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Course: Secondary Educational (8624)                               Semester: Autumn, 2021

Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years


Q.1 Explain the scheme of studies of technical, informal, secondary and higher secondary education.


Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, morals, beliefshabits, and personal development. Educational methods include teachingtrainingstorytellingdiscussion and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators; however, learners can also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings, and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.

Formal education is commonly divided formally into stages such as preschool or kindergartenprimary schoolsecondary school and then collegeuniversity, or apprenticeship. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age.

There are movements for education reforms, such as for improving quality and efficiency of education towards relevance in students’ lives and efficient problem solving in modern or future society at large, or for evidence-based education methodologies. A right to education has been recognized by some governments and the United Nations.[a] Global initiatives aim at achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 4, which promotes quality education for all.

Informal Education

Informal education may be a parent teaching a child how to prepare a meal or ride a bicycle.

People can also get an informal education by reading many books from a library or educational websites.

Informal education is when you are not studying in a school and do not use any particular learning method. In this type of education, conscious efforts are not involved. It is neither pre-planned nor deliberate. It may be learned at some marketplace, hotel or at home.

Unlike formal education, informal education is not imparted by an institution such as school or college. Informal education is not given according to any fixed timetable. There is no set curriculum required. Informal education consists of experiences and actually living in the family or community.

Examples of Informal Education

  • Teaching the child some basics such as numeric characters.
  • Someone learning his/her mother tongue
  • A spontaneous type of learning, “if a person standing in a bank learns about opening and maintaining the account at the bank from someone.”

Characteristics of Informal Education

  • It is independent of boundary walls.
  • It has no definite syllabus.
  • It is not pre-planned and has no timetable.
  • No fees are required as we get informal education through daily experience and by learning new things.
  • It is a lifelong process in a natural way.
  • The certificates/degrees are not involved and one has no stress for learning the new things.
  • You can get from any source such as media, life experiences, friends, family etc.

Advantages of Informal Education

  • More naturally learning process as you can learn at anywhere and at any time from your daily experience.
  • It involves activities like individual and personal research on a topic of interest for themselves by utilizing books, libraries, social media, internet or getting assistance from informal trainers.
  • Utilizes a variety of techniques.
  • No specific time span.
  • Less costly and time-efficient learning process.
  • No need to hire experts as most of the professionals may be willing to share their precious knowledge with students/public through social media and the internet.
  • Learners can be picked up the requisite information from books, TV, radio or conversations with their friends/family members.

Disadvantages of Informal Education

  • Information acquired from the internet, social media, TV, radio or conversations with friends/family members may lead to the disinformation.
  • Utilized techniques may not be appropriate.
  • No proper schedule/time span.
  • Unpredictable results which simply the wastage of time.
  • Lack of confidence in the learner.
  • Absence of discipline, attitude and good habits.


Q.2 Explain the examination, promotion and certification system of Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education (BISE) and Universities


The examination system was an attempt to recruit men on the basis of merit rather than on the basis of family or political connection. Because success in the examination system was the basis of social status and because education was the key to success in the system, education was highly regarded in traditional

State board examinations are variously referred to as Madhyamik, Secondary State Certificate and Higher Secondary Certificate examinations. They are conducted and managed by education boards of different states in the country. They do not take place simultaneously due to the differences between syllabi and the examination itself.

State board examinations are variously referred to as Madhyamik, Secondary State Certificate and Higher Secondary Certificate examinations. They are conducted and managed by education boards of different states in the country. They do not take place simultaneously due to the differences between syllabi and the examination itself. The examinations generally held in the months of February and March, and the results are out in May and June.

Students have to apply for the examinations in November stating their personal details, subjects, and current educational status. Admit cards for the prescribed examination hall are received at the notified cell or their respective schools about 20–25 days prior to the commencement of the exam.

Examinations are offered for various fields. Class 10th students give exam in five core subjects which are Information TechnologyEnglishHindi/other languages of India (regional), MathematicsScience and Social Studies. There is an option of choosing a sixth subject of your choice like Computer ScienceInformation TechnologyMusicFine ArtsPhysical EducationForeign Languages etc. Class 12th students have to choose one out of the three streams offered in schools which are Science, Commerce, and Humanities.

