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Course: Teacher Educatin in Pakistan (8626) Semester: Autumn, 2021 Level: B.Ed. (1.5 years
Q.1 Compare the objectives of teacher education given by Aggerwal and National Education policy 2009.
The National Education Policy (NEP) 2009 (“the Policy”) is the latest in a series of education policies dating back to the very inception of the country in 1947. The review process for the National Education Policy 1998-2010 was initiated in 2005 and the first public document, the White Paper, was finalised in March 2007. The White Paper, as designed, became the basis for development of the Policy document. Though four years have elapsed between beginning and finalisation of the exercise, the, lag is due to a number of factors including the process of consultations adopted and significant political changes that took place in the country.
Two main reasons prompted the Ministry of Education (MoE) to launch the review in 2005 well before the time horizon of the existing Policy (1998 – 2010)1 : firstly, the Policy did not produce the desired educational results and performance remained deficient in several key aspects including access, quality and equity of educational opportunities and, secondly, Pakistan’s new international commitments to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Dakar Framework of Action for Education for All (EFA). Also the challenges triggered by globalisation and nation’s quest for becoming a knowledge society in the wake of compelling domestic pressures like devolution and demographic transformations have necessitated a renewed commitment to proliferate quality education for all.
This document is organized into nine chapters. Chapter 1 describes overarching challenges, identifying two fundamental causes that lie behind the deficiencies in performance (the commitment gap and the implementation gap), and outlines the way forward. Chapters 2 and 3 articulate the ways of filling the Commitment Gap (system values, priorities and resources) and Implementation Gap (Ensuring good governance) respectively. Chapter 4 puts forward he provisions of Islamic Education and transformation of the society on Islamic human values. Chapters 5 to 8 outline reforms and policy actions to be taken at the sub-sector levels. Chapter 9 broadly suggests a Framework for Implementation of the Action Plan of this Policy document. Annex- I describes the current state of the education sector. Available indicators have been assessed against data in comparable countries.
Most of the issues recognised in this document were also discussed in previous policy documents. A new policy document on its own will not ameliorate the condition but all segments of society will have to contribute in this endeavour. However, the document does recognise two deficits of previous documents i.e. governance reform and an implementation roadmap, which if redressed, can improve the performance of the present Policy.
The policy discusses issues of inter-tier responsibilities wherein the respective roles and functions of the federal-provincial-district governments continue to be unclear. Confusion has been compounded, especially, at the provincial-district levels after the ‘Devolution Plan’ mainly because the latter was not supported by a clear articulation of strategies. The other issue identified for governance reforms is the fragmentation of ministries, institutions etc. for management of various sub-sectors of education and, at times, within each sub-sector. Problems of management and planning have also been discussed and recommendations prepared.
This document includes a chapter that describes the implementation framework. The framework recognises the centrality of the federating units in implementation of education policy measures. The role of the Federal Ministry of Education will be that of a coordinator and facilitator so as to ensure sectoral and geographic uniformity in achievement of educational goals nationally.
Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations. A reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting-up of educational facilities by the private sector. Matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through Education Foundations. Existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate for financial assistance with donor agencies in collaboration with the Ministry of Education. Educational institutions to be set up in the private sector shall be provided (a) plots in residential schemes on reserve prices, and (b) rebate on income tax, like industry. Schools running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. Curricula of private institutions must conform to the principles laid down in the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. The fee structure of the privately managed educational institutions shall be developed in consultation with the government.
The National Education Testing Service will be established to design and administer standardized tests for admission to professional institutions. Qualifying these tests will become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. This mechanism is expected to check the incidence of malpractice in examinations. Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities.
Implementation Monitoring And Evaluation
A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to the highest level. The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure public participation in monitoring and implementation. The education Ministers at the Federal and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and Provincial Education Councils respectively which will ensure achievements of targets. Existing EMIS at Federal and Provincial levels shall be strengthened to make them responsive to the need of Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES).The Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) shall be strengthened and tuned up to meet the emerging demands of MES and its obligations at national and provincial levels. Data collected through Provincial EMISs and collated by AEPAM through National Education Management Information System (NEMIS) shall be recognized as one source for planning, management, monitoring, and evaluation purposes to avoid disparities and confusion. Databases of critical indicators on qualitative aspects of educational growth shall be developed and maintained by AEPAM for developing sustainable indicators of progress, based on more reliable and valid data to facilitate planning, implementation and follow-up. A School Census Day shall be fixed for collecting data from all over the country.
