Course: Educational Leadership and Management (8605)
Semester: Autumn, 2021 Level: B.Ed
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Elaborate the spirit of Islamic administration and educational administration.
Islamic principles in administration provide a more comprehensive system as they incorporate both moral and spiritual dimensions. These principles are universally applicable and important for the success of Muslims’ organization. Since Islam is a comprehensive way of life, it treats the most minor and simple to detailed and major issues in various aspects of human life and activities including the administration of organization or institution. It addresses all mankind without distinction of race, region, language or time. The principles of Islamic administration are derived from the Quran, which is the most fundamental source in Islamic shari’ah, and the sunnah, which is the second important source in Islam. The most crucial principles are knowledge, commanding good and forbidding bad, amanah (trust), justice, shura (consultation), brotherhood, moral and ethical behaviours, responsibility (trustworthiness), muhasabah (accountability), and, motivation. Those are the values embody the administration in Islamic approach which should be implemented by those who employed in any organization.
The Implication of Basic Principles of Administration Toward Employment Practices
- Selection of Employees
The Allah-fearing attribute is valued because it will ensure that he carries out his duty with amanah, devotion and perfection. It is also said that “Selecting staff with completely denies a man leadership should he requests it or contest for it (leadership)” (Muslim, Kitab al-Imarah, chap. 12:207). It is also narrated that a group of people came to the Prophet (s.a.w) and Technology, Science, Social Sciences and Humanities International Conference – TeSSHI 2012 Organizer: UniversitiTeknologi MARA Kedah. One Helang Hotel, Lankawi. 14 & 15 November 2012 2 requested leadership. The Prophet (s.a.w) said: “We, by Allah, would not charge any body who requests it, or is greedy for it (leadership)” (Muslim, Kitab al-Imarah, chap. 12:207). Further, it is also said that in selecting any prospective staffs, emphasis should be given to two (2) main elements namely; strength and trust. This is as what indicated in the following Quranic revelation: “One of the women said, “O my father, hire him. Indeed, the best one you can hire is the strong and the trustworthy”
From this verse, there are two pre-requisite in selecting employees set i.e. Strength and Trustworthiness. The first pre-requisite i.e. strength and power referred in the above verse depend according to the kind of the duty to be entrusted to the employee and this strength includes the capability in knowledge, field of specialization, experience, personal abilities, potentials and character. The second pre-requisite is trustworthiness (amanah). Trust in this context refers to the fear of Allah S.W.T and awareness of Allah’s presence at all time which should result in a person carrying out his duty with diligence, accountability, effective and in full obedience not only to the existing rules set forth by his employer but more importantly the laws and injunction by Allah S.W.T. Further, it is also said that there are several limits in the Islamic methodology of selecting staff which need to be observed by the employer stated as follows: · The leader should feel strongly that choosing appropriate staff is a great trust to be taken seriously; · The leader is duty bound to choose the best staff for each duty without inclinations, bias or cheating, and · The leader must display capability and amanah.
- Specialization and Division of Labour
In the context of specialization and clear demarcation of duties, one can see the application of several Islamic principles of administration such as knowledge (ilm), justice (‘adalah) and brotherhood (ukhuwwah). It is a fact that job allocation should be done properly in ensuring effective performance amongst the employee for the task entrusted to them and in ensuring the target set by the management can be achieved accordingly towards the success of the organization. Arising from this, it is pertinent that in allocating the task amongst the employee, the employer should take into consideration the knowledge (‘ilm) that the employee possess in relation to the task to be entrusted to him. This indirectly gives some advantage to those having the necessary knowledge (needed for the performance of the task) over those without such knowledge. By doing so, this would allow the employee to practise their job perfectly as expected by the management of the said organization. In addition, justicei (‘adalah) is one concept that is synonym with Islam and Muslim is ordained to do justice in every aspect of their life and this includes in the task specialization and division of labour. The employer is required to assign proper tasks to the proper and qualified person regardless of their acquaintance, friendship or personal connection with such employee.
Q.2 Explain the different theories of management. In your opinion which theory is better and why? Discuss.
The different theories of management are classical management theory, behavioral management theory, quantitative management theory, systems management theory, contingency management theory, and quality management theory. The classical management theory focuses on finding the one best way to perform and manage task.