Science stream focuses on natural sciences and mathematics. The main subjects of this stream are EnglishPhysics and Chemistry while students have to choose either Biology or Mathematics or both. Schools offer vocational subjects such as Computer scienceInformation technologyartificial intelligencefood nutrition and dieteticsbiotechnologyEconomicsGeography, and Web Application.

In Commerce stream, students are prepared for business, management, administration, trade and banking. The main subjects of this stream are EnglishAccountancyEconomics and Business Studies. Vocational subjects like MarketingRetailTaxationBankingEntrepreneurshipMathematics etc are offers by schools.

In Humanities, students study social sciences and liberal arts. The main subjects of this stream are EnglishHistoryGeographyPolitical Science and Economics (any 2/3 or all the 5 subjects depending upon the school). Schools offer vocational subjects such as Mass MediaFashion StudiesLegal StudiesPsychologyTourismBeauty and WellnessHome ScienceFood nutrition and dieteticsFine ArtsSociology, and Philosophy.

Schools also offer Hindi as a subject. Some have kept Hindi as a compulsory subject while some have kept it optional. Some schools do not offer it.

Subjects like Business AdministrationEconomicsMusicFine ArtsPhysical EducationNational Cadets CorpsGeographyComputer ScienceInformation TechnologyArtificial IntelligenceForeign languages are offered in all three streams.

The exam is conducted only in pen and paper format.

Pakistan’s education system is matriculation based, and the students are required to pass the matric examination from regional BISE or Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education. There are several boards of education in all provinces, and there is one federal board of education. The list of all BISE boards in Pakistan is given below according to the region. You can check complete detail of every board, including results, date sheets, announcements, examination papers, past papers and contact details.

The basic premise of board certification is a good one: The board is supposed to set the nationally accepted standards for physician knowledge and practice, enabling the optimal quality of care to be maintained. However, board certification has recently come into question as to whether the current process is living up to the goal.


Q.3 Write a note on the values of Early Childhood Education (ECE).


Early childhood education (ECE), also known as nursery education, is a branch of education theory that relates to the teaching of children (formally and informally) from birth up to the age of eight.[1] Traditionally, this is up to the equivalent of third grade.[2] ECE is described as an important period in child development.

ECE emerged as a field of study during the Enlightenment, particularly in European countries with high literacy rates.[3] It continued to grow through the nineteenth century as universal primary education became a norm in the Western world. In recent years, early childhood education[4] has become a prevalent public policy issue, as funding for preschool and pre-K is debated by municipal, state, and federal lawmakers.[5][6][7] Governing entities are also debating the central focus of early childhood education with debate on developmental appropriate play versus strong academic preparation curriculum in reading, writing, and math.[8] The global priority placed on early childhood education is underscored with targets of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 4.

ECE is also a professional designation earned through a post-secondary education program. For example, in Ontario, Canada, the designations ECE (Early Childhood Educator) and RECE (Registered Early Childhood Educator) may only be used by registered members of the College of Early Childhood Educators, which is made up of accredited child care professionals who are held accountable to the College’s standards of practice.[

Theories of child development

The Developmental Interaction Approach is based on the theories of Jean Piaget, Erik EriksonJohn Dewey, and Lucy Sprague Mitchell. The approach focuses on learning through discovery.[10] Jean Jacques Rousseau recommended that teachers should exploit individual children’s interests to make sure each child obtains the information most essential to his personal and individual development.[11] The five developmental domains of childhood development include:[12] To meet those developmental domains, a child has a set of needs that must be met for learning. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs showcases the different levels of needs that must be met the chart to the right showcases these needs.[13]

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • Physical: the way in which a child develops biological and physical functions, including eyesight and motor skills
  • Social: the way in which a child interacts with others[14]Children develop an understanding of their responsibilities and rights as members of families and communities, as well as an ability to relate to and work with others.[15]
  • Emotional: the way in which a child creates emotional connections and develops self-confidence. Emotional connections develop when children relate to other people and share feelings.
  • Language: the way in which a child communicates, including how they present their feelings and emotions, both to other people and to themselves. At 3 months, children employ different cries for different needs. At 6 months they can recognize and imitate the basic sounds of spoken language. In the first 3 years, children need to be exposed to communication with others in order to pick up language. “Normal” language development is measured by the rate of vocabulary acquisition.[16]
  • Cognitive skills: the way in which a child organizes information. Cognitive skills include problem solving, creativity, imagination and memory.[17]They embody the way in which children make sense of the world. Piaget believed that children exhibit prominent differences in their thought patterns as they move through the stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor period, the pre-operational period, and the operational period.

