ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q.1 Describe the major problems faced in rural development. How can education play its role in the rural development in Pakistan in the future scenario?
Education is the mirror of society and the seed of socioeconomic development. It transforms people from ignorance to enlightenment, from shades of social backwardness to social improvement light, and a nation from underdevelopment to faster social and economic development. In rural development, education, economic development, physical and social infrastructure play a major role. Rural development is also characterized by its focus on economic development strategies that are produced locally. Rural areas are highly distinctive from each other as opposed to urban regions, which have many similarities. This is why a wide variety of approaches to rural development are being used globally.
Rural development actions are primarily aimed at rural areas social and economic development. The term is not limited to developing countries because indeed, many developed countries have very active programs for rural development. Rural government policy’s main objective should be to develop undeveloped villages and locally controlled, practical, applied, problem-solving and focused on functional specialization must be the education that contributes to rural development. Education is essential for growth and development and serves as a critical index for measuring development agenda’s progress.
It is therefore necessary to make deliberate efforts to develop the education sector, especially in rural areas, providing infrastructure and facilities for education, sustainable curriculum and policies, hiring more teaching staff, and strengthening supervisory functions on educational facilities and student scholarships. Education is the most powerful tool for poverty reduction, ensuring peace and stability, and advancing a people. Education has a desirable control over rural individual, family, community, and society development, leading to poverty reduction, income equity, and controlled unemployment. Education plays a key role in supply, production, marketing, staff maintenance, education, health care, and governance systems in rural areas. Education functions include bringing about social change, improving individual social status and living standards, activating participation in rural and cultural development, increasing rural people’s critical ability to diagnose their needs, asserting their rights and taking greater control of decisions affecting their lives, providing skilled labor in rural areas, linking rural and urban areas.
Urban rather than rural needs-oriented education can do more harm than good by accelerating rural migration to urban migration, generating youth unemployment, and leaving students unfit to succeed in a rural environment. In Nigeria, education has been adopted by the federal government as a tool to drive national development in all areas of the nation. Education in these places is characterized, among other things, by very poor infrastructure, insufficient teachers, insecurity, and worker non-payment. It is common knowledge that a majority of the population live in rural areas in developing countries, which are largely neglected by the government even when it comes to any form of development, including education.
Despite the fact that rural Nigerian residents are usually not properly targeted in government development activities, the wealth of the nation is derived from country-wide rural areas. Crude oil, calcareous, coal, among other resources that the country possesses, are heavily deposited in rural areas. Nigeria’s underdevelopment was linked to the lack of rural development. A view states that no serious, active, conscious, sensitive and organized government would want rural communities to be neglected. Rural neglect brings negative consequences, such as the exodus of rural residents to urban areas, with the resulting problems of unemployment, crime, prostitution, child labour, insecurity, money laundering, bribery, poverty, proliferation of shanty living spaces, disease spread, and excessive infrastructure and facilities in urban areas.
–The provision and expansion of educational facilities is necessary to ensure that education reaches the door of every (Nigerian) child;
–The need to revise and reform of the content of general education to make it more responsive to the country’s socioeconomic needs;
–Development and consolidation of higher education nationwide in response to the country’s manpower needs;
– Developing technological education in order to meet the growing needs of the nation.
Q.2 Discuss the strategic steps and methods used for organizing an evaluation study of curriculum. Enlist the problems of research design in curriculum evaluation. How does curriculum evaluation help in curriculum improvement?
The curriculum evaluation shows how these components relate to each other and to the curriculum development process. It begins when an issue, concern, or problem needs to be addressed. If education or training a segment of the population will help solve the problem, then curriculum to support an educational effort becomes a priority with human and financial resources allocated.
The next step is to form a curriculum development team. The team makes systematic decisions about the target audience (learner characteristics), intended out-comes (objectives), content, methods, and evaluation strategies. With input from the curriculum development team, draft curriculum products are developed, tested, evaluated, and redesigned -if necessary. When the final product is produced, volunteer training is conducted. The model shows a circular process where volunteer training provides feedback for new materials or revisions to the existing curriculum.
Each phase has several steps or tasks to complete in logical sequence. These steps are not always separate and distinct, but may overlap and occur concurrently. For example, the curriculum development team is involved in all of the steps. Evaluations should occur in most of the steps to assess progress. The team learns what works and what does not and determines the impact of the curriculum on learners after it is implemented. Each step logically follows the previous. It would make no sense to design learning activities before learner outcomes and content are described and identified. Similarly, content cannot be determined before learner outcomes are described.
