Apna Business PK

Course: Citizenship Education and Community Engagement (8606) Semester: AUTUNM, 2021              Level: B.Ed (1.5/2.5 Years)

Assignment No. 1

Q.1 Explain the concept of social interaction. How can a teacher help in promoting social intteraction among students?


Concept of Social Interaction

The concept of interaction has become one of the fundamental and most nearly universal ideas almost in each of the fields of knowledge physical, biological and social. But it should not be inferred that interaction as it takes place in the inorganic or organic order is the same in all respects as is inter­action in the super-organic (human-social) realm. It is also the core datum of sociology.

It has been defined as ‘any event by which one party tangibly influ­ences the overt actions or the state of mind of the other’ (Sorokin, 1928). It is a reciprocal and interdependent activity. Defining social interaction, Gillin and Gillin (1948) wrote: ‘By social interaction we mean the mutual or reciprocal influence, resulting in the modification of behaviour, exerted through social contact and communication which, in turn, are established by inter-stimulation and response.’

This definition emphasized on two main conditions of social interaction:

(a) social contact, and

(b) Communication.

Social contact is the first place of interaction. It rather initiates interaction. Social contact refers to the connection between persons and groups. For social contact, social proximity (mental contact) and not the physical proximity (bodily contact) is essential.

Social contact differs from physical or bodily contact. Mere physical contact (proximity) of individuals does not constitute a group. This is why, it is said, ‘where there is contact of human minds, there association exists; where there is no contact, there is a state of isolation’.

Social contacts may be direct or indirect and positive or negative. Direct contacts involve immediate presence of persons (face-to-face) in the exchange of ideas or things. Other contacts are indirect as we find in the case of the writer and the recipient of a personal letter. Such contacts may be estab­lished through any means of communication (telephone, TV, Internet).

Positive contact means associative interaction which leads towards assimi­lation through tolerance, compromise or cooperation. Negative contact means dissociative interaction, which gives rise to the feeling of hatred, rivalry, jealousy, indifference or lack of response.

The other condition for social interaction is communication. Society can only be conceived of through communication. It has a central place in society. It may vary from writing a letter to a friend, to all the modem methods of commu­nication.

Means of communication may be language, script, gestures, words or symbols, etc. Language is a symbolic communication because it consists of conventional cues or signs. Gestures and facial expressions like speech and language play a significant part in communication at human level. Hand-shake, head-nodding, waving the hand are good examples of gestures.

Communication in either form of material or sensory medium is a necessity for social contacts. Communication plays an important role in personality formation, transfer of social heritage and social experience from generation to generation.

teacher help in promoting social intteraction among students

In order to create a structured learning environment that encourages positive social interactions among all students, you must incorporate a few teaching strategies into your daily routine: Teaching strategies such as implementing classroom jobs, carving out time for students to just interact and play, and utilizing learning centers are all great ways to encourage positive social interaction among students.

In order to create a structured learning environment that encourages positive social interactions among all students, you must incorporate a few teaching strategies into your daily routine: Teaching strategies such as implementing classroom jobs, carving out time for students to just interact and play, and utilizing learning centers are all great ways to encourage positive social interaction among students. Here we’ll take a closer look at how the teaching strategies mentioned can help foster a classroom atmosphere where all students interact with one another in a more positive manner.

Teaching Strategies to Promote Social Interaction

To increase the likelihood of your students interacting with one another in a positive manner, you must incorporate a few teaching strategies. Here are a few teacher-tested ways that encourage positive social interaction among classmates.

Classroom Jobs

Classroom jobs are great for social interaction because they force students to work with one another. As you know, not all students get along, but when they are forced to interact with all different types of people, they must learn how to interact with everyone regardless of if they get along or not. Having the ability to work well with others is a skill that all children need to have. So, the best way to prepare them for the real world is to give them classroom jobs. Here are a few ideas.

Choose two children be the door holders or assign two children to work together to pass out or collect papers. Try and choose two students who normally wouldn’t gravitate toward one another. This will force them to learn to work with students different than themselves. You can also assign your students a job that requires them to interact with the other classmates as well. For example, you can have two students be the morning greeter. One child would welcome their classmate into the classroom by saying “Good morning” and giving them a high five or a handshake, while another child would ask them, “How are you doing today?” These types of jobs require social interaction among all of the students, there is no way around it. Not only is this a positive way to start the day off, but it will also help to build a sense of classroom community.