Q.2 Discuss the usability of teaching methods recommended by Muslim scholars in the current teaching learning environment
The ancient Muslim educationists adopted a special method of teaching that promotes the recipientsofknowledge. The following are some articles of the teachingmethods:ForsakingTensionTeachers ought to treat their pupils leniently and kindly and avoid any tension and cruelty since these twothingsimpede the mental growth and author serious psychological complexes. Ibn Khuldun says, “Tensionalteachinginjures the pupils, especially the children and the harshlyeducated.”PhysicalDisciplinePupils of irregular behavior and negligence should be disciplined if they ignore the advice. The ancientMuslimteachers used to beat and detain even the kings’ sons. Abu Merriam, the educator of Al-Amin andAl-Mamun*,caned them so harshly that one’s arm was injured. Before his father, the boy showed his hand, andtheteacherwas summoned. “What for did Mohammed –al-Amin- complain you?” asked Ar-Rashid. “He isfull ofnaivetéand slyness,” answered the teacher. The caliph then said, “You may kill him! His death is betterthanbeing dull.”In his instructions to Al-Ahmer, one of his sons’ educators, Ar-Rashid said, “You should first reform himbymeans of kindness and lenience. If he refuses, then you should use tension and course.” Fathers used to saytothe educators of their sons, “Your share is the flesh while ours is thebones.”Beating and tormenting were the most important means of education. This is incorrect indeed since itisundecided to Islam that regards mercy, kindness, and lenience as the most matters on which educationshould settle. All of the crooked ways should be avoided in the educational processes. Teachers should not exceedindisciplining the irregular and deviant pupils since it creates mental complexes and impedes the maturityandprosperity of education and personality. Ibn Khuldoun says, “If the educator uses coercion, this will distressthepupil and confine his delighted spirit and urge on indolence and lead to lie and malignancy for avoidingmorecoercion. In addition, this coercion will teach the pupil trickery and fraud, and the pupil may take the MAs customs and qualities forever. The educator whether teacher or father, should not exaggerate in discipliningthesons.” The Prophet (s) said, “Teach without chiding. Teachers are preferable to the scolders.” Ibn Quteibasaid,“Teachers are recommended not to use tension orpride.”Teachers are compared to the compassionate father. It is said, “Teachers are the substitutes of fathers.” It isalsosaid, “Teachers ought to care for the students’ interests and treat them like the dearest sons withkindness,courtesy, benevolence, and patience on probable alienation. Teachers should apprise of their flaws by meansofadvice and sympathy, not chiding and crudeness.”
Usability can be described as the capacity of a system to provide a condition for its users to perform the tasks safely, effectively, and efficiently while enjoying the experience. In software engineering, usability is the degree to which a software can be used by specified consumers to achieve quantified objectives with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a quantified context of use.
The object of use can be a software application, website, book, tool, machine, process, vehicle, or anything a human interacts with. A usability study may be conducted as a primary job function by a usability analyst or as a secondary job function by designers, technical writers, marketing personnel, and others. It is widely used in consumer electronics, communication, and knowledge transfer objects (such as a cookbook, a document or online help) and mechanical objects such as a door handle or a hammer.
Usability includes methods of measuring usability, such as needs analysis and the study of the principles behind an object’s perceived efficiency or elegance. In human-computer interaction and computer science, usability studies the elegance and clarity with which the interaction with a computer program or a web site (web usability) is designed. Usability considers user satisfaction and utility as quality components, and aims to improve user experience through iterative design.