Vygotsky’s socio-cultural learning theory

Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky proposed a “socio-cultural learning theory” that emphasized the impact of social and cultural experiences on individual thinking and the development of mental processes.[19] Vygotsky’s theory emerged in the 1930s and is still discussed today as a means of improving and reforming educational practices. In Vygotsky’s theories of learning, he also postulated the theory of the zone of proximal development. This theory ties in with children building off prior knowledge and gaining new knowledge related to skills they already have. In the theory it describes how new knowledge or skills are taken in if they are not fully learned but are starting to emerge. A teacher or older friend lends support to a child learning a skill, be it building a block castle, tying a shoe, or writing one’s name. As the child becomes more capable of the steps of the activity, the adult or older child withdraws supports gradually, until the child is competent completing the process on his/her own. This is done within that activity’s zone—the distance between where the child is, and where he potentially will be.[20] In each zone of proximal development, they build on skills and grow by learning more skills in their proximal development range. They build on the skills by being guided by teachers and parents. They must build from where they are in their zone of proximal development.

Vygotsky argued that since cognition occurs within a social context, our social experiences shape our ways of thinking about and interpreting the world.[22] People such as parents, grandparents, and teachers play the roles of what Vygotsky described as knowledgeable and competent adults. Although Vygotsky predated social constructivists, he is commonly classified as one. Social constructivists believe that an individual’s cognitive system is a resditional learning time. Vygotsky advocated that teachers facilitate rather than direct student learning.[23] Teachers should provide a learning environment where students can explore and develop their learning without direct instruction. His approach calls for teachers to incorporate students’ needs and interests. It is important to do this because students’ levels of interest and abilities will vary and there needs to be differentiation.

However, teachers can enhance understandings and learning for students. Vygotsky states that by sharing meanings that are relevant to the children’s environment, adults promote cognitive development as well. Their teachings can influence thought processes and perspectives of students when they are in new and similar environments. Since Vygotsky promotes more facilitation in children’s learning, he suggests that knowledgeable people (and adults in particular), can also enhance knowledges through cooperative meaning-making with students in their learning.[24] Vygotsky’s approach encourages guided participation and student exploration with support. Teachers can help students achieve their cognitive development levels through consistent and regular interactions of collaborative knowledge-making learning processes.

Piaget’s constructivist theory

Jean Piaget’s constructivist theory gained influence in the 1970s and ’80s. Although Piaget himself was primarily interested in a descriptive psychology of cognitive development, he also laid the groundwork for a constructivist theory of learning.[25] Piaget believed that learning comes from within: children construct their own knowledge of the world through experience and subsequent reflection. He said that “if logic itself is created rather than being inborn, it follows that the first task of education is to form reasoning.” Within Piaget’s framework, teachers should guide children in acquiring their own knowledge rather than simply transferring knowledge.[26]

According to Piaget’s theory, when young children encounter new information, they attempt to accommodate and assimilate it into their existing understanding of the world. Accommodation involves adapting mental schemas and representations to make them consistent with reality. Assimilation involves fitting new information into their pre-existing schemas. Through these two processes, young children learn by equilibrating their mental representations with reality. They also learn from mistakes.[27]

A Piagetian approach emphasizes experiential education; in school, experiences become more hands-on and concrete as students explore through trial and error.[28] Thus, crucial components of early childhood education include exploration, manipulating objects, and experiencing new environments. Subsequent reflection on these experiences is equally important.[29]

Piaget’s concept of reflective abstraction was particularly influential in mathematical education.[30] Through reflective abstraction, children construct more advanced cognitive structures out of the simpler ones they already possess. This allows children to develop mathematical constructs that cannot be learned through equilibration – making sense of experiences through assimilation and accommodation – alone.[31]