Free Play

Free play is an essential part of a child’s development because research shows that it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of a child. It’s not only good for their body and mind, but it’s also great for developing their social skills. Many teachers are inundated with the pressures of having to meet the needs of the curriculum, that they don’t make time for play or leave it for whenever they have a few extra minutes to spare. What happens when you don’t incorporate play into the curriculum is that students tend to lack communication and problem-solving skills. When children play, they learn to work together and figure things out on their own without help from a teacher or an adult. It’s a time when children learn to become leaders, learn how to listen to others, and even learn how to stick up for themselves.

There are many ways that you can incorporate play throughout your day to promote positive student social interaction. You can create a dramatic play area for primary students where they can dress up or learn how to work together to run a grocery store, a veterinarian’s office, or even a hospital. You can use classic board games and change them to suit what students are learning about. For example, you can use the game Candyland to work on site words. All you have to do is attach a site word to each colored card and students must try to say the word when they choose a card. For older students, you can use a deck of cards to have students work together to build a house or play memory. You can even have students work together to build a car out of Lego, then test the velocity of the car. These are just a few of the many ways that you can incorporate play into your day. Be creative and you’ll see results.



  1. 2 Discuss the importance of cultural diversity in a society. Highlight the role of cultural diversity in Pakistani Society.


Culture diversity is very important in a society. It is important because our country, workplace, and schools consist of various cultural and groups. We can learn different culture from one another. Many students come in UK and develop their culture with others countries’ students.

The things you do and the practices you were taught inform who you become. Culture is a broad term that encompasses beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and overall can be understood as our “way of being.” When you go out into the world, you will come into contact with people from different backgrounds and walks of life. It’s a good rule of thumb to honor cultural diversity with your actions. So, what is cultural diversity and why does it matter?


Let’s get into the details of how cultural diversity can take shape in professional settings, within educational institutions, and overall, in most aspects of life.



Photo by Omar Lopez on Unsplash



Cultural Diversity – Defined

Cultural diversity is synonymous with multiculturalism. Multiculturalism is defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica as, “the view that cultures, races, and ethnicities, particularly those of minority groups, deserve special acknowledgment of their differences within a dominant political culture.”


The importance of cultural diversity can be interpreted on the basis of these related actions:

  • Recognizing that there is a large amount of cultures that exist
  • Respecting each other’s differences
  • Acknowledging that all cultural expressions are valid
  • Valuing what cultures have to bring to the table
  • Empowering diverse groups to contribute
  • Celebrating differences, not just tolerating them

So, what are some examples of cultural diversity?


Cultural diversity looks like this:

  • In A Workplace: Having a multilingual team, having a diverse range of ages working together, having policies that are vocally against discrimination, etc.
  • In A School Setting: Having students from all over the world (like at the University of the People), being accepting of all religious practices and traditions that students part take in, supporting students to share their cultures with one another, etc.


The Importance Of Cultural Diversity In Education

Cultural diversity is important in every setting in life, but it can be even more pivotal when it happens within education. Students around the world have the right to equal access of quality education, and as such, there are many upsides that come along with it when institutions believe in the power of diversity.

Cultural diversity in education helps to support:



  1. Deep Learning


Learning happens within the curriculum and outside of it. With a diverse student population, students have the privilege of gaining more understanding about people and backgrounds from all over. This also contributes to diversity of thought and perspectives that make learning more interesting and dynamic.



  1. Confidence And Growth


When students participate with people from varied cultures, it provides them with more confidence in dealing with things outside of their comfort zones. It can build strength of character, pride, and confidence.



  1. Preparation For The Future


If a workplace has done the necessary work, it’s bound to be culturally diverse. Attending a culturally diverse institute of education will prepare students for their future in a workplace.



  1. More Empathy


Interacting with people who have diverse practices, beliefs, life experiences, and culture promotes empathy. While you can never fully understand someone’s life without being them, you can learn, listen, and understand.


Benefits Of Cultural Diversity

The world is naturally multicultural. Approaching cultural diversity with a mindset and actions that embrace this fact leads to many benefits, like:

  • Compassion: Communication and understanding of differences leads to increased compassion instead of judgment.
  • Innovation: Varied perspectives and lens of looking at the world lend to innovative thinking.
  • Productivity: People who come together and bring their own style of working together tend to support a more productive team.
  • New Opportunities: The diversity opens the door to new opportunities and the blending of ideas which would otherwise have been homogeneous.
  • Problem-Solving: Challenges are layered, so having people with different backgrounds can lead to better problem-solving with richness of opinions.