In the experience of the author, and confirmed by other curriculum specialists, the following curriculum development steps are frequently omitted or slighted. These steps are essential to successful curriculum development and need to be emphasized.
Essential Curriculum Development Steps Needing Emphasis
- Needs assessment: if not conducted, wonderful curriculum could be developed, but the appropriate needs of the target audience may not be met.
- Involving youth:the target audience and volunteers (or staff) who will be the implementors of the curriculum must be involved (i.e., they participate as full members of the curriculum development team).
- Recruiting and training volunteer facilitators: competent and skilled curriculum implementors are critical (the printed word cannot teach experiential group process, it doesn’t provide feedback).
- Evaluating and reporting on the impact of the curriculum:is critical for securing human and financial support from key policy decision makers and for assessing whether the curriculum has achieved the intended outcome.
Two types of evaluation are included in the Phases and Steps illustration: (1) Formative provides feedback during the process of developing the curriculum, and (2) Summative answers questions about changes (impact) that have occurred in learners because of their learning experiences. Summative evaluation provides evidence for what works, what does not work, and what needs to be improved. In every step of the curriculum development process, the most important task is to keep the learner (in this case, youth) in mind and involve them in process. For example, the curriculum team members, who have direct knowledge of the target audience, should be involved in conducting the needs assessment. From the needs assessment process, the problem areas are identified, gaps between what youth know and what they need to know are identified, and the scope of the problem is clarified and defined. The results may prompt decision makers to allocate resources for a curriculum development team to prepare curriculum materials.
Q.3 Elaborate the curriculum reforms recommended by National Education Policies.
In April 2010, the eighteenth constitutional amendment committed Pakistan to free and compulsory education for all children between the ages of five and sixteen. Yet, millions are still out of school, and the education system remains alarmingly impoverished. The madrasa (religious school) sector flourishes, with no meaningful efforts made to regulate the seminaries, many of which propagate religious and sectarian hatred. Militant violence and natural disasters have exacerbated the dismal state of education. Earthquakes and floods have destroyed school buildings in Balochistan, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and Punjab, disrupting the education of hundreds of thousands of children. Militant jihadi groups have destroyed buildings, closed girls’ schools and terrorised parents into keeping daughters at home; their attacks made global headlines with the shooting of schoolgirl and education activist Malala Yousafzai in October 2012. The public education system needs to foster a tolerant citizenry, capable of competing in the labour market and supportive of democratic norms within the country and peace with the outside world.
More than nine million children do not receive primary or secondary education, and literacy rates are stagnant. Pakistan is far from meeting its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of providing universal primary education by 2015. The net primary school enrolment rate in 2012-2013 is a mere 1 per cent increase from 2010-2011. There are significant gender disparities and differences between rural and urban areas. The combined federal/provincial budgetary allocation to education is the lowest in South Asia, at 2 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
If Pakistan is to provide all children between five and sixteen free and compulsory education, as its law requires, it must reform a system marred by teacher absenteeism, poorly maintained or “ghost schools” that exist only on paper and a curriculum that encourages intolerance and fails to produce citizens who are competitive in the job market. Private schools, increasing largely in response to these shortcomings, account for 26 per cent of enrolment in rural areas and 59 per cent in urban centres but vary greatly in methodology, tuition and teacher qualifications.
The eighteenth constitutional amendment devolved legislative and executive authority over education to the provinces to make it more responsive to local needs. Given the scale of those needs, donors and the private sector must be key partners, but provincial governments need to become the principal drivers of reform. They should reverse decades of neglect by giving government-run schools adequate materials and basic facilities such as boundary walls and toilets. They should also tackle teacher absenteeism and curb nepotism and corruption in appointments, postings and transfers.
To counter the challenge from the private schools, and madrasas and religious schools of Islamic parties and foundations that fill the gaps of a dilapidated public education sector but contribute to religious extremism and sectarian violence, the state will have to do far more than just increase the numbers of schools and teachers. Curriculum reform is essential and overdue. Provincial governments must ensure that textbooks and teachers no longer convey an intolerant religious discourse and a distorted narrative, based on hatred of imagined enemies, local and foreign.