Complex computer systems find their way into everyday life, and at the same time the market is saturated with competing brands. This has made usability more popular and widely recognized in recent years, as companies see the benefits of researching and developing their products with user-oriented methods instead of technology-oriented methods. By understanding and researching the interaction between product and user, the usability expert can also provide insight that is unattainable by traditional company-oriented market research. For example, after observing and interviewing users, the usability expert may identify needed functionality or design flaws that were not anticipated. A method called contextual inquiry does this in the naturally occurring context of the users own environment. In the user-centered design paradigm, the product is designed with its intended users in mind at all times. In the user-driven or participatory design paradigm, some of the users become actual or de facto members of the design team.
The term user friendly is often used as a synonym for usable, though it may also refer to accessibility. Usability describes the quality of user experience across websites, software, products, and environments. There is no consensus about the relation of the terms ergonomics (or human factors) and usability. Some think of usability as the software specialization of the larger topic of ergonomics. Others view these topics as tangential, with ergonomics focusing on physiological matters (e.g., turning a door handle) and usability focusing on psychological matters (e.g., recognizing that a door can be opened by turning its handle). Usability is also important in website development (web usability). According to Jakob Nielsen, “Studies of user behavior on the Web find a low tolerance for difficult designs or slow sites. People don’t want to wait. And they don’t want to learn how to use a home page. There’s no such thing as a training class or a manual for a Web site. People have to be able to grasp the functioning of the site immediately after scanning the home page—for a few seconds at most.” Otherwise, most casual users simply leave the site and browse or shop elsewhere.
Usability can also include the concept of prototypicality, which is how much a particular thing conforms to the expected shared norm, for instance, in website design, users prefer sites that conform to recognised design norms.[
Q.3 Elaborate the recent development in teacher education system of Pakistan. Discuss the problems of teacher education and also give suggestions to overcome these problems.
Currently, teacher education in Pakistan is passing through a transition as an innovation has been initiated by the Government of Pakistan with the support of USAID through their Pre-Service Teachers Education Programme (STEP) project. This reform is attempted in order to improve the quality of teacher education by including different innovations.
Teacher education is crucial component of education system and it plays a pivotal role in the quality improvement and strengthening of education system. Ahmad (2012) stated that teacher education refers to a process of education and development prospective teachers go through as they prepare to enter the classroom for the first time in their role as teachers. She argued that teacher training satisfies both the theoretical and practical needs of teaching environment. Ali (2011) contended that teacher‘s quality is determined by the level of professional competencies which is inclusive of knowledge, understanding, skills, and attitudes he or she brings to the teaching profession. Teachers’ lacking required level of professional competence is usually attributed to the dysfunctional teacher education system. The role of teachers for formulating of an innovative society is very critical because teachers’ knowledge and skills not only enhance the quality and efficiency of education but also facilities to create an environment conducive for research and innovation. Khan (2011) found that the teacher occupies the most crucial position in the entire spectrum of educational activities; he/she influences 3 personal, social and economic lives of people, and he / she needs to be educated with great care and expertise. Pakistan became an independent state in 1947 and its entire educational system was geared to produce a class of people who were supposed to serve the bureaucracy to perpetuate the old socio-economic order in the country. The socio-economic structure was created by the colonial powers to exploit the masses of the sub-continent. All curricula, textbooks and teaching and learning materials were, therefore, devised to serve the cause of the vested interests and not for creation of a dynamic and progressive society Farooq (1993). Historically teacher training in Pakistan can be traced back to 1804 when two teacher-training institutions were established at Lahore and Karachi and these institutions provided non-formal teacher training programs. In 1854 the institution at Karachi was made a normal school and it began to offer J.V. (Junior Vernacular) certificate. The institution at Lahore was made normal school and offered J.V, certificate in 1856 (Shah et al., 2011). At the time of independence in 1947, there were 22 teacher training institutions in Pakistan. For admission in these institutions, the pre scribed qualifications were Elementary and High school. After the completion of training, the trainees were awarded certificates as Junior Vernacular (JV) and Senior Vernacular (SV). Those having J.V certificates were eligible for appointment as a teacher in primary schools called JV teacher and those having S.V. were eligible for appointment as a teacher of elementary education level Siddiqui (2004).