According to Piagetian theory, language and symbolic representation is preceded by the development of corresponding mental representations. Research shows that the level of reflective abstraction achieved by young children was found to limit the degree to which they could represent physical quantities with written numerals. Piaget held that children can invent their own procedures for the four arithmetical operations, without being taught any conventional rules.[32]

Piaget’s theory implies that computers can be a great educational tool for young children when used to support the design and construction of their projects. McCarrick and Xiaoming found that computer play is consistent with this theory.[33] However, Plowman and Stephen found that the effectiveness of computers is limited in the preschool environment; their results indicate that computers are only effective when directed by the teacher.[34] This suggests, according to the constructivist theory, that the role of preschool teachers is critical in successfully adopting computers as they existed in 2003.


Q.4 Write a note on the curriculum, theory of curriculum, approaches and syllabus.


In education, a curriculum (/kəˈrɪkjʊləm/; plural curricula /kəˈrɪkjʊlə/ or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.[1][2] The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student’s experiences in terms of the educator’s or school’s instructional goals. A curriculum may incorporate the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives.[3] Curricula are split into several categories: the explicit, the implicit (including the hidden), the excluded, and the extracurricular.[4][5][6]

Curricula may be tightly standardized or may include a high level of instructor or learner autonomy.[7] Many countries have national curricula in primary and secondary education, such as the United Kingdom’s National Curriculum.

UNESCO‘s International Bureau of Education has the primary mission of studying curricula and their implementation worldwide.

The word “curriculum” began as a Latin word which means “a race” or “the course of a race” (which in turn derives from the verb currere meaning “to run/to proceed”).[8] The word is “from a Modern Latin transferred use of classical Latin curriculum “a running, course, career” (also “a fast chariot, racing car”), from currere “to run” (from PIE root *kers- “to run”).”[9] The first known use in an educational context is in the ProfessioRegia, a work by University of Paris professor Petrus Ramus published posthumously in 1576.[10] The term subsequently appears in University of Leiden records in 1582.[11] The word’s origins appear closely linked to the Calvinist desire to bring greater order to education.[12]

By the seventeenth century, the University of Glasgow also referred to its “course” of study as a “curriculum”, producing the first known use of the term in English in 1633.[8] By the nineteenth century, European universities routinely referred to their curriculum to describe both the complete course of study (as for a degree in surgery) and particular courses and their content. By 1824, the word was defined as “a course, especially a fixed course of study at a college, university, or school.

theory of curriculum

The central theory [of curriculum] is simple.   Human life, however varied, consists in the performance of specific activities.   Education that prepares for life is one that prepares definitely and adequately for these specific activities.   However numerous and diverse they may be for any social class they can be discovered.

Curriculum theory (CT) is an academic discipline devoted to examining and shaping educational curricula. There are many interpretations of CT, being as narrow as the dynamics of the learning process of one child in a classroom to the lifelong learning path an individual takes. CT can be approached from the educationalphilosophical, psychological and sociological perspectives. James MacDonald states “one central concern of theorists is identifying the fundamental unit of curriculum with which to build conceptual systems. Whether this be rational decisions, action processes, language patterns, or any other potential unit has not been agreed upon by the theorists.”[1] Curriculum theory is fundamentally concerned with values,[2] the historical analysis of curriculum, ways of viewing current educational curriculum and policy decisions, and theorizing about the curricula of the future.[3]

Pinar defines the contemporary field of curriculum theory as “the effort to understand curriculum as a symbolic representation”.[4]

The first mention of the word “curriculum” in university records was in 1582, at the University of LeidenHolland: “having completed the curriculum of his studies”.[5] However, curriculum theory as a field of study is thought to have been initiated with the publication of The Yale Report on the Defense of the Classics in 1828, which promoted the study of a classical curriculum, including Latin and Greek, by rote memorization.