Recommendations of 1959 Policy: The Education Commission 1959 recommended the following Reforms; ◦ First the Compulsory subjects must provide adequate information ◦ Secondly the additional subjects will be included in such a way that it could prepare the students for a definite career. ◦ The curriculum should be flexible so that it could be changed according to the social needs and interest. ◦ The curriculum should be designed according to the mental abilities and interest of the students. ◦ Religious subjects should be made compulsory throughout the primary stage. ◦ Due emphasis should be placed on teaching of the national language. ◦ Ministry of Education set up a text book board. Text Book Board A small autonomous body comprising of the representatives from the provinces, working with text book committees operating within the sphere of each education authority. Responsibilities: To frame the syllabus according to the recommendation made in this report. To lay down policy for the preparation, printing, and publication of text books.
Reforms of the National Education Policy: (1978) Enough content on Islam and Islamic Ideology will be included to ensure it is protected and maintained so that to promote national cohesion and integration. At the primary level more importance will be given to practical and creative activities so that children could gain desired attitudes and skills. The text book board will be reorganized to improve their efficiency. Effective liaison (link)will be established between the national book foundation and the text book boards. The process of curriculum development will be improved by proper emphasis on research. Field testing will be given more importance. Supplementary reading materials; guides/manuals for children and for teachers will be prepared for enrichment the experience of students and teachers. The revised curricula will be implemented in phased manner. National/ Provincial curriculum development agencies will work in close collaboration with adequate number of students and teachers. To make teaching and learning more effective, laboratory equipment and instructional aids/kits will be provided A standing committee for the National Education Counsel on curriculum and textbooks will be considered to review the existing curricula and textbooks for improving and identifying textbooks which can be prescribed throughout the country. A new cycle of curriculum development will be initiated and major effort will be directed towards improving the imparting of the education The curricula shall encourage enquiry, creativity, and progressive thinking through project oriented education. The linkages among curriculum, textbook writing, teacher training, and examination will be reinforced. Science curricula will be revised and made compatible with demands of new knowledge. The weightage of mathematics and science shall be increased. Specially mathematics will be progressively included as a compulsory subject up to F.Sc level. Crash programs will be announced with the help of different universities for the training of science and mathematics teachers. A special mathematics course shall be introduced for the social science students. The teaching of languages will be improved in order to enhance communication skills. The teaching of social sciences will be improved in content quality.
Reforms of National Education Policy (1998-2010) Uniform curricula for all the public and private sectors shall be adopted gradually All curricula (1-12) shall be re-vamped , making it a systematic whole and linking it to teacher training and textbook reforms. Emerging key issues such as computer literacy, population and environmental education, health education, AIDS, education and value education etc, shall be introduced and integrated in curricula. Kachi class shall be institutionalized in the primary cycle gradually and progressively. The span of primary/lower elementary education including kachi class shall be of six years.
Curriculum Reforms 2000-2009 – Milestones Achieved & Planned 2000 – review of Basic Science Subjects under Education Sector Reforms Action Plan 2001-06 and production of textbooks 2002 – review of Social Science Subjects under ESR and production of textbooks 2005 – comprehensive review of all subjects 2006/7- completion of review National Curriculum 2006/7 and its publication 2007 – National Textbook and Learning Materials Policy and Plan of Action – 2007- 2010 Implementation of National Curriculum 2006/7 2007-9 – Development of textbooks in phases. Phase I = Grades I, VI, IX & XI 2010- (April) New Textbooks Planned to be in Schools
Higher Education Commission has been appointed as the Competent Authority for Curriculum Revision Work beyond Class XII. HEC has also been entrusted to maintain the standards of education in keeping with the nation’s changing social and economic needs which are compatible with the basic national ideology. The Curriculum Section guides all Degree colleges, Universities and other Institutions of higher learning in designing curricula that provides appropriate content regarding Basic Sciences, Social Sciences, Humanities along with Engineering and Technology. According to the decision of the 44th Vice-Chancellors’ Committee in 2001. ◦ Curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years.. Educational programs are thus designed not only to meet the needs of the employment market but to promote the study of Basic and Applied Sciences in every field of national and international importance. Curriculum should be based on the native research not on the basis of opinions and experts. Some of the enthusiast working teachers should be involved in curriculum development. The objectives must be spelt out in specific behavioral terms. While setting the objectives equal weight age must be given to all the domains such as cognitive, effective and psychomotor. Curriculum should be future oriented to meet the needs of 21st century which is expected to be scientific and technological. There should be a vertical and horizontal articulation among different concepts. Curriculum should be activity based. Curriculum must provide a higher level of understanding, inductive reasoning and application of knowledge in life situation. General Recommendations: Instead of product based instruction, there should be emphasis on processes of learning. Curriculum should be according to the social, cultural and economic conditions of the country. Teachers should be highly trained to provide quality instructions. Curriculum planners must suggest a proper criteria for evaluation. The test items must posses a high content validity. The test items must help in the achievement of desired goals. The test items should be objective valid and reliable. curriculum must be career oriented and must be economical. Curriculum should provide materials for career counseling, so as to enable the students to advance in a particular field of their interest.
