Apna Business PK

AIOU Course Code 3611-1 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

Level: MA.M.Ed Special Education

Semester: Autumn,2021 

Course: Organization and Management of Special School-1 (3611) assignments.(AD, BS, B.Ed, MA/MSc, M.Ed, MPhil and PhD)


Assignment no 1

Question no 1 

How teacher of the special child can incorporate the IT and others technologies in the classroom that will also be helpful in lesson planning)?

Finding creative ways to use technology in the classroom can both make your life easier as a teacher and boost student excitement levels and engagement with lessons. From helping with communication among teachers and students (as well as peer-to-peer), to organizing curriculum calendars, to enhancing presentations and lessons with media and visuals, there is no limit to the ways to use technology in the classroom to create an enriched learning environment. If you’re looking for ideas of exactly how to use technology in the classroom to enhance learning, some examples include:

  1. Gamified Learning

To this day, I give all credit for my skill in typing to time spent playing typing games in the computer lab of my elementary school. Not only were the games incredible, and incredibly engaging programs for teaching students typing skills, they made using a computer fun and exciting for me and set the foundation for all other computer knowledge I’ve gained since. Learning can and should be fun and using technology for gamified learning in your classroom can be advantageous to achieving that goal. And while learning software can be a great teaching tool, gamified learning can also be as simple as creating a virtual scavenger hunt by coming up with a list of questions for students to search and find the correct answers for and adding students to pairs or groups to encourage collaboration and teamwork!

  1. Digital Field Trips

An increasingly popular, useful, and cost-effective tool for teachers searching for new ways to use technology in the classroom is taking digital field trips. Google Streetview and other similar apps allow you to virtually explore parks, forests and even national and international landmarks from the comfort of your classroom. Virtually experience the view from the Statue of Liberty or hike through the Grand Canyon to get students excited to learn about a location or subject and extend learning beyond the page!

  1. Integrate Social Media

Because students already spend so much of their time on social media, integrating its use into your classroom is among the most innovative ways to use technology in the classroom by connecting students to curriculum, classroom resources, and one another. Create a Facebook group specifically for your class where you post discussion topics or develop unique classroom Twitter hashtags students can use to discuss lessons or ask questions!

  1. Gather Student Feedback

The true test of any classroom structure and/or curriculum is how well it helps students learn, and getting feedback from students is vital to assessing this, determining what is and isn’t working, and addressing problems and confusion as they arise. Use online surveys and polls to perform daily or weekly check-ins with students to get their opinions on lessons and address lingering questions or concerns. Expand on the usage of Twitter hashtags by having students tweet their feedback and questions with a classroom hashtag.

  1. Creating Digital Content

Creating digital content related to the things they are learning is a great way for students to display their individual creative talents as well as showcase learning. As with any other project, the process of creating content is most effective when students are able to express themselves in ways that highlight and accommodate their personal strengths and learning/communication styles. Provide options for students to express themselves through blogs, videos, podcasts, eBooks, flyers and other digital art, or any other means they feel most comfortable. Respecting each student’s individuality and needs for creative expression helps them flourish as learners.

  1. Using a Classroom Calendar

Develop a shared online calendar for your classroom through Google Calendar or a similar program for posting important updates. Post assignment due dates and classroom events (such as field trips and guest speakers) in one easily-accessible location for both teachers and students. Go a step further and share the calendar with parents to keep them connected and engaged with their child’s learning.

  1. Review and Critique Webpages

While we know you can find almost anything on the internet, we also know that much of what you may find is not reliable information from reliable sources. I remember being told frequently by teachers and professors “Wikipedia is not a reliable source” when doing research papers, but can’t recall a single instructor who explained why. Empower your students with the digital literacy to analyze and discern reliable web pages and sources from unreliable ones by reviewing them together, developing and communicating standards for what makes a good source.

  1. Video/Multimedia Lessons and Presentations

Bring presentations to life for students by incorporating visual effects, photos, videos, and music into them. Developing slideshows and digital presentations, playing music or a video for background and context while presenting, or by inviting virtual guest speakers to engage with your class via programs designed for conference calls (such as: Skype, Google Hangouts, and Facetime) are all fun and creative ways to boost engagement with lessons while teaching the benefits of technology and multimedia use.

  1. Online Activities For Students Who Finish Work Early

Set up learning stations to encourage and support students working at their own pace. If a student finishes an assignment early, rather than being stuck waiting for other students to catch up or class to end, students can extend and enhance their learning by visiting a learning station and watching videos, playing learning-based games, or exploring other online activities related to their learning.