How To Support Cultural Diversity

Individuals and institutions alike have the agency to support cultural diversity. If you’re unsure how you can take action to do so, consider these ideas:

  • Interact with people outside of your culture
  • Be open-minded to listen and let go of judgment
  • If you see anyone who is being culturally insensitive, speak out against it
  • Accept that differences are beneficial and not harmful
  • Don’t force your beliefs on people with opposing views
  • Advocate to hire people or work with people who are not within your same culture
  • Travel the world as much as you can to take part in cultures and understand them from the source
  • Read literature and learn from different cultures
  • Absorb media and art from around the world
  • Learn a new language and communicate in a friend’s native language rather than your own


  1. 3 Discuss the impact of institutional rules on the behavior of an individual.


The genes you are born with influence your behavior. Your social environment including your family, friends, school, and neighborhood also influence your behavior. The core of this unit will deal with those institutions as determinants of who we are, and what we become.

The purpose of the unit is to investigate the effects of institutions on human behavior. It will explore various niches that are encountered as man exists in the ecosystem and will discuss both the effects of heredity and the environment on human behavior. It is with this in mind that the stage will be set so that our primary goal is to provide a framework which can be related to our everyday ideas for our changing behavior.

The unit is designed to provide knowledge, understanding and awareness. It can be taught in grades five through eight. It will consist of subject content, lesson plans, a list of resources, field trips, a children’s reading list, a teacher’s reading list and a bibliography.

Teachers of any subject can use the unit as a springboard to help students understand themselves. It is hoped that the biology teacher will use the unit to teach a fundamental course in human behavior. The teaching time will vary, but it is suggested that the unit can be taught in two to three weeks.

Broadly speaking, institutions can be understood as the ‘rules’ that make ordered society possible, such as language, currency, marriage, property rights, taxation, education and laws. Institutions help individuals know how to behave in a given situation, such as when driving in traffic, bargaining at a market or attending a wedding.

Development is mostly about transforming institutions – cultural values, legal frameworks, market mechanisms and political processes. If aid is failing, it is in part because agencies misunderstand institutions and how they change.

When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, many people in western democracies, including the ‘experts’ of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, assumed that the teetering Soviet Union would quickly transform into an efficient free market economy. Many believed that rapid economic development and greater prosperity would follow.

In reality, other than a tiny minority that profited enormously from dubious processes of privatization, most of the former Soviet bloc was in economic crisis throughout the 1990s. There was a disastrous drop in the standard of living for most of its population. For free marketeers, international financial institutions (IFIs) and development agencies, it was a tough lesson about both the importance of institutions that underpin a market economy and about how much time it takes to develop them. By 2002, the focus of the World Bank’s Development Report was on ‘Building Institutions for Markets’.

Market institutions are not the only challenge. Responding to all the current issues, such as climate change, social injustice or declining resources, requires an unprecedented depth, scale and pace of institutional innovation. Society is struggling to cope with the negative side effects of industrialization and globalization. Humanity’s capacity for rapid technological innovation has far outstripped its capacity for institutional innovation, with potentially catastrophic consequences.

Over the last decade, the concepts of ‘institutions’ and ‘institutional development’ have become heavily embedded in the language of aid. Current development themes, such as markets that work for the poor, good governance and rights-based approaches, demand a strong emphasis on institutions. Yet there is confusion about how to define these concepts and how to translate them into practical methods for analysis. There are also many challenging questions about how institutions evolve and to what extent they can be purposefully designed or changed.Nevertheless, the well-being of people and the environment hinges on finding new ways to transform institutions to cope with the challenges created by technolog-focused development. Interactive forms of society-wide learning need to be evolutionary rather than linear, and must be founded on a solid understanding of the institutional complexity of social systems. These ideas have major implications for the goals, processes and mechanisms of aid.

Which side of the road?

Broadly speaking, institutions can be understood as the ‘rules’ that make ordered society possible, such as language, currency, marriage, property rights, taxation, education and laws. Institutions help individuals know how to behave in a given situation, such as when driving in traffic, bargaining at a market or attending a wedding.

Institutions are critical for establishing trust in society. We put our money in a bank because we trust that all the institutions of the financial system will protect it. We board an airplane because we trust the institutions related to air traffic control and the monitoring of aircraft maintenance to keep us safe.

By definition, institutions are the more stable and permanent aspects of human systems. Some institutions, once developed, lock societies into a particular path of development. For example, the simple convention of which side of the road to drive on is very hard to imagine changing once it has been established.

