the best of Mughal construction during his time. He is credited with constructing many beautiful monuments throughout the landscape of North India. Shah Jahan is also the founder of Shahjahanabad in Delhi. The exquisite ‘Peacock Throne’, which he got built for himself, is believed to be worth millions of dollars by modern estimates. During his final days, he was held captive by his son Aurangzeb, who went on to succeed him to the throne.
Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat. He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father, eight-year-old Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shukoh were sent to the Mughal court in Lahore as hostages of grandparents Jahangir and Nur Jahan, as part of their father’s pardon deal. After Jahangir died in 1627, Shah Jahan emerged victorious in the ensuing war of succession to the Mughal throne. Aurangzeb and his brother were consequently reunited with Shah Jahan in Agra.
Aurangzeb received a Mughal princely education covering subjects like combat, military strategy, and administration. His curriculum also included scholarly areas like Islamic studies and Turkic and Persian literature. Aurangzeb grew up fluent in the Hindi of his time.
On 28 May 1633, Aurangzeb escaped death when a powerful war elephant stampeded through the Mughal imperial encampment. He rode against the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance, and successfully defended himself from being crushed. Aurangzeb’s valour was appreciated by his father who conferred him the title of Bahadur (Brave) and had him weighed in gold and presented gifts worth Rs. 200,000. This event was celebrated in Persian and Urdu verses, and Aurangzeb said:
If the (elephant) fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of shame. Death drops the curtain even on Emperors; it is no dishonor. The shame lay in what my brothers did!
Q.4 Read the text titled as ‘A Day in the Life of a Nurse’ on pages 56-57 carefully. Also read Exercise-9 given on page 58.
Now write down a PARAGRAPH of about 150 words on ‘A Day in the Life of a Bus Driver’. Follow the use of SEQUENCE MARKERS in your answer.
In my case as the driver of a regular service bus (Route Bus) my day can start as early as 5am. I have my shift (journal) already, and after arriving at the depot I proceed to the sign-on computers. I log in through the computer system and see my allocated buses for the day, of which I will note on the journal. This will help me later in the day. Next I go into where the shifts/journals are kept, along with the roster. In my case the roster exceeds 70 lines (weeks) of work, including two weeks many months apart, of paid leave, accrued through automatic salary sacrifice. This is called RDO time (Rostered Day Off time) as we are, by law, on a 38 hour working week, but the job gives us an average of 42 hours a week. When our wages are calculated every week, 2 hours pay is set aside for later. While here I see where my allocated bus is parked within the depot.
Next I collect my cash tin, and proceed to find my bus. As this is a big operation, the buses have been pre-checked by the shed staff, so I can get in, turn the power on, start my bus, and set myself up for the next few hours. After doing all this I carefully proceed out of the depot and into the street, heading for my first pickup point. Things are quiet in this regional town at this hour, and most of the year it’s quite dark until at least 6am, so I have to be extra vigilant for passengers. Some have the sense to have wave a light as I approach, but not all. I proceed along the run at low speed (40 km/h maximum usually) until I reach a designated timing point. If I am a bit early I will stop and wait for time. Usually this is no more than a few minutes. I try and greet my passengers in a friendly manner as they board, and will often pass the time of day with regulars.
Later in the morning I will come up for my first mealbreak, usually within 5 hours. As I approach that time I will be checking my journal for the other drivers’ name and shift number. Mostly they will call me and arrange where to meet.
After a break of around 40 minutes in the depot (minimum) I will take a staff car or another bus and go back out for the next part of my shift. By now things are a little busier around town, and our regular Senior Citizens have come out to do their shopping and attend medical appointments etc. On the other hand we have the Unemployed people of this town, many of whom are on drugs. These people seem to see fit to hang around our main bus stop most of the day. Many of the people here are teenagers riding flimsy aluminium scooters and playing chicken with the incoming buses. Some will try to get on, making excuses for not having money for a fare, some will get abusive, but most stay here until dark, making the waiting area a pigsty in the process.