Why Students Benefit From Using Technology in the Classroom

Integrating technology into classrooms allows for more (and more effective) communication between students and teachers, as well as students and peers and parents and teachers, all of which are vital to students’ academic success. Using technology in your classrooms also creates space for students to have a voice in their learning. Students are empowered to take responsibility of their learning through giving feedback on lessons, participating in projects and learning activities that respect their individuality and having opportunities and support to learn and understand how to use technology creatively, effectively and safely.

Use of technologies 

Advances in information technology have revolutionized how people communicate and learn in nearly every aspect of modern life except for education. The education system operates under the antiquated needs of an agrarian and industrial America. The short school day and the break in the summer were meant to allow children to work on family farms. Schools have an enduring industrial mentality placing students in arbitrary groups based on their age regardless of their competencies.

Technology has failed to transform our schools because the education governance system insulates them from the disruptions that technology creates in other organizations. The government regulates schools perhaps more than any other organization. Rules govern where students study, how they will learn, and who will teach them. Education regulation governs the relationships of actors in the system and stymies the impact of innovative technologies. Furthermore the diffuse system of governance creates numerous veto points to limit innovation.

To overcome these obstacles, we must persuade teachers that technology will empower them and help their students learn. We argue that there are five strategies for successful teacher adoption of education technology and that these principles will help fulfill the potential that Edison saw a century ago:

Schools must use technology that empowers teachers. Teachers rightly reject education technologies that divert their attention from instruction. The best education technologies enable teachers to do more with fewer resources. Communication platforms like Twitter, Facebook, or Tumblr enable dynamic communication with students. Teacher-empowering technologies include mobile apps that grade written student work and provide lesson plan databases. School systems need to aggressively track what works for their teachers and put all other unworkable technologies aside.

Teachers should treat the adoption of technology as part of lesson planning. One of the major drivers of bad policy is policy churn. New district leaders want to make their mark adopting new policies and jettisoning the old. This constant changing of priorities makes beneficial reforms difficult to implement. Teachers can incorporate technology directly into their practice and insulate their students from the deleterious effects of policy churn. For example teachers can use Khan Academy or other online resources to improve remediation. Systematic adoption of technology at the classroom levels limits the damage of shifting policy maker priorities.


Teachers should not fear open-source technologies. Many mistakenly believe that education technologies are expensive and complicated to use. Open-source technologies are stable, secure, and compatible with other platforms. Organizations both small and large use open source devices every day. Many businesses use open-source servers for their efficiency and costs savings. They often have large communities that provide high quality customer support. Best of all, open-source technologies often cost less than proprietary products.


Question 2 

How the managerial responsibilities at the special institution can be improved in existing Covid 19 situation?

Leaders need to hold a “working from home” relaunch to help their teams learn to reorient based on the new realities. While team launches set the course of a group at the moment it comes together, relaunches act as resets. The COVID-19 pandemic upending routines calls for relaunches to help leaders and team members understand how each member has been affected, figure out how to address concerns, and ultimately get everyone back on the same track to achieve team goals.

Team leaders should focus their relaunch in four key areas.

Revisit your shared purpose. A relaunch ensures that every team member understands and buys into the clear and specific goals that the team has been mobilized to accomplish.

Reassess available resources. The relaunch is a time to reexamine information, budgetary resources, and networks that will help the team advance its goals.

Understand members’ constraints. A relaunch is an ideal opportunity for each member to discuss their respective roles and how they have been contributing to team goals.

Reestablish norms. Most important, the relaunch is the time for team members to reevaluate how to conduct themselves and interact amid the changing circumstances.

Calm. Your folks, your employees, your customers, your suppliers, are going to be looking to you as a leader to project a sense of calm through this difficult, uncertain situation.

Confidence. You have to be calm, but not still-water calm. You have to project confidence that you’re going to be able to see this through successfully, with a minimum amount of hurt to the company, but also to all of the stakeholders who are relying on your leadership to get them through the difficult days and months ahead.

Communication. You have to relentlessly communicate, communicate, communicate. This is to avoid rumors developing that muddy the waters.

Collaboration. This is a time for you to call on the resources, the capabilities of all of your employees, all of your team members, and bring them together in taskforces, sub-taskforces, and potentially have a role for everyone in which they feel they can contribute to overcoming the uncertainty, overcoming the crisis.

Community. All of us live in communities. so it’s extremely important that we set an example, model behaviors that are community friendly and supportive.

Compassion is extremely important at this time. We may rise to the occasion if we’re fortunate to have a good team around us, but there are many people in our organizations who are depending upon us, who are not necessarily that resilient. Compassion at a time of crisis is a very important manifestation of leadership.