The challenges of the special education teacher include: 1. The Widespread Misperception That Teaching is Easy Teaching is a uniquely difficult job, one that comes with a set of huge responsibilities; however, many people fail to recognize the teacher’s role.
pecial education teachers have a higher rate of burnout than is found in most other professions. The burnout rate is the result of a number of issues that often culminate in these teachers leaving their jobs. It is estimated that 75 percent of those who teach special needs students will leave their job within 10 years of starting. The result of this turnover rate is a shortage of special education teachers and a lack of quality programs for the students they serve. While a special education teacher may start their career with the intention of helping students with disabilities become productive members of society, they face several challenges that make the task extremely difficult. The challenges of the special education teacher include:
- The Widespread Misperception That Teaching is Easy
Teaching is a uniquely difficult job, one that comes with a set of huge responsibilities; however, many people fail to recognize the teacher’s role. The various disabilities of the students with whom special education teachers work multiplies the job’s difficulty. Special education teachers are largely unrecognized and unsupported by the public.
- Non-Instructional Responsibilities
Many teachers are trained and willing to teach but find themselves burdened with responsibilities that remove them from the classroom. Special education teachers often find themselves being required to go to meetings, conducting assessments and dealing with loads of paperwork.
- Lack of Support
At a time when many large school districts are experiencing high levels of growth, special education teachers are being asked to do more with less. Salaries are being cut in many districts, and there is often very little in the way of technical assistance provided by school administrations.
- Dealing With Multiple Disabilities
A special education teacher’s classes may have students with various disabilities. Since each student is a unique case, the teacher must modify their lessons to suit each student with disabilities by providing individualized education programs.
- Handling Death
Among students in a special education classroom, there are often some with severe chronic illnesses that may result in death. Handling this is a challenge to which special education teachers will have to adapt.
- Handling the Problems of an Inclusive Classroom
The concept of having classrooms that contain both special needs students and students who are developing typically is becoming a popular one. This type of education poses new challenges for a special education teacher. For example, many students who have no disabilities are unaccustomed to dealing with those who do. Teachers in these classes are charged with eliminating cruelty and insensitivity from among their students and ensuring that those with special needs are treated with respect.
- Professional Isolation
The nature of a special education teacher’s work is very different from that of traditional teachers; the result of this is that standard classroom teachers may not view them as colleagues. There may be a professional stigma attached to the work of teaching “slow” students. Special education teachers often work with smaller groups and may focus on skills rather than content, thereby leading to the perception that their work is easier or less important.
- Lack of Support From Parents
Some parents of special needs children are disinterested in the welfare of their children and fail to provide them with adequate care. Alternatively, they may be overly protective. Both can be problematic for the child and for their teacher. Disinterested parents may have no involvement with their child’s education or interaction with their teachers, whereas overprotective parents may have unrealistic expectations from the child and the child’s teachers. Both attitudes can shape children in negative ways. Parental disinterest may make special needs students less motivated and parents who are overprotective often diminish their child’s confidence and make it harder for them to learn.
- The Difficulty of Discipline in a Special Needs Classroom
Children with disabilities may have behavioral issues including restlessness and moodiness. They may also exhibit problems like a short attention span or an inability to understand what is being taught. Special education teachers have to learn how to deal with these problems as well as how to take appropriate disciplinary measures.
- Budget Problems
Across the nation, special education programs are facing increasing enrollment and decreasing budgets. The result is that there are fewer teacher assistants available, which results in a greater workload for special education teachers. They may also face shortages of essential resources and equipment for delivering effective lessons.
Any one of these challenges would make the work of a special education teacher incredibly difficult; as a group, they turn the job into a set of arduous tasks. Unfortunately, the result of the pressures placed on teachers is that the students suffer. Anyone seeking to go into this area of teaching should be aware of what they will face and have the mental and emotional fortitude to overcome the challenges in order to improve the prospects of their students.
Q.4 Describe the nature, scope and significance of In-service Teacher Educaiton. How can teachers be motivated for in-service training?
Teachers’ professional education is viewed as one of the most important factors in improving students’ learning. Keeping this in view many developed and less developed countries pay significant attention to improve the practices of teacher education. In order to develop capable teachers they make conscious efforts to establish and maintain quality teacher education institutions.