The different theories of management are classical management theory, behavioral management theory, quantitative management theory, systems management theory, contingency management theory, and quality management theory. The classical management theory focuses on finding the one best way to perform and manage task. The behavioral management theory recognizes employees as individuals with concrete human needs, as parts of work groups, and members of a larger society. The quantitative management theory uses quantitative tools to help plan and control nearly everything in an organization. The systems management theory holds that an organization comprises various parts that must perform tasks necessary for the survival and proper functioning of the system as a whole. The contingency management theory is based on the premise that manager’s preferred actions or approaches depend on the variables of the situations they face. The quality management theory states that the essence of the quality of any output is its ability to meet the needs of the person or group.
I’m the manager of two youth programs one for pre-delinquent youth and the other is a detention alternative program. I utilize all of the management theories in some form, shape, or fashion. Even though the classic theory of management may seem outdated due to other management theories coming along I still find at times that I have to find the one best way to perform a task. An issue that I constantly have in the pre-delinquent program is parents not showing up to their scheduled intake appointments.
Popular Management Theories
- Scientific Management Theory
American mechanical engineer Frederick Taylor, who was one of the earliest management theorists, pioneered the scientific management theory. He and his associates were among the first individuals to study work performance scientifically. Taylor’s philosophy emphasized the fact that forcing people to work hard wasn’t the best way to optimize results. Instead, Taylor recommended simplifying tasks so as to increase productivity.
The strategy was a bit different from how businesses were conducted beforehand. Initially, a factory executive enjoyed minimal, if any, contact with his employees. There was absolutely no way of standardizing workplace rules and the only motivation of the employees was job security.
According to Taylor, money was the key incentive for working, which is why he developed the “fair day’s wages for a fair day’s work” concept. Since then, the scientific management theory has been practiced worldwide. The resulting collaboration between employees and employers evolved into the teamwork that people now enjoy.
- Systems Management Theory
Systems management offers an alternative approach to the planning and management of organizations. The systems management theory proposes that businesses, like the human body, consists of multiple components that work harmoniously so that the larger system can function optimally. According to the theory, the success of an organization depends on several key elements: synergy, interdependence, and interrelations between various subsystems.
Employees are one of the most important components of a company. Other elements crucial to the success of a business are departments, workgroups, and business units. In practice, managers are required to evaluate patterns and events in their companies so as to determine the best management approach. This way, they are able to collaborate on different programs so that they can work as a collective whole rather than as isolated units.
- Contingency Management Theory
The main concept behind the contingency management theory is that no one management approach suits every organization. There are several external and internal factors that will ultimately affect the chosen management approach. The contingency theory identifies three variables that are likely to influence an organization’s structure: the size of an organization, technology being employed, and style of leadership.
Fred Fiedler is the theorist behind the contingency management theory. Fiedler proposed that the traits of a leader were directly related to how effectively he led. According to Fiedler’s theory, there’s a set of leadership traits handy for every kind of situation. It means that a leader must be flexible enough to adapt to the changing environment. The contingency management theory can be summed up as follows:
- There is no one specific technique for managing an organization.
- A leader should be quick to identify the particular management style suitable for a particular situation.
- The primary component of Fiedler’s contingency theory is LPC – the least preferred co-worker scale. LPC is used to assess how well oriented a manager is.
- Theory X and Theory Y
Do you believe that every individual gets maximum satisfaction from the work they do? Or are you of the opinion that some view work as a burden and only do it for the money? Such assumptions influence how an organization is run. The assumptions also form the basis of Theory X and Theory Y.
Douglas McGregor is the theorist credited with developing these two contrasting concepts. More specifically, these theories refer to two management styles: the authoritarian (Theory X) and participative (Theory Y).
In an organization where team members show little passion for their work, leaders are likely to employ the authoritarian style of management. But if employees demonstrate a willingness to learn and are enthusiastic about what they do, their leader is likely to use participative management. The management style that a manager adopts will influence just how well he can keep his team members motivated.
Theory X holds a pessimistic view of employees in the sense that they cannot work in the absence of incentives. Theory Y, on the other hand, holds an optimistic opinion of employees. The latter theory proposes that employees and managers can achieve a collaborative and trust-based relationship.
Still, there are a couple of instances where Theory X can be applied. For instance, large corporations that hire thousands of employees for routine work may find adopting this form of management ideal.