Cash. The most obvious commercial C of the 7 Cs is Cash. Whatever you can do to conserve cash is going to be critical, because that’s what’s going to determine whether your employees are going to be paid next week.

Institutions COVID-19 Response Resources

The Governance GP is providing a stream of work in support of institutional reforms for a successful response to COVID-19. This includes the creation of database of country actions, two umbrella papers, and a series of subsidiary papers on various aspects of the response (e.g. treasury management; anti-corruption measures). These are getting posted as they become available.

Governance and Institutional Issues in COVID-19 Vaccination

Success in the roll out of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination program requires that large numbers of people get the vaccine, quickly, equitably, and effectively. Importantly, this involves both the willing participation of the population and well-functioning government administration of the program. In this environment, the overall government vaccine program efficiency and effectiveness will depend on citizens’ trust in the vaccine efficacy as well as in government’s approach to vaccination. The purpose of this note is to summarize some of the key governance and institutional issues surrounding rapid universal vaccination.


Governance and Institutions Emergency Measures for State Continuity during COVID-19 Pandemic 

This policy note from the Governance GP identifies emergency measures for public sector continuity at national and subnational levels of government during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The note focusses on institutional and governance measures the central government can take that will make possible and complement initiatives in sectors, agencies and lower levels of government. The focus of the note is not on specific policy responses such as approaches to testing, quarantining or fiscal stimulus, but on actions that can be taken by adjusting institutions and governance arrangements in support of such policies. 

Agile Treasury Operations During COVID-19

Agile treasury operations are critical and essential to support responses to the spread and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In many cases, this approach requires open and new ways of thinking ranging from making cash available to pay for public services, to processing and disbursing payments with minimum bureaucratic layers, to reporting in a timely and accurate manner to ensure transparency. Organized around three core areas of treasury operations, this note provides suggestions and guidance in three action areas: Ensure business continuity  for treasury operations. Operationalize emergency arrangements. Manage the post-pandemic environment – recovery, reconstruction, and resilience. 

Ensuring Integrity in Government’s Response to COVID-19

Governments around the world are designing and implementing rapid responses to the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic. In this effort, they are faced with three extraordinary challenges: (1) a public health emergency to contain the virus including identifying and treating infected populations; (2) widespread food and livelihood insecurity due to mandated stoppage of economic activity and the resulting disruption of food supplies; and (3) adoption of emergency powers to address the crises and maintain public safety. Corruption risks, present in government responses to all these challenges and heightened by the scale and speed of the emergency, undermine the effectiveness of responses. The note identifies the broad areas of government response where corruption risks are present and heightened in the context of a pandemic emergency, describes the types of risks that are likely to arise, and provides recommendations for addressing and mitigating them.

COVID-19 Role of Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) in Governments’ Response to COVID-19 : Emergency and Post Emergency Phases

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented public health emergency, with associated significant economic impact, affecting all developing and developed countries. As it unfolds and countries respond, the role of Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) is being recognized as crucial to supporting the government response mechanisms through maintaining public financial management discipline and ensuring transparency and accountability. Past experience from SAIs’ engagement in government responses to natural and human-made disasters, including health emergencies like Ebola, provides good lessons for SAIs confronted with the COVID-19 pandemic. This note seeks to propose ideas on how SAIs can respond to the crisis now and during the recovery phase. During the emergency stage, the primary focus of governments is on safeguarding livelihoods and public health. Auditors are themselves constrained both by their physical access limitations and the imperative to avoid impeding government’s speedy responses to the pandemic. Under these circumstances, crucial oversight and key controls may suffer, especially as public financial management systems are adapted to be responsive and flexible.

Ensuring state continuity during the coronavirus pandemic

In this blog post, Ed Olowo-Okere, Director of the Governance GP, highlights that the COVID-19 pandemic calls for effective, inclusive, and accountable governments. To drive the response, governments will need to be fast, creative, flexible, effective, transparent and accountable. 

COVID-19 Challenges and Response: How procurement underpins the World Bank’s response to the pandemic

Vinay Sharma, Global Director of Solutions and Innovations in Procurement, Governance GP, writes how the World Bank’s procurement practice is adapting and responding to the global demand for goods and services to combat COVID-19. 

Coming Together While Staying Apart : Facilitating Collective Action through Trust and Social Connection in the Age of COVID-19

Facing the COVID-19 pandemic requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation between governments and citizens and across all facets of society to implement spatial distancing and other policy measures. This paper proposes to think about handling the pandemic as a collective action problem that can be alleviated by policies that foster trust and social connection. Policy and institutional recommendations are presented according to a three-layered pandemic response generally corresponding to short-, medium-, and long-term needs. This paper focuses on building connection and cooperation as means to bring about better health and socioeconomic outcomes. Many factors outside the paper’s scope, such as health policy choices, will greatly affect the outcomes. As such, the paper explores the role of trust, communication, and collaboration conditional on sound health and economic policy choices. 