The history of teacher education in Pakistan starts with the establishment of the country. However, this area has been facing various challenges such as lack of consistent policy, inconsistency in curriculum, low resources, lack of quality teachers, low quality of teaching process, lack of standard, etc. Today, a range of public and private institutions are engaged in preparing school teachers. In Pakistan, like many other countries, public institutions are the main source for developing teachers through pre-service and in-service programmes. However, many studies have raised the question on the quality of delivery mechanism of the institutions while forwarding recommendations for improvement.
Historically, different reforms have been brought to improve the condition of teacher education in the country. Currently, teacher education in Pakistan is passing through a transition as an innovation has been initiated by the Government of Pakistan with the support of USAID through their Pre-Service Teachers Education Programme (STEP) project. This reform is attempted in order to improve the quality of teacher education by including different innovations.
In this regard, a new curriculum has been developed for pre-service programmes such as a two-year Associate Degree in Education (ADE) and a four-year BEd (Hons). Effort has been made to design the curriculum keeping in view the modern educational principle along with the contextual relevancy. These programmes are gradually replacing the previous preservice and in-service programmes such as Primary Teacher Certificate (PTC), Certificate in Teaching (CT) and the one-year Ed programme. In addition, an effort is being made for the accreditation and standardisation of teacher training institutions through this initiative.
The ADE and BEdprogramme has been initiated in some colleges and will be gradually implemented in remaining colleges throughout the country in the coming years. In addition, to attract the best mind towards the teaching profession a stipend is also offered to student-teachers for providing them financial support.
The significance of such educational innovation cannot be overlooked for improvement of teacher education in the country. However, there are areas that need serious considerations for the effectiveness and sustainability of the new reform initiatives.
Firstly, the new developed curriculum is based on the modern educational principles. Teachers are provided a course outline with the expectation that they will explore the teaching learning material for classroom instructions. However, it was observed that some of the teachers are struggling with identifying teaching resources due to the unavailability of the reference books and lack of Internet facility in their colleges/institutions. This situation may affect the teaching-learning process of the ADE courses. Hence there is a need to provide the reference books and Internet facility to the faculty members in order to make the teaching-learning process smooth.
Second, Internet is considered as one of the important sources for identifying teaching learning material. However, it was observed that some of the faculty members are not literate in computers and Internet. So they are facing challenges in accessing the teaching faculty members of colleges need to be helped in acquiring workable computer and Internet skills.
Third, the new curriculum demands new teaching strategies such as collaborative, inquiry and activity-based teaching approach. However, a majority of the faculty in the teacher institutions are not oriented with the teaching strategies demanded by the ADE and BEdprogramme. Therefore, the professional development of the faculty at teacher training institutions should be given priority along with the curriculum development.
Furthermore, there is a sense of uncertainty about the sustainability of the new initiatives after completion of the Pre-STEP project. Many educational initiatives in the past died away with closure of the projects. Therefore there is a dire need to develop a clear road map for the continuity and sustainability of reforms.
Q.5 Explain the structure of Teacher Education in Pakistna, also critically analyze the effect of 18th Amendment on Teacher Education.
Teacher training at the post secondary level takes place in Regional Institutes of Teacher Education (RITE), and at the Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad for a one-year program known as the Primary Teaching Certificate. In addition, prospective teachers are also prepared at the private sector institutions affiliated or enlisted with universities of public or private sector.
Secondary School Teachers
Government training institutes of education and different affiliated colleges in private sector train teachers for the secondary school level. They are awarded a Certificate of Teaching (CT) for one year study after passing the examination of Higher Secondary School Certificate.
Teacher Education at Universities
The prospective teachers aspiring to teach at the higher secondary school level study for one year at the Education Colleges for the Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) degree, after two year bachelor’s of Arts or Science (BA/BSc) education. Teachers possessing B.Ed degree are eligible to teach at the Secondary school level. Masters of Education (M.Ed) is a one year university education after completion of B.Ed.