Q.3 Explain the purpose and qualities of effective supervision and highlight the different between administration and supervision.
This study identified determinants of effective and ineffective supervision in schools. A forty-two items questionnaire was administered on 1150 teachers used in this study. Two research questions were raised and answered using percentages. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested using spearman rho and z-test statistics at 0.05 level of significance. Existence of neat and decent school environment, proper students’ management delegation of duties by schoolheads as determinants of effective supervision in schools. Gender does not significantly influence teachers mean perception score in the identified determinant of effective supervision in schools in Delta State.
One of the objectives of secondary school education in Nigeria is the production of people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labour, appreciate those values specified under our broad national aims and live as good citizens. (National Policy on Education, 2004). Before 1843 there has been the indigenous/traditional education in Nigeria, which catered for the teaching of norms, culture and social values of our societies. Parents, families, agegrades, secret societies and so on are the agents of traditional education: pupil’s activities and behaviour’s are productivity directed and guided, to help them improve upon their skills and potentialities. The achievement of the goals of formal and informal education demands the keen supervision by parent schoolheads, education officials and teachers. Supervision involves the process of checking, the positive implementation of curriculum assisting those implementing the curriculum. It is an inspective and supervisive action aimed at achieving organizational goals. The inspection aspect deals with fact finding and the assistance aspect is concerned with the establishment of a positive superior and subordinate relationship, with special emphasis on specialization directed towards utilization of available human and materials resources in achieving organisatonal goals.
Supervision as a phase of school administration is a function, because it values (results) depends upon the values of other quantities. Mathematically, Sp = f (Ski, Pi, Mi, Ev, Pur, Ui) where Sp = Supervision, Ski = Different specialized type of knowledge and skills, Pi = People, Mi = Materials, Ev = Environment, Pur = Purpose of organisation and Ui = Other factors that can contribute positively or negatively towards the achievement of organizational goals. As a model, Sp = a ski + bpi + cmi + dpu + eui where a, b, c, d and e are the co-efficient of the parameters as defined (Oghuvbu, 1998). Supervision is designed to promote teaching and learning in schools. Lack of supervision could result into inadequate preparation by teachers, negative attitude of students toward school unconducive school climate. These are common problems affecting school discipline, pupils’ classroom participation and teachers job performance (Oghuvbu, 1999). These common school disciplinary problems are results of inadequate supervisions resulting from inadequate funds, inadequate skilled manpower in the inspectorate division in the Ministry of Education. Lack of co-operation among teachers and teachers poor condition of service (Oghuvbu, 1999) Supervision promote principals and teachers effectiveness in administrative and instructional performance (Oghuvbu, 1999).
Statement of the Problems Studies by Oghuvbu (1999), Dada (2006) and Adediran (1998) showed that effective supervision promotes or enhance principals and teachers effectiveness and promote students academic performance. The results of these studies bring certain questions to mind. Could the problems of indiscipline among school personnel and students is the result of poor supervision? What are the common determinants of effective and ineffective supervision in schools? Purpose of Study The study specifically sought to identify the common determinants of effective and ineffective supervision in secondary schools in Delta State. Research Questions Two research questions were raised and answered. 1. What are the common determinants of effective supervision in schools? 2. What are the common determinants of ineffective supervision in schools
Hypotheses The following hypotheses were formulated and tested. 1. There is no significant relationship between the identified determinants of effective and ineffective supervision in schools. 2. There is no significant difference in the mean perception scores of male and female teachers on the identified determinants of effective supervision in schools. Method and Procedure The proportional and stratified sampling techniques was used to select 10 (52%) from the 25 local government areas in the three senatorial district. From the 10 local government areas, 50 schools were selected i.e. 13.5% of 371 secondary schools. From the 50 selected schools 1150 teacher were selected i.e. 10.2% of 11256 teachers in the 371 secondary schools in Delta State.
Q.4 Differentiate the process of plan formation and project planning. And give suggestion for improving the planning process.
What exactly is a project vs process, and how are these two things different? Which one is better? And what do project and process management involve?
There are advocates of both projects and processes as keys to business performance, and there’s been considerable emphasis on project management and process management in recent years.
To arrive at the answers, it’s important to understand the definition projects and processes and the unique purposes that they serve within your business.
Project vs Process : Defined
One way to look at is is that projects are things that you’ve never done before, whereas processes are things that we do repeatedly.