Q.4 Discuss in detail the education system of China and Russia. What procedure is followed in curriculum development and its implementation in these countries?
China is known for its unique education system and many countries are trying to learn from that. Even though I was a master student majoring in international business and entrepreneurship, I had chances to take some courses from the education department which seemed to be interesting. Also, I heard about Finnish education many times from Finnish students who were studying to be teachers and through the connections with them, I had a couple opportunities to visit local school. I’m not an expert in Finnish education and it’s always changing, but here I’d like to share some features, learnings, and insights about Finnish education in comparison with RUSSIA education (based on my knowledge and experience), from the three different perspectives as follow.
- Teacher qualification
- Teaching method
China can be regarded as one of the countries which conducts the strict screening of qualifications for teachers, which is the foundation that makes Russia famous for its superb education system.
Except for kindergarten teacher and vocational teacher, having master level university degree is required to apply for teacher job.
It is said that getting into the education programs of university is very competitive. (My friend told me that the acceptance rate could be even around 10%). Thus, teacher is a highly respective job in CHINA.
Teacher qualification in RUSSIA is quite different from Russia. One major difference is that even students whose major are not education are able to meet qualifications as long as they complete required courses and training.
Having master’s degree is not required to be a teacher.
- Finnish education system is built on its strong ideology, which places huge value on equal educational opportunity for everybody and making no one left out at school.
- Every school and teacher believe that it is important to make children understand the importance of learning rather than make them compete.
RUSSIA schools put emphasis on individual learning rather than interactive learning style, which is the opposite idea of Finnish education.
RUSSIA schools have value that pupils should acquire morality at school as well. Therefore, pupils at RUSSIA schools need to learn how to maintain the ethical standard in several ways such as cleaning every day. This is an idea which cannot be seen in Finnish education scenes.
The teaching method in Finnish education system is globally famous for the uniqueness such as outdoor activity and group-oriented work, as well as evaluation without standardized tests and individual support for learning. Schools don’t put much emphasis on giving homework to pupils and also they try to avoid to assess by each pupil by scores with the aim of phasing out the order of academic skills and evaluating from the perspective of development of each pupil.
It would be also important to mention that those teaching method is usually supported by the parents because teachers are highly trusted socially as professionals.
Curriculum Development in Russia
- Briefly introduce education system in Russia o most populous country of the world is Russia o 200 million students attending public schools taught by over 9 million teachers in the elementary, junior, and senior high schools o largest educational system of the world o the course syllabi are written by scientists and professors hired by the National Educational Commission.
- • Education in Russia is a state-run system of public education run by the Ministry of Education. 3 Years of Junior Secondary Education
- Grades of Education in Russia is divided into four categories ¢basic education ¢secondary vocational-technical education ¢regular higher education ¢adult education.
- Basic education: ¢ Education is free and compulsory for 9 years in Russia, split between Primary and Junior middle school at the age of 6-15. Many children start their schooling at a nursery school (called Kindergarten in Russia) as early as 2 years old. ¢ 2-6: Kindergarten 6-12: Primary school (compulsory) 12-15: Junior middle school (compulsory) 15-18: Senior high school (middle school) or Vocational school 18-22: University or college
- Secondary Vocational-Technical Education: • Secondary vocational training provide short- term vocational programs of finance and economics, physical education, and arts. • Technical training provide medium-level skilled workers, farmers, as well as managerial and technical personnel. • Both have 3 or 4 years programs
- Regular Higher Education: • Higher education is provided by institutions of various types including general universities, technical universities, specialized institutions and teacher-training colleges. • Regular higher Education provide graduate courses like the bachelor’s degree, and postgraduate programs like the master’s degree, and the doctorate degree.