After loading any passengers wanting my particular service, I cautiously try to re-enter the traffic, most of which will refuse to obey the law and let the bus out of its stop. Eventually I re-enter the traffic, watching for on-coming cars and people crossing the road where it’s not safe. I proceed out of this street and up town to where ever my route goes, trying to accelerate and brake smoothly, which is not easy on some buses, despite being automatic.
Eventually I either get a second mealbreak or I finish my shift. Sometimes I will take the bus back to to the depot to be parked by the shed staff, sometimes I will give it to another driver to continue on with, and pass a few minutes with them about how the day is going. Back at the depot I account for what money I’ve taken, pay that in, check the roster for my next shift, sign-off, and go home.
As a charter driver I was used to having a regular bus allocated to me, and my work pre-allocated. My start times were often varied, but usually around 7–7.30am, depending on where my first pick up was. A quick check of the bus for tyre and body damage, and for oil and water, fan belt wear, and working lights. Once I had sufficient air pressure I would be on my way, having pre-planned what roads to take, depending on traffic conditions. The idea was always to arrive at your pick-up point (mostly schools) 5–10 minutes early, just to be sure, and to try to give a good impression.
Somewhere around the appointed time a teacher or group leader would appear. Depending on the weather and the group, I might stay in my seat or I might stand outside and watch as the group boarded. Note that this is local bus work. Coach work is a different story again. Once everyone was aboard I would have (in the case of a non-air-conditioned bus, a teacher or group leader give out a safety speech about arms staying inside the bus, and kids staying in their seats. I have no desire to see anyone get hurt, but when arms go out windows when I’m in traffic and close to trucks, I get worried. Mostly, things run smoothly, and we get to our destination on time and in one piece. I note that I’ve never had accident of any consequence, and a passenger has never been hurt on my bus.
At the destination, the group leaves, usually through both sets of doors (where the bus has such), and I either await the next group, go off to park somewhere, or go to my next destination for my next group.
As a Coach Driver things are a little different. aside from the pre departure check, and knowing where you’re going with a coach that may be 14.5 metres long, you may have to check the coach has enough fuel, that you have your logbook filled out correctly (for trips over 100 kms from your base), spare wheel, spare oil and coolant, road maps, even a working radio!, and that all interior lights are working, and seatbelts are safe for use.
Q.5 Read the text titled as ‘The Evolution of Computers’ given on Pages 64-65 carefully. Now write down a paragraph (of about 200 words) on ‘the History of Cricket in Sharjah (UAE)’ in your OWN words and using appropriate SEQUENCE MARKERS.
The Sharjah cricket ground, in the Sharjah region of the United Arab Emirates, was built in the early 1980s and soon became a regular home for tournaments as the one-day cricket boom erupted following the 1983 India Cup victory. Between 1984 and 2003 the stadium hosted 198 ODIs and four trials (in 2002 while Parisian was playing games there due to political instability at home), attracting good crowds, especially from many Asian immigrants. It also hosts Masters (veteran) events and other competitions for the second series. All played under The Cricketers Benefit Fund Series (CBFS) “founded in 1981 by Abdul Rahman Bukhatir, and his main goal was to honor past and present cricket players from India and Pakistan, with benefit bags in recognition of their work in cricket. Limited and low-cost resources but by 2002 it had 27,000 power and floodlights.
But when the scandal of match-buying scandals began in the late 1990s, the Sharjah star began to decline, and although there was no proof, the parties began to move away, and in 2001 the Indian government banned the national side from playing there. Between April 2003 and
February 2010, the venue did not host international players, but that changed as Associates began playing games there and Pakistan needed a place outside the bank due to security concerns in their country. It is now Dubai and Abu Dhabi, which is one of the UAE’s international destinations and has resumed exploration activities.
Q.6 Read the text given on pages 73-88 carefully and answer the following questions briefly:
- Define ‘classification’ as a writing technique? How is it different than other types of writings?
In rhetoric and composition, classification is a method of paragraph or essay development in which a writer arranges people, objects, or ideas with shared characteristics into classes or groups. A classification essay often includes examples and other supporting details that are organized according to types, kinds, segments, categories, or parts of a whole.