The school of faculty psychology, dominating the field from 1860-1890 in the United States, believed that the brain was a muscle that could be improved by the exercise of memorization (with comprehension a secondary consideration).[7] This supports the classical theory, which previously emphasized a method of teaching school subjects using memorization and recitation as primary instructional tools.[8] The theory itself claims three constituent faculties or power:

  • the presence of willor volition, which enables human beings to act;
  • the emotions, which pertains to the affections and passions that enable human beings to experience pleasure, pain, love, and hate; and,
  • the intellector understanding, which is the foundation of human rationality that enables him to make judgments and comprehend meanings.[9]

The idea is that education should expand the faculty of the mind and this is achieved through the key concepts of discipline and furniture.[9] The faculty theory, which steered curriculum policy for elementarysecondary, and high schools, was institutionalized by three committees appointed by the National Education Association (NEA) in the 1890s to follow faculty psychology principles:[10] the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies (1893), the Committee of Fifteen on Elementary Education (1895) and the Committee on College Entrance Requirements.[


Q.5 Describe the nature, importance and weaknesses of examination system nature, importance in Pakistan.


Nature is the beautiful creation of the God which he blessed to us as a precious gift. Nature is everything which surrounds us like water, air, land, sky, fire, river, forests, animals, birds, plants, sun, moon, stars, sea, lake, rain, thunder, storm, etc. Nature is very colourful and has both living and non-living things in its lap.

Examinations are tests which aim to determine the ability of a student. Academically, an examination is an official test of knowledge. Different types of Examinations are conducted all over the world for evaluating a person’s skills and intelligence. Examinations are usually written tests, although some may be practical or have practical components, and vary greatly in structure, content, and difficulty depending on the subject.

Life today has become so complex that examinations have come to play an important part in one’s educational career. The importance of examinations is so high that most students are afraid of them. The examinations are hated by many and Loved by many. Here are some reasons for and against Examinations.

Advantages of Exams

  • Self Analysis of One’s Own Abilities: With examinations, a person is able to know his level of Performance and Knowledge.
  • Tool for Learning and Working: Examination provides encouragement to people for Learning and Working.
  • Spirit of Competition: Examinations also create a sense of Competition which pushes the limit of a person’s ability to do more and to do best.
  • Development of Personality and Confidence: Spirit of Competition and Realisation of Self -Analysis leads to the development of one’s Personality and Confidence.
  • Scholarships and Awards: Good Performance in Examinations brings Scholarships and Awards
  • Good Future: Good Grades translate into better Job Placement and remuneration
  • Examination Anxiety is Good: Anxiety due to examinations is good. It is a necessary part of life. The occurrence of Examinations prepares students to get used to the pressures of examinations, their mentality becomes much stronger. And when they go out to work, they are able to withstand the pressures of their career, instead of crumbling under the huge amount of stress
  • Single Examination-Multiple Students: One can judge the progress of many students at once by holding a single Examination for all.
  • Easy Detection of Teaching Flaws: Examinations also measure a Teachers skills and flaws and if any subject should be re-taught or explained differently.

Disadvantages of Exams

  • Source of Stress and Pressure: Some people are burdened with stress with the onset of Examinations. The Stress of Performance creates Pressure for many.
  • Health Problems: Examinations also lead to various health problems like Headaches, Nausea, Loose Motions, V omitting etc.
  • Loss of Confidence: Failure in Exams leads to loss of confidence for many.
  • The tendency of Suicide: Failure in Examinationsharborss Low Self Esteem which induces Tendency Of Suicide.
  • Breaking of Companionship: Competitive traits during Examinations sometimes leads to Peer Problems like ruined friendships, bonds etc.
  • Exams are a Formality: Students are unable to identify the real purpose of Examinations. For them passing their examinations is a formality for entering into good schools. Therefore they all are all learning just for the sake of a formality.
  • Pressure Creates Disinterest in Studies: Exhaustion, stress and other problems related to examinations create fear and hatred which in turn leads to loss of interest and faith in studies.
  • Examinations are not the Real Test: Examinations measure relatively superficial knowledge or learning which totally defeats the purpose of Examinations. A person with lees grades may turn out to be a successful person while a good grader may end up unsuccessful in life. Some students do not score well even if they know the material, poor reading skills can handicap a student, questions on examination might not test progress as well as they could.

Examinations have good and bad sides but it is how a person deals with them. Examinations have good and bad sides. They Can be Constructive as well as Destructive. It all depends on the Personality and Character of a person. Examinations are an important part of academic studies. Though Good Examinations are those which prepare you for a Bright Future and not for creating unnecessary competition and burden.



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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔


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