Managing the Public Sector Wage Bill during COVID-19

The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) crisis is unique and requires tough policy choices for managing the public sector wage bill to best achieve the difficult balance between fiscal consolidation, protection of lives and livelihoods, service delivery, and job restoration. In the emergency phase, the priority should be on protecting lives and livelihoods. Short-term measures will likely increase the wage bill. As a result, in the recovery and resilience phase, priority must be given to fiscal consolidation, the reduction of labor market distortions that may hurt private sector job creation, and an increase in the productivity of the public sector so that more outputs are produced per worker. To these ends, the note provides suggestions that countries can adapt based on their circumstances. 

Driving the COVID-19 Response from the Center: Institutional Mechanisms to Ensure Whole-of-Government Coordination

Facing the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic, governments around the world have set up various coordination mechanisms at the center of government (COG) to facilitate pandemic response. The broader COG literature provides some important lessons for the coordination during COVID-19 pandemic. This working paper is part of the Governance and Institutions COVID-19 Rapid Response series spearheaded by the Governance Global Practice, World Bank. The paper presents initial thinking and uses immediately available data, as it aims to document the emerging knowledge, provide the grounds for just-in-time policy and institutional advice to governments, and suggest avenues for further research.


Question no 3

Define the characteristics of a good supervisors and his/her role in special education?

Supervisors play an integral role in the organizational structure and hierarchy of a company. They help manage other employees in the process of carrying out their daily tasks and ensure business operations run smoothly and efficiently.


supervise a person or a group of people and you are not so sure about your supervisory skills since this is all new to you. Moreover, some of the people you will be supervising are people you have worked with at the same level and you need to keep being their friend as well as being their supervisor. You want to be an effective supervisor, someone who gets the job done and keeps a good and well-motivated team.

While you definitely have the technical skills for the job, as evidenced by your promotion, you need the following additional skills so that you can be an effective supervisor as well.

Emotional intelligence

An effective supervisor is one who offers leadership, resolves conflicts and provides an ear for their team. This is a person who can recognise their own emotion in a situation, recognise the emotions of others, is empathetic and has top-notch social skills. Emotional intelligence is a critical skill in modern day management where teams are diverse and there is a need for work-life balance.


As much as you are the leader of the team, there are things that you will not know. A good leader is constantly trying to improve his/her knowledge base and encourages other team members to also learn. In a world where self-learning has been made easy by technology, learning should be constant and an effective leader is one who shares new information with the rest of the team. It is a person who seeks constant self-development and the development of the team. Tragically, studies by CEB Global shows that only 10% of managers are learners.


Gone are the days of impenetrable walls surrounding a boss, complete with a secretary who made it hard to access a manager. Modern teams require very close working relationships and as a manager, there is a need to establish a working relationship with your team members so that you can offer leadership and facilitate the achievement of goals.

   Political Authority

Office politics are frowned upon but political authority is the ability to rally people towards a similar cause and achieve set goals. Sometimes, you will be given the tough task of convincing your teammates to take on an undesirable task or of implementing an unpopular policy. At this point, you will need the skill to convince your teammates to be receptive to the new idea and this requires good political skills. An effective leader should be able to win others over, especially in difficult situations.

  Good at Delegating

An effective leader ought to be able to delegate a task to a person who has the right skills to handle it. This maximises the team’s talent, nurtures good skills for those who get the work done and ensures that tasks are handled well and in good time. Delegating also shows that you have confidence in your team, which boosts the team’s morale and ability to learn new skills. It also goes without saying that a good leader is able to let people creatively come up with solutions to problems without micromanaging them. Giving people the freedom to find solutions to problems boosts their problem-solving skills, makes them more confident and grows the team’s overall skills. Delegating tasks and responsibilities also frees up your time as a manager and lets you focus on the most important tasks at hand.


Different situations call for different approaches and it is the mark of a good manager to come up with creative and unique solutions to unique problems. Having the flexibility to come up with fresh tactics to manage each emerging situation allows you to develop good problem-solving skills and gives your team the confidence to trust you to solve emerging problems uniquely.

Effective communication

Management involves a lot of communication on expectations, company changes, and goals. A team is kept together through constant communication as this ensures that everyone is on the same page and things are done in good time. It is the work of the manager to always keep the team in the loop. It also means that a good manager ought to have good crisis management skills, where any rumours are cleared in good time and effectively. Any problems and fresh issues that might arise are addressed in a timely manner.