- Adult Education: • Adult education provide non-formal programs including literacy education and vocational and technical training. • The agencies responsible for Russia’s adult education include various ministries or commissions under the State Council, educational departments of provinces, business or industrial departments at different levels, such as machinery electronics, light industry, coal-mining, metallurgy, railways, communication, agriculture and forestry.
- • Age: 4-6 Years • Duration: 3 Years • Not compulsory • More in urban than rural areas – full time, part-time, boarding • Rural areas preschools are mainly nurseries pre-school
- Primary education • Age: 6-12 Years • Duration: 5-6 Years • Compulsory Subjects: Moral Education, Chinese Language, Mathematics, Social Studies, Natural Science, Physical Education, Music, Arts, and Labor Services.
- Secondary education Junior Secondary Education • Duration:3-4 Years • Compulsory 13 Subjects: Politics, Chinese Language, Mathematics, Foreign Language, History, Geography, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Physical Education, Music, Art, and Household Skills.
- Curriculum Development Process Planning: Articulating and Developing: Implementing Evaluating Curriculum Development Process in Russia
- Teacher education • There are two main categories of teachers in Russia. • State-paid teachers • community-paid teachers the system of teacher education comprises two distinct subsystems: • Pre-service • In-service
Q.5 Write short notes on the following:
Content – centered Approach
Although estimates of the number of language minority students in U.S. schools vary, there is consensus that the numbers are rising dramatically. “Increasingly, the American classroom is multiethnic, multiracial, and multilingual at all levels”. In response, a number of program models have been developed to meet the needs of language minority students, many involving the integration of language and content instruction. In addition, attention to the lack of foreign language proficiency among Americans has led to the development of a number of foreign language programs that integrate academic content into language instruction. In this approach, the second or foreign language is used as the medium of instruction for mathematics, science, social studies, and other academic subjects; it is the vehicle used for teaching and acquiring subject specific knowledge. In the United States, second language acquisition has influenced the development of integrated instruction at all levels. Krashen suggests that a second language is most successfully acquired when the conditions are similar to those present in first language acquisition: that is, when the focus of instruction is on meaning rather than on form; when the language input is at or just above the proficiency of the learner; and when there is sufficient opportunity to engage in meaningful use of that language in a relatively anxiety-free environment. This suggests that the focus of the second language classroom should be on something meaningful, such as academic content, and that modification of the target language facilitates language acquisition and makes academic content accessible to second language learners. In this approach–also called integrated language and content instruction–ESL, bilingual, or foreign language teachers use instructional materials, learning tasks, and classroom techniques from academic content areas as the vehicle for developing language, content, cognitive, and study skills. The second language is used as the medium of instruction for mathematics, science, social studies, and other academic subjects. Instruction is usually given by a language teacher or by a combination of the language and content teachers. This approach involves adapting the language of texts or tasks and use of certain methods familiar to language teachers (demonstrations, visuals, graphic organizers, or cooperative work) to make instruction more accessible to students of different English proficiency levels. This type of instruction is also called sheltered English or language-sensitive content instruction and is given by the regular classroom or content teacher, or by a language teacher with special expertise in another academic area.
In these programs, a language curriculum is developed around selected topics drawn from one content area (e.g., marketing) or from across the curriculum (e.g., pollution and the environment). The goal is to assist learners in developing general academic language skills through interesting and relevant content.
Here, a content curriculum is adapted to accommodate students’ limited proficiency in the language of instruction. This model was originally developed for elementary foreign language immersion programs to enable some portion of the curriculum to be taught through the foreign language. It is commonly used in immersion and two-way bilingual programs and has been adapted for use in second language programs with large numbers of limited English proficient students of intermediate or advanced English proficiency.
Selection and Organization of Teaching Methods
Not only is teaching important but it is becoming increasingly complex due to the many variables and constraints that affect choice. For example, the type and level of learning, the time available, the facilities and size of class are some of the factors that have to be considered. Quite clearly, no one method is suitable all the time or for every situation. Today, your task as a university lecturer is no longer limited to imparting information in the hope that it will be comprehended, for you have to see it in its totality of planning, organizing, delivering and controlling the whole teaching and learning process. Thus the teacher is not only a communicator but also a ‘manager’, with responsibility for ensuring learning occurs. In addition, this means facilitating learning that is, helping the student in many ways and creating a non-threatening classroom climate.