Many institutions have evolved without much conscious design, and they interrelate with each other in a complex network. The rules of language make it possible for laws to be established, and these laws are then upheld by courts and policing systems. People obey laws because of a whole system of societal beliefs, values and norms. Our lives are embedded in this highly complex web of social institutions, and we take many of them for granted, not questioning their origin or the underlying assumptions and beliefs on which they are based.

Does bringing about social change require focusing on the individual – following the maxim of ‘think globally, act locally’ – or on social structures? Change is a complex dynamic of social structure and individual action. Institutions essentially create incentives, both positive and negative, for individuals and groups to act in particular ways. People behave either to reinforce or undermine an institution (see figure 1).


  1. 4 Explain the functions of different agencies in socialization. Determine the role and responsibilities of teacher in socialization.


In sociologysocialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society. Socialization encompasses both learning and teaching and is thus “the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained”.

Socialization is strongly connected to developmental psychology.[3] Humans need social experiences to learn their culture and to survive.

Socialization essentially represents the whole process of learning throughout the life course and is a central influence on the behavior, beliefs, and actions of adults as well as of children.

Socialization may lead to desirable outcomes—sometimes labeled “moral“—as regards the society where it occurs. Individual views are influenced by the society’s consensus and usually tend toward what that society finds acceptable or “normal”. Socialization provides only a partial explanation for human beliefs and behaviors, maintaining that agents are not blank slates predetermined by their environment;[7] scientific research provides evidence that people are shaped by both social influences and genes.

Genetic studies have shown that a person’s environment interacts with their genotype to influence behavioral outcomes.


Notions of society and the state of nature have existed for centuries.[1]:20 In its earliest usages, socialization was simply the act of socializing or another word for socialism.[13][14][15][16] Socialization as a concept originated concurrently with sociology, as sociology was defined as the treatment of “the specifically social, the process and forms of socialization, as such, in contrast to the interests and contents which find expression in socialization”.[17] In particular, socialization consisted of the formation and development of social groups, and also the development of a social state of mind in the individuals who associate. Socialization is thus both a cause and an effect of association.[18] The term was relatively uncommon before 1940, but became popular after World War II, appearing in dictionaries and scholarly works such as the theory of Talcott Parsons

The following points highlight the five important agencies that have contributed in the process of socialisation. The agencies are: 1. The Family 2. The Peer Group 3. The School 4. The Books 5. The Mass Media. 

Agency # 1. The Family:

The family gets the baby first. Hence the process of socialisation begins in the family. A child is born with some basic abilities that are genetically transmitted through germplasm. These abilities and capacities are shaped in ways determined by culture.

The mother with whom the relation of the child is the most intimate plays a significant role in the process of moulding the child in the initial stages. Subsequently, father and older siblings transmit to the child many other values, knowledge and skill that children are expected to acquire in that particular society.

Agency # 2. The Peer Group:


As the child grows older, his contemporaries begin to influence him. He spends most of his spare hours outside his work and study schedule with his peers in the playground and places outside his home. The attraction of peers is virtually irresistible to him.

He learns from them and they also learn from him. With the passage of time, the peer group influence surpasses at of parents significantly. It is not surprising that teen age is the age of parent-child misunderstanding.

In the socialisation of the child, the members of the family, particularly those who exercise authority over him, and the members of his peer group exercise two different kinds of influence upon him. Both authoritarian relationships (typified by the former) and equalitarian relationships (typified by the latter) are equally significant to him.

He acquires the virtues of respect, constraint and obedience from the first type of relationships, and the virtues of co-operation based on trust and mutual understanding from the second.

The importance of authoritarian element in the socialization process may be explained thus. First, the pattern of behaviour expected of a child in a society does not usually or in all cases correspond to the innate inclinations of the child. On the contrary, on many occasions he is taught to act contrary to biological inclinations and follow the prescriptions as well as the proscriptions of society.

Those who are mature and can command his respect and attention are obviously the proper persons to initiate the process of socialisation. Secondly, many cultural elements—both prescriptive and prescriptive— are not always amenable to reason. The child will naturally resent being asked to behave in a manner contrary to what his natural inclinations prompt him to do.

In cases like this, the authority of those who are responsible for reproducing and maintaining a child are in a unique position to make him accept their instructions without questioning the logic and the necessity of the contents of those instructions. He has to accept these simply because his superiors lay them down for him.

The importance of equalitarian element in socialisation process rests on altogether different grounds. There is free and spontaneous interaction, instead of coercion, among those who have equalitarian relationships. They view “the world through the same eyes,” share the same subjective attitudes and, consequently, have perfect “understanding” of one mother.