A project is about creating something new or implementing a change, whereas a process is intended to create value by repeatedly performing a task.
In a project, objectives and plans can be changed by the stakeholders that give a project its mandate and resources, along with agreement from the project team.
Processes are established procedures for ongoing work, and they can only be changed with planning and investment. In fact, with any process that has a significant impact on a business, a project is ideally required in order to change that process.
A project is temporary in that it has a defined beginning and end in time, and therefore defined scope and resources. And, a project is unique in that it is not a routine operation, but a specific set of operations designed to accomplish a singular goal.
As a bottom line, projects are intended to create change. In contrast, processes are designed to resist change because they establish a repeatable workflow that should always be followed.
Project vs Process
So, if you’re trying to better understand your internal operations, evaluate opportunities for improvement, or implement changes in any aspect of your business, it’s important to ask yourself what you’re dealing with in any given case: Is this a project or is it a process?
If you’re examining a part of your business that is an established, regular procedure, then it is likely a process. If there is a very specific starting point and specific end point, then it is likely a process. For example, your sales lead management may involve a process of receiving leads, reviewing, analyzing, and assigning them, and then performing the steps required for follow-up and communication with the prospective customer in order to qualify the lead. From there, your qualified leads may enter your actual sales process, with its own set of steps and actions that your sales team must perform in order to close the sale.
When you’re simply managing and monitoring a process, then you’re engaging in process management. You may be defining the process, controlling it, managing it, measuring results, and reporting on outcomes. But you’re managing the process to ensure that it meets customer requirements profitably and not instituting changes to the process.
In contrast, if you’re looking to change a process in order to optimize and improve it, then this initiative generally constitutes a project.
In the case of improving a sales lead management process, it may involve evaluating the current process, assessing opportunities for improvement, implementing best practices, installing a new CRM system, and conducting evaluation, training, and follow-up with your sales team.
Creating these changes will require a project with sponsorship, resources, a clear plan, and a systematic approach to implementation and management. This approach involves project management, which is the application of knowledge and resources to develop a project scope and plan that will carry out the required actions and meet or exceed stakeholder requirements.
The Process of Project Management
Project management is a well-established methodology for managing and executing changes within an organization. Interestingly, project management itself is a defined, repeatable process. It is a clear methodology and process for managing and executing changes within an organization.
Ultimately, all work involves a process, and project management is no different. Proper project management proceeds according to well-defined principles and procedures for managing organizational changes and new initiatives to a successful conclusion. It is simply a very specific and carefully designed process that is designed to be repeated and executed whenever your business is making a major change and doing something new for the first time.
The process of implementing those changes is called project management, and each change should be managed as a project.
Project vs Process : Both Are Equally Important
There is no difference in importance between a project and a process. Each plays an important role in achieving important objectives within a business, and you should make sure to use both of them as appropriate.
Processes are the ongoing and repeated procedures that help achieve your business goals, while projects are the ways to alter processes, launch new products, or otherwise make changes in your organization that advance your objectives in new ways.
Q.5 Discuss the psychological factors that affect the class environment.
Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Definition: The Psychological Factors are the factors that talk about the psychology of an individual that drive his actions to seek satisfaction. Some of the important Psychological Factors are: Motivation: The level of motivation influences the buying behavior of the consumers.
Learning itself is the process of acquiring new knowledge, understanding, skills, attitude, behavior, and preferences. It is both an emotional and intellectual process.
A person starts learning immediately after birth, and their behavior changes throughout their life, through direct or indirect experiences.
The continuous process of learning is often affected by the environment in which it takes place. One’s individual situation and the environment contain several factors that affect the learning capacity of a person.
Learning in a healthy environment helps you acquire a deeper understanding and sound knowledge of the subject matter. So, it is essential to be aware of such environmental factors that hamper the learning process of an individual, and learn to avoid negative stimulants to increase one’s performance.
Learning has been made effortless and accessible through distance learning that became the new normal during the global pandemic.
Students can now take their school and university classes from home and access all the information available on their fingertips.
Students willing to learn about the environment and its effect on the learning process can find free essays about environment. There are numerous environment essay examples written by students on the internet, which can be an excellent source for better understanding the environmental stimulants.
Online learning has also facilitated professors to provide an adequate education for students in the most straightforward ways.