 Treats team members as partners

You are the boss and that is well-established. However, subordinates appreciate it when you treat them as partners as well as getting them to play a part in decision-making and drawing up of strategies as opposed to subordinates who merely receive instructions. Team spirit requires that you give your subordinates the chance to take control of their activities and you involve them in departmental activities as well. This shows leadership and enhances collaboration.

Shows no Favouritism

It is human nature to have a favourite, to prefer one person or thing to another. However, this does not augur well with your teammates when you are a supervisor. It divides your team and diminishes your authority. Even if you have a favourite, try to stay neutral. Solve disputes in a neutral way and provide leadership. When your team members trust you to make neutral and well-informed decisions, they will trust you and your decisions.

  A leader is Ethical and Trustworthy

You cannot preach water and drink wine and expect your subordinates to trust and respect you. An effective leader stays on the right course and can be trusted to make the right decision even if it is painful. Remember, your subordinates look up to you and if you are unethical, they lose their respect for you and this erodes your authority.

In conclusion, an effective supervisor is one who offers leadership and brings the team together. It is someone with good communication skills, neutral, trustworthy, flexible and who knows how to delegate effectively. The leader should also be a learner and should treat their subordinates as partners. In a world where teamwork is cherished, a good leader should be able to find unique ways of holding the team together and rallying team members towards a common cause.

Important Supervisor Qualities

Individuals striving to move into a leadership position should work on honing these eight qualities of great supervisors. These soft skills can help supervisors better perform their manager-like roles and responsibilities, which include organizing workflow, setting performance goals and deadlines, promoting productivity, and supporting fellow employees.

  1. Effective Communication

A majority of workplace failures can be attributed to ineffective or inaccurate communication, making it an especially important quality for leadership. Supervisors should develop exemplary written and verbal communication skills to help them speak with impact, clarity, and brevity. They also need to be adept at giving both positive and negative feedback, as well as receiving constructive criticism and input themselves.

  1. Leadership

There are numerous ways to define leadership, and it may manifest differently, depending on the industry, company culture, or management structure. However, certain leadership qualities are universal. Good supervisors take initiative while also providing support, motivation, and accountability to other team members. They have their own robust skillset and are willing to perform menial or mundane tasks to ensure a program or organization runs properly. 

Supervisors also must possess the ability to objectively evaluate their team members; identify their strengths and apply them to the appropriate areas; and recognize any needs for improvement.

  1. Empathy and Compassion

Supervisors are dealing with employees who are, first and foremost, humans. They will struggle, experience failure, and have bad days. While certain behavior and errors are unacceptable in a professional environment, supervisors should approach team members and their struggles with empathy and compassion. Those responses will lead to better problem-solving and improvement compared to anger or impatience while also bolstering company loyalty.

  1. Conflict Resolution

Conflict in the workplace is inevitable and not necessarily a negative thing. All conflict means is that change is happening and people’s stances or perspectives differ. If a supervisor can competently handle conflict, it becomes an opportunity for strengthening relationships and developing robust solutions. An important part of successful conflict resolution is learning different conflict styles, methods, and triggers to help cultivate a process for both preventing and addressing it within a department or organization.

  1. Ability to Delegate

While supervisors should have exemplary work ethics themselves, it’s equally important they know how and when to delegate. Employees want to feel like valuable parts of their company and integral to helping it achieve success. Delegation can become an effective tool for empowering employees. Supervisors must be able to identify which ones are best-equipped to handle certain tasks and find useful ways for every team member to contribute to a project or program.

  1. Problem Solving

The keys to problem solving within the workplace are critical thinking, creativity, and consistency. Supervisors are relied on frequently to take the lead when an issue arises. Their job is to find the root of the problem and then follow an acceptable and structured process for addressing it. Ingenuity can be a useful part of problem solving, but it’s important that supervisors also follow company policy and procedure to ensure certain situations are dealt with fairly, consistently and, in some cases, legally.

  1. Time and Priority Management

Time is limited and certain projects or tasks are more urgent than others. A good supervisor is able to prioritize and delegate accordingly to ensure they are completed in a timely and efficient manner. With excellent time-management skills, a supervisor is able to oversee their team’s heavy workload in the most productive way without leaving employees feeling stressed and burned out.