This applies to age mates, sex mates and class mates. They learn from one mother “small folkways, shades of meaning, fads and crazes, secret modes of gratification, and forbidden knowledge.” Some such knowledge is “often socially useful and yet socially abooed”.

Kingsley Davis has given the example of knowledge of sex which is supposed 10 remain a closed book until marriage. If this were followed, the problems of maladjustment and aberration of many kinds would not have been infrequent Fortunately, such knowledge is “transmitted as a part of the lore that passes from child to child”.

Agency # 3. The School:

When the child comes to the school, his formal indoctrination into the culture of the society begins. He is exposed to a wider background than hitherto known to him. He is formally introduced to the lore and the learning, the arts and the sciences, the values and the beliefs, the customs and taboos of the society from a wider circle, his teachers play a very significant role.

The child may admire, respect and love some of his teachers. The impression which they make during this impressionable age lasts almost throughout his life.

Agency # 4. The Books:

In literate societies another important agency of socialisation is the printed word in books and magazines. Our cultural world—experiences and knowledge, values and beliefs, superstitions and prejudices—is expressed in words.

“Words rush at us in torrent and cascade; they leap into our vision as in newspaper, magazine and textbook…… The words are always written by someone and these people too—authors and editors and advertisers— join the teachers, the peers and the parents in the socialisation process”.

Agency # 5. The Mass Media:

Apart from newspapers which carry printed words, the two other mass media, viz., the radio and television, exercise tremendous influence in the socialisation process. They “assault our ears” and communicate directly their messages and these messages also “contain in capsule form the premises of our culture, its attitudes and ideologies”.

The role of television, in particular, is very significant. It communicates directly to both our ears and eyes and thus leaves a strong impression.

In individual cases, of course, the importance of these influences varies. Different people react to the same suggestion differently. Responses vary in terms of their natural predilections. “Some of us respect tradition; others fear the opinion of their peers; and still others prefer to listen to the ‘thousand tongues’ of conscience”.




  1. 5 Discuss the role of religious groups in influencing social behavior. Explain the importance of economic, political and educational institutions in the society.



Religious organizations are social groups that promote or forbid behaviors based on a shared set of beliefs. Regular attendance to group functions creates a sense of community and promotes adherence to group beliefs that is reinforced by teachings and the association of specific behaviors with spiritual reward or punishment.

Because human beings are social and learn from observation rather than depending entirely on instinct, almost all aspects of human psychology and behavior are socially influenced. Languages, modes of dress, gender roles and avoided taboos are all agreed upon at a group level and form the basis of culture. All cultures vary, and each forms the basis for the attitudes, values and behaviors of its members. These are reinforced by social institutions and collective behavior. Within each culture, other social influences affect the behavior of its members.

Collective Behavior

Collective behavior occurs when large numbers of people engage in a loosely organized activity. These activities can promote or obstruct social change through political activism or protests and can can occur in the potentially destructive forms such as riots. Religious revivals such as the First and Second Great Awakenings and moral panics like the one that lead to the Prohibition Era of the 1920s can also profoundly impact society. The collective behavior of fads tend to influence fashion and consumer behavior without leaving a lasting societal impact. Collective behavior can often result in peer pressure, which compels people to conform to group behavior or risk ostracism. While peer pressure impacts all age groups, adolescents are especially vulnerable to this type of collective behavior.

Religious Organizations

Religious organizations are social groups that promote or forbid behaviors based on a shared set of beliefs. Regular attendance to group functions creates a sense of community and promotes adherence to group beliefs that is reinforced by teachings and the association of specific behaviors with spiritual reward or punishment. Religious groups often establish rules governing sexual behavior, food and interactions with others. In addition, psychologists have found correlations between religious affiliation and higher reported happiness as well as greater levels of self-regulation and self-control.

Mass Media

Mass media is a powerful tool to influence the attitudes and behavior of those who consume it. Commercial advertising, for example, uses tactics that encourage bandwagoning (the desire to be part of a group) and feelings of nostalgia to manipulate consumer activity. During elections, political advertisements and network campaign coverage influence voters and impact the political process. Decisions that news organizations make regarding how to present facts and what stories to broadcast can also impact voter attitudes toward a political issue or candidate.


Family interaction has a profound impact on an individual’s childhood and adult behavior. Studies from institutions such as the University of Washington and North Carolina State University show that disciplinary methods, parental involvement and parental attitudes toward emotion can influence a child’s social ability and behavior as well as the possibility of delinquent or criminal behavior. Language, social norms and moral values are all also acquired through early family interaction and influence behavior for an individual’s lifetime.


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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔


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