Along with the emergence of online learning, the pandemic has also drastically shifted the education system and learning process.
Although it has numerous benefits, it has caused a disbalance in the education system. Students with gadgets and broadband have access to study resources, and those without devices are struggling to get a proper education.
Some other home environmental factors that affect the learning process directly or indirectly are:
1) Family size
The children may be in a nuclear or joint family. In a nuclear family, the learner may find silence with a peaceful learning environment but may not get anyone to assist in their lessons.
However, it may be a bit noisy and messy in a joint family, but the children can find other individuals, who can help and support their studies and learn better. So, both family size has its pros and cons, affecting the learning process of children accordingly.
2) Family culture, traditions
All families have their own culture and follow their customs differently.
The culture implanted in the children during their growth shapes their perception and cognitive capacity.
Hence, the learning process is affected by family culture, traditions, religion, and other similar factors.
3) Socio-economic status
The socio-economic status of a family influences the children’s academic inclusiveness and performance during their learning.
The social class also affects the parents’ educational expectations towards their children and their educational participation. The higher the status, the higher are the chances of educational opportunities being presented to the students and vice versa.
The parents and other guardians in a family can teach many divergent things to a child since infancy. As such, the job of parents also affects their personality and thinking.
Parents learn many things related to their occupation and teach their children the same.
Parents are the caregiver of their offspring and play a crucial role in shaping the children’s personality, cognition, and behavior. They affect the learning process of children directly.
Children inherit parents’ traits and develop other attributes from their parents’ activities during their growth phase.
Parents are the first teachers for their babies. In such ways, the learning is affected by parents, behavior, character, cognition level, attitude, and personality.
6) Other factors
Apart from the factors above, some other factors can adversely affect children’s learning. Factors like the luminosity of light, the intensity of noise, and greenery around the home influence children’s focus while learning.
For example, students find it difficult to read and focus on a dim light and high bright light, so the light needs to be at optimum luminosity.
The surroundings can highly influence young brains, and everything present in the learning environment has the potential to positively or negatively affect the learner’s competence, confidence, and understanding.
Misalignment between the resources and needs of learners cannot facilitate the process. Instead, it demotivates the person. The surrounding environment and family should support the learner, as it is essential for a more in-depth focus and insight into the particular subject matter.
Being aware of the home environment factors that affect learning, parents, and guardians should provide a conducive learning environment to the learner for best learning practice.
- Motivation: The level of motivation influences the buying behavior of the consumers. It is very well explained by Maslow through his need hierarchy theory comprising of basic needs, security needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Usually, the basic needs and the security needs are more pressing needs than the other and hence, these needs become a motive that directs the consumer behavior to seek satisfaction.
- Perception: The consumer perception towards a particular product and the brand also influences his buying decision. The perception is the process through which the individual selects, organize and interpret the information to draw a meaningful conclusion. Such as, Apple iPhone is perceived as a premium brand and consumers are motivated to buy it to get associated with the elite class of the society.
The marketers lay emphasis on managing the perceptual processes, Viz. Selective Attention, Selective Distortion, and Selective Retention. In selective attention, the marketer tries to gain the attention of the customer towards his offerings. Different people have different perceptions about the same product depending on their individual beliefs and attitudes which give rise to selective distortion. Thus, the marketer should try to understand the attitudes and beliefs of individuals and design the marketing campaigns to retain the consumers.
- Learning:The individual’s learning depends on the skills, knowledge and intention. The skills are developed through practice while the knowledge and intention are acquired with the experience. There could be a conditional learning or a cognitive learning.
In the conditional learning, the consumer derives learning from being conditioned to particular stimuli, i.e. when he is exposed to the similar situation, again and again, he develops a particular response towards it. While in the cognitive learning the individual applies all his knowledge, skill, attitudes, values and beliefs to find the solution of a problem and derive satisfaction out of it.
- Attitudes and Beliefs: The individuals have certain beliefs and attitudes towards products on which their purchase decisions rests. These attitudes and beliefs are the tendency to respond to a given product in a particular way, and these make up the brand image that influences the consumer buying behavior. Thus, the marketers try to understand the attitudes and beliefs of the individuals and modify these through several marketing campaigns.
Thus, these are some of the psychological factors that the marketer must take into the consideration before undertaking the strategic marketing decision.