  1. Confidence

Employees take note of their supervisor’s attitude. When a supervisor makes decisions confidently and then communicates them candidly, that can create a more productive, positive atmosphere. Not only do employees feel more confident in their supervisor’s leadership abilities, but they also appreciate the clarity and direction. Of course, not every decision a supervisor makes will lead to the intended outcome. In that case, it’s equally important for them to humbly accept responsibility, learn from the mistake, and choose a different course.

Supervises the effective management and use of physical and financial resources in schools.

Monitors school security systems to ensure effectiveness.

Supervises effective health and safety standards in schools.

Corrects and reports on anomalies, irregularities or environmental threats to safety at schools.

Approves non-routine activities at schools, including field trips or school outings.

Requisitions, stores and distributes materials/consumables to support curriculum delivery and janitorial services in all primary schools.

Recommends and supervises repairs, renovations and refurbishments at schools.

Recommends/approves requisitions for furniture and equipment for schools.

Governance and Extra Curricular

Ensures the establishment and effective operation of student councils in all secondary schools.

Attends school functions and other special activities to supervise and support wholesome standards.

Coordinates district/nationwide competitions and other activities to support curricular/co-curricular programmes.

Organises a system of recognition and appreciation of good practice and long service of principals.


Question no 4

Explain the administrative structure and its functions to establish a special institution at higher education level.


The administrative structure of the university, a visual system of the management of the staff, is created to capture the positions or titles to direct the work.

An administrative structure of a university is often used to illustrate the positions, responsibilities and hierarchical system of an educational group.

Administrative Structure of University

All administrative positions will be classified into following 3 types based on their roles and responsibilities in the system:

Assistants: assistant and associate dean, assistant and associate director are also identified as administrative positions,

Academic: directs the management of one or more departments or colleges in the hierarchical structure of the university,

Presidential or Executive-level: includes positions such as financial officer and director of human resources.

Example for Administrative Structure of University

Provided with all information about an administrative structure of the university, it should be easy to create a logical university administrative structure with the help of org chart maker.

Below is an example of university org chart. Due to different policies in different countries, the administrative structure of university differs. This example is a basic illustration about how to design a university administration org chart.

The roles of higher education in sustainable economic and social development increase year by year, and this will continue over the next decades. Higher education can be seen as a focal point of knowledge and its application, an institution which makes a great contribution to the economic growth and development through fostering innovation and increasing higher skills. It is looked as a way to improve the quality of life and address major social and global challenges. Higher education is broadly defined as one of key drivers of growth performance, prosperity and competitiveness. UNESCO says its social role provides the link between the intellectual and educational role of universities on one hand and the development of society on the other. Raising skills holds the key to higher living standards and well-being. Investing in knowledge creation and enabling its diffusion is the key to creating high-wage employment and enhancing productivity growth, points out OECD.

Here is an overview of the most important roles of higher education in today’s economy:

Creating a quality workforce

Higher education gives a person an opportunity to succeed in today’s global economy. Modern universities provide their students with various programmes aimed at preparing them for different economic sectors, helping them to stay and progress in the labour market for long, programmes that make a difference for labour market outcomes and keep pace with changes in the global economy and changes in the innovation process. Universities promote lifelong learning; they offer opportunities to engage and attract professionals into training and professional development.

Supporting business and industry

Business has changed over the last decade, the dynamic processes take place in a range of contexts and landscapes. There are a lot of jobs today that failed to exist several decades ago. Technology is changing the nature of work. The 2017 McKinsey report estimated that 49 percent of time spent on work activities worldwide could be automated using existing technologies. The requirements on employee’s skills have also changed. Higher education institutions assure the relevance of their knowledge, identify skills gaps, create special programmes and build the right skills that can help countries improve economic prosperity and social cohesion, adapt workforce development to the economy and changing demand for the new skills, develop relevant skills and activate skill supply, and thus support improvement in productivity and growth.

Caring out research and promoting technologies

Higher education is a technology and innovation driver. One of the missions of the modern universities is finding solutions to big challenges and conducting research within global priority areas, contributing to social outcomes such as health and social engagement.  Often it is aimed at designing technologies that result in new products and supplying advanced technology for use.

Knowledge is the true basis of higher education: its production via research, its transmission via teaching, its acquisition and use by students. Hence, excellence must remain the prime objective of any institution of higher education, including universities in any country. Russia retains universities’s tradional role as critics and servants of society and is setting its sights high. Russia’s leading universities Project 5-100 participants guarantee excellence in the knowledge and training that they impart. These institutions are focusing resources on quality education, encouraging students and taking account of students’ profiles and specific needs, strengthening teacher training and exposure to best working practices and creating incentives to attract the most experienced teachers.