Policy Priorities for Teacher Education
All the National Education Policies of Pakistan have accorded great importance to teacher education. The 1959 Commission on National Education stressed upon the necessity of adequate pre service teacher education gave recommendations about functions of teachers in a university and about selection and promotion of teachers. The Education Policy 1972-80 estimated the teacher producing capacity of then existing 12 teacher training colleges and 55 teacher education institutions in Pakistan, to be four thousand which was much less than the estimated demand of three hundred thousand additionally required teachers. It recommended the introduction of Education subject at Secondary, Higher Secondary and Degree level and students qualifying these subjects were suggested to be taken as primary, middle and high level teachers. Relaxation of training requirements for women teachers in special cases was recommended in order to increase the number of women teachers. An academy for teachers’ and educational Administrators’ training was recommended to be set up. The outdated nature of the teacher training courses was admitted, and their revision was recommended, along with this preparation of model standard textbooks for teacher trainees were advised.
The National Education Policy 1979 had vividly valued the significant role of teachers in the effective implementation of the education policies. It was asserted that teacher is the pivot of the entire educational system. In order to promote pre-service teacher education, all the Primary Teacher Training Institutions were planned to be upgraded to Colleges of Elementary Education. An Academy of Higher Education was approved to be established to provide in-service and pre-service training to the College and University teachers. Another Academy for Educational Planning and Management was also established to provide opportunities of training to administrators and supervisors working at different levels of the educational system. This National Education Policy envisaged that every teacher would be expected to undergo one in-service course during five-year cycle of his/her service. A system of National Awards for best teachers was planned to be instituted. Every year ten teachers of various levels and categories were planned to receive these awards from the President of Pakistan at national level. Similar awards were planned to be given to selected teachers by the respective provincial governors.
The Sixth five Year Plan (1983-88), earmarked sixty million rupees for the teacher education programs to establish additional primary and secondary teacher training institutes and to enhance the training capacity of the existing primary and secondary teacher training institutions, and departments of Education at the Universities. This plan was unique in the sense that it allocated special funds categorically for the teacher education programs. Prior to this the trend of blanket approval was in practice and the badly needed requisite improvement in the standard of teachers could not be facilitated. The incremental allocation, as given in the following table reflected the increased importance accorded to teacher education.
18th amendment on teacher education program:
The 18th Amendment to the constitution of Pakistan is an important step forward for the parliamentary system in the country. It promises more autonomy to the provinces — a popular demand put forward by a number of political parties.
Apart from the political restructuring it mandates, the amendment also holds some major implications for the country’s system of education. Through it a new article, 25A, has been inserted into the constitution that reads: “Right to education: The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to 16 years in such manner as may be determined by law.” This is an important undertaking by the state since education, in contemporary times, is considered an important tool for enhancing one’s chances for socioeconomic development.
In Pakistan, a large number of students do not have access to schools or drop out before they reach the fifth grade. A major reason behind the high dropout rate is poverty, and as a result a large number of children remain illiterate and cannot become part of the literate human resource group which is vital for the development of a country. An effective implementation of this article of the constitution would without doubt pave the way for enriching the national human capital.
Another major implication of the 18th Amendment for education is that the curriculum, syllabus, planning, policy, centres of excellence and standards of education will fall under the purview of the provinces. This is a big step forward for education.The 18th Amendment, passed unanimously by parliament, was the result of a rare consensus between all the major political parties. After becoming a part of the constitution, however, some strong voices of dissent were raised by different quarters, including the Ministry of Education. A campaign has been initiated to spread the idea that the provinces are not ready to take up the massive challenge of dealing with the provision of education. This claim is made on the assumption that the provinces do not have the capacity or the financial resources to cope with the huge challenge in front of them.
It has been argued that the contents of the curricula should remain with the federation since the provinces could take liberties which may result in putting the unity and ideology of the country at risk. Critics have asked how standards would be maintained across the provinces and how quality would be assured. And what if all the provinces introduced regional languages in schools? Would this weaken the federation?
Looking at the above points, one can understand the federation’s concern regarding the future of education once it becomes a provincial responsibility. However, this concern seems to emanate primarily from a lack of trust in the capacity and ability of the provinces. It is interesting to note, though, that the provinces are already providing for school and college education and they do have the capacity (in terms of intellectual resources) to handle the job. As far as funds are concerned, the provinces have been funding education from their budgets. The federation would give partial grants to the universities only.