The purpose of classification is to break down broad subjects into smaller, more manageable, more specific parts. We classify things in our daily lives all the time, often without even thinking about it. Cell phones, for example, have now become part of a broad category. They can be classified as feature phones, media phones, and smartphones. The classification essay opens with an introductory paragraph that introduces the broader topic. The thesis should then explain how that topic is divided into subgroups and why. Take the following introductory paragraph, for example:
When people think of New York, they often think of only New York City. But New York is actually a diverse state with a full range of activities to do, sights to see, and cultures to explore. In order to better understand the diversity of New York state, it is helpful to break it into these five separate regions: Long Island, New York City, Western New York, Central New York, and Northern New York.
The underlined thesis explains not only the category and subcategory but also the rationale for breaking it into those categories. Through this classification essay, the writer hopes to show his or her readers a different way of considering the state.
Each body paragraph of a classification essay is dedicated to fully illustrating each of the subcategories. In the previous example, then, each region of New York would have its own paragraph.
The conclusion should bring all the categories and subcategories back together again to show the reader the big picture. In the previous example, the conclusion might explain how the various sights and activities of each region of New York add to its diversity and complexity.
- Create a tree diagram illustrating various types of SCHOOLS. Explain what types of features have you used to classify these schools?
Q.7 Read EXERCISE 9 given on page 96 (which is about the classification of teachers into five types). Now WRITE a descriptive paragraph about your ‘favourite teacher’ classifying him into various types of teachers.
Ms. Rabbia is my favorite teacher in the school. I study in class 4th standard and she teaches me EVS (Environmental Studies). She is a good teacher. She cares us a lot and teaches using easy ways. She never takes study very serious and teaches us with entertaining activities. She always comes at right time in the class and never misses her class. We enjoy her class very much as she makes us happy too. She loves me very much as I am her very disciplined and ideal student. I follow her all the orders and do my class work and home work in neat and clean manner daily. I never become late or absent in her class. She motivates us to always follow right path in the life even we have to face much difficult situations. She tells us that we never become hopeless in difficult situations and search some easy ways to get out of them. She also tells us that never think negative and always think positive as it always happens what we think and do. She describes very well about all the topics of EVS. She wants us to talk in English in her class. She goes to her home with us in the school bus where we enjoy a lot by singing songs and reciting poems in the bus.
Q.8 Read about ‘Cause and Effect’ (as given on pages 107-111) carefully and WRITE down a cause and effect essay of approximately 300 words on the topic of your choice and by using the following words:
2. At the same time
At the same time Social networking is another form of electronic communication. The habit of communication is growing rapidly. It has become a daily routine for many people. Social media affects the world in many different ways. It was originally designed as a direct means of communication, but over the years it has had many negative effects. One of the most well-known effects is cyberbullying. Cyber bullying deliberately uses digital media to convey false, embarrassing, or hateful information about another person.
Although many adults experience this issue it is more common in young people. “For many young people, he explains, social media is not just a part of their lives, it is their social world.” Studies show that 95 percent of people between the ages of 12 and 17 have access to social media and that 15 percent have been cyberbullied. These practices have caused much distress to many youths. “In fact, many studies have found a link between stress and communication abuse.” Some youths are afraid of independence. The use of social media has caused an increase in fear.
Additionally, youths may be afraid to go to school after being bullied online. As stated in the article, “For example, victims may know that they only see their bullies at school, so they feel safe at home”. The student may not talk to an adult for fear that the harassment will increase. Also, young person may carry heavy loads.
His face of this century is wrapped up in social media. Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook are the three most used websites on social media. Especially sharing personal information or maybe watching what one person does by simply uploading a video. Finally, there have been many cases and debates over whether the social media is affecting our daily lives in a negative or constructive way. Although three of these apps are very popular, Twitter has been leading its users by sharing more than 500 million tweets a day. Similarly those statistics may sound cool, Twitter is also known to be a major cause of cyber bullying, relationship problems, and teen depression. Is it really that bad? Cyber bullying is one of the most common problems in social media. It includes harassing, threatening or humiliating someone to get their point.