Countries are putting knowledge at the service of their societies to create a better world. This can be achieved through the training of first-class minds, through major advances in science and technology and by encouraging an interest in learning. Now, to realize its full potential, higher education is to maintain a pro-active stance, strengthen its position as a bedrock upon which countries are and build a new road to growth. It cannot be passive.

The organizational structures of American colleges and universities vary distinctly, depending on institutional type, culture, and history, yet they also share much in common. While a private liberal arts college may have a large board of trustees, and a public research university nested in a state system no trustees of its own, the vast majority of public and private universities are overseen by an institutional or system-wide governing board. This somewhat paradoxical combination of distinctiveness and uniformity reflects the unique characteristics of individual colleges and universities, and the shared-task environment (including strategic planning, fiscal oversight, curriculum planning, and student affairs) common to American postsecondary institutions. Scholars of higher education view many aspects of private colleges and universities as significantly different than public universities. Yet the reliance on bureaucratic organizational structures and the belief in research, advanced instruction, and service at both types of institutions shape many aspects of public and private university governance structures in a fairly uniform manner.

The organizational structure of colleges and universities is an important guide to institutional activity, but not the only one. Scholars of higher education have developed a variety of multi-dimensional models of organizational behavior that also shed considerable light on college and university structure and process. Multi-dimensional models seek to explain organizational behavior across institutional types, and in various institutional activities. The models vary somewhat in the number of dimensions incorporated, from J. Victor Baldridge’s three dimensions (bureaucratic, collegial, and political) and Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal’s four-cornered frame (structural, human resource, political, and symbolic) to Robert Birnbaum’s five dimensions (bureaucratic, collegial, political, anarchical, and cybernetic). These models are quite helpful in thinking about organizational structure and process within colleges and universities. The same institution may evidence a bureaucratic, hierarchical decision-making process in its central administration, and a collegial process in its academic senate. It is a combination of organizational structure and process that shapes college and university behavior.

Public and private colleges and universities of all types incorporate key authority structures, including a governing board, a president or chancellor, a cohort of administrative leaders, and an academic senate. In public institutions these core organizational entities collaborate with such external authorities as state and federal political leaders, community organizations, and members of the public, as well as business interests and philanthropic foundations. These external organizations routinely interact with and shape the policies and procedures of the university’s internal organizational structures. The degree of uniformity in private and public college and university organizational structures has been shaped by the nature of demands on the postsecondary system since the mid-twentieth century. Although the key governance structures of colleges and universities were present prior to the turn of the twentieth century, the full scope of the university’s multifaceted organizational structure, most scholars agree, was not realized until after the rise of the research university, in the wake of World War II. In 1963 then-president of the University of California system, Clark Kerr, described the postwar American university as a multiversity. The term captured the increasingly complex organizational and governance structures required to negotiate its ever-expanding task environment


Question 5

Describe the characteristics of administrative principals to motivate the  teachers towards their pupils observations record.

characteristics define an excellent administrator/instructional leader. Advanced educational degrees and state certification fulfill minimum qualifications for hire, but leadership dispositions matter even more when it comes to stellar job performance. The impact of a principal or superintendent on a school district is pivotal to student achievement. In fact, “excellent school administrators have a profound impact on student learning, teaching excellence and overall school performance,” according to the National Association of State Boards of Education. 

Excellent Administrator Leadership Qualities

Professional organizations for education leaders put forth school leadership definitions that articulate key performance indicators. For example, the National Policy Board for Educational Administration describes excellent administrators as “… tenacious change agents who are creative, inspirational and willing to weather the potential risks, uncertainties and political fall-out to make their schools places where each student thrives.” Leadership qualities of a good educational administrator further include determination, self-confidence and high emotional intelligence.

Embraces Mission and Vision

An excellent school starts with a well-defined mission and vision statement developed in collaboration with key stakeholders, including teachers, parents, students and community members. An excellent administrator articulates and institutionalizes the school’s mission and vision. Excellent school leaders ensure that opportunity exists for each child to receive a top-notch education along with preparation for college or a vocation.

Nimble administrators understand that mission and vision should be revisited periodically to keep pace with the changing needs and expectations of students and schools. Above all, high-performing school administrators must personally embrace and role model an authentic commitment to student success. Multiple measurements are used to evaluate effort, achievement and progress.

Possesses Ethical and Moral Core

Ethics, integrity and basic human decency are important personal characteristics of excellent administrators. Without a moral compass, leaders can turn into cult figures or evil dictators like Adolf Hitler. School leaders must be honest, fair, trustworthy and transparent.

Similarly, an excellent administrator is a good steward of the school’s budget and appropriately allocates funds. Resources are properly used, managed and monitored. Record keeping and accounting are above reproach. School leaders with a solid reputation earn public trust, which is needed to gain support for school-funding referendums.

Promotes Equity and Inclusion

Excellent administrators embrace diversity and welcome students from all backgrounds. Curriculum is taught from a culturally inclusive lens that makes lessons meaningful to diverse students. Respect and tolerance permeate the culture of the school. Students feel safe and secure when an effective leader is at the helm.

Excellent administrators ensure that student disciplinary codes are consistently enforced with an emphasis on positive behavioral supports. Strong leaders have the courage to confront institutional bias or marginalization of certain student groups. Teachers and staff must demonstrate cultural sensitivity and unbiased treatment of students as a condition of continued employment.

Values Professional Development

High-performing school leaders consistently strive for greatness and don’t allow excuses for why improvements aren’t possible. They affirmatively recruit, hire, mentor and support teachers and staff. Professional development is strongly encouraged to help teachers stay abreast of emerging technologies and pedagogy.

Qualities of a good educational administrator also include a passion for lifelong learning. Teachers aspiring to senior school leadership jobs pursue graduate education, such as a specialist credential, master’s degree or doctorate in education. Other learning activities include membership in professional organizations and participation in educational conferences each year.

Cultivates a Collaborative Workplace

Teachers and professional staff appreciate an excellent administrator who creates an interesting, fun and nurturing work environment. High-performing schools are typically run by a school administrator who strives for outstanding teaching, learning and innovation. Teachers are encouraged to work collaboratively.

Under the leadership of an excellent administrator, relationships between co-workers, teachers, students and parents are warm, trusting and open. Problems are identified and resolved productively. School staff see themselves as valuable members of a team.

Engages Parents and Community Members

School leaders with a reputation for excellence are approachable, friendly and accessible. They are highly visible at school functions and are active in the larger community. They seek out opportunities to personally meet and greet students and their families. An open-door policy welcomes anyone who has a concern or suggestion, even angry or upset parents.

Parents are treated as partners in their students’ educational progress. Families are kept well informed of school happenings and are invited to volunteer. Regular updates are sent to parents noting attendance, test scores and missing assignments.

Exceeds Job Expectations

Excellent school administrators go above and beyond when executing their duties. They strive for maximum efficiency, high productivity and ongoing improvements in curriculum, equipment and facilities. Every effort is made to follow proposed changes to local, state or federal laws that may affect school policy or funding allocations.

Gains in student achievement are often tied to initiatives spearheaded by top leadership. For instance, new programs to narrow the performance gap among students from different socioeconomic backgrounds can level the playing field as students prepare for college. Exemplary leadership performance can bring recognition such as the National School Principal of the Year award by the National Association of Secondary School Principals.

Exudes Passion and Commitment

Exceptional administrators share a passion for providing a quality education to all students attending the school. “Passion is the ardor or the fire to develop and maintain an excellent school,” as defined by the National School Boards Association. Top administrators inspire others to get on board and achieve stretch goals. Motivation runs deeper than a desire to simply comply with state or federal testing benchmarks. Commitment is evident in long hours spent attending school board meetings, speaking at school functions, attending conferences, following up on major incidents and keeping up with professional literature. Some principals and superintendents see their role as a calling to serve others. Balancing endless job responsibilities with their own personal and family commitments requires exceptional time management and personal sacrifice.

Strives for Innovation

Effective educational leaders are analytical thinkers who base decisions on research, theory, evidence and best practices. Time and money is not wasted on programs that are not impactful. Stakeholders are brought into the strategic-planning process to analyze data, discuss emerging trends and forecast future needs. Assessment is an ongoing process that provides immediate feedback on what students are learning and how they learn best. Teachers and staff are encouraged to be leaders and innovators in their discipline. Hard work is expected but is also recognized and rewarded. Innovation and professional networking is encouraged. Quantifiable goals and objectives consistently aim for above-average outcomes.

Makes Tough Decisions

Excellent principals and superintendents have the courage and wisdom to make tough decisions when it comes to balancing the budget, investing in new initiatives, managing a teachers’ strike, responding to a lawsuit against the school and other challenging circumstances. Diplomacy, tact and decisiveness are essential personal characteristics when it comes to handling heated issues. Other important qualities are empathy, patience, willingness to listen and fair mindedness. An excellent school leader maintains composure and provides direction in times of a crisis or a serious weather emergency. If a tragedy occurs at school, an excellent administrator possesses the confidence and composure to assess the situation, intervene and share frequent updates. An exceptional administrator is comfortable speaking to the media and law enforcement after an incident on school grounds.

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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔


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