From what has been said it should come as no surprise that one of the central questions asked by university lecturers all over the world is ‘what methods shall I use ?’ In attempting to answer this question we shall first examine the teaching environment before overviewing different methods and identifying their uses.
If we examine the present environment in which teaching operates, we note it is far more complex and turbulent today than in the past. Many of our traditional ways of teaching are no longer fully adequate unless utilized correctly and augmented with more student activity, feedback, dialogue and variety. Let us first briefly explore the past environment to better understand the present.
In so far as teaching is concerned, the lecture and tutorial have been the main methods used in universities, with the lecture being the most common, a feature that continues to this day. We may note that the popularity of the lecture is a carry-over from the early universities when learned scholars read their notes to students before the existence of printed books.
A second historical feature is that, traditionally, the goals of teaching at university have been the acquisition of knowledge, scholarship, and the development of enquiring minds. There was nothing so profane as the professional, technological and vocational considerations creeping in today.
A third significant aspect is that universities used to be left alone without undue external interference, which was an independence and isolation welcomed by both society and the university community. This may well have encouraged the external viewpoint that universities are elitist, aloof and conservative, and are populated by academics who are either geniuses or eccentrics. Today, gone are the ivory towers of the past, for universities tend to have the spotlight on them as students, society and the state, and increasingly question many aspects of university endeavor, including teaching methods.
So much for the distant past, but what have been the forces that have influenced the recent past and brought us to the present? One such element has been the explosion of knowledge and the emergence of new specialists, which have placed greater demands on students and lecturers and expanded the content of university courses. A second factor concerns external socio-economic and political pressures which have led to vastly increased student numbers, fewer resources, and new demands from society and the state. Another significant influence is the research into student learning which has resulted in new developments in educational technology, including:
More active and student-centered teaching methods requiring less teacher talk;
More dialogue and positive action to help students exchange their passive listening role for more active, participative and independent learning.
Social Skill Development
Social skills are the skills we use to communicate and interact with each other, both verbally and non-verbally, through gestures, body language and our personal appearance.
Human beings are sociable creatures and we have developed many ways to communicate our messages, thoughts and feelings with others.
- More and Better Relationships
Identifying well with individuals leads to more relationships and, at times, friendships.
By developing your social skills you become more charismatic, a desirable trait . People are more interested in charismatic people as charismatic people are (or at least appear to be) more interested in them.
Most people know you cannot advance far in life without strong interpersonal relationships. Focusing on relationships will help you get a job, get promoted and make new friends. Well honed social skills can increase your happiness and satisfaction and give you a better outlook on life.
- Better Communication
Relating with people and being able to work in large groups naturally develops one’s communication skills.
After all, you can not have great social skills without good communication skills and being able to convey one’s thoughts and ideas may be the single most important skill that you can develop in life..
- Greater Efficiency
If you are good with people, you can more easily avoid being with the people you do not like as much as others.
Some people dread social interactions because they do not wish to spend time with individuals who do not have similar interests and viewpoints. It is a lot easier to attend a meeting at work or a party in your personal life if you know at least some of the people who will be there.
If you are in a social situation and do not want to spend time with ‘John’ because you don’t like him or he cannot help you with a particular issue, a good set of social skills will allow you to politely convey that you need to spend time with other people at the get together.
- Advancing Career Prospects
Most worthwhile jobs have a ‘people component’ and the most lucrative positions often involve a large amount of time spent interacting with employees, media and colleagues.
It is rare that an individual can remain isolated in their office and still excel in their job. Most organisations are looking for individuals with a particular, tactical, skill set: the ability to work well in a team and to influence and motivate people to get things done.
|1. Observing||Active mental attending of a physical event.
|The learner watches a more experienced person. Other mental activity, such as reading may be a pert of the observation process.|
|2. Imitating||Attempted copying of a physical behavior.||The first steps in learning a skill. The learner is observed and given direction and feedback on performance. Movement is not automatic or smooth.|
|3. Practicing||Trying a specific physical activity over and over.||The skill is repeated over and over. The entire sequence is performed repeatedly. Movement is moving towards becoming automatic and smooth.|
|4. Adapting||Fine tuning. Making minor adjustments in the physical activity in order to perfect it.||The skill is perfected. A mentor or a coach is often needed to provide an outside perspective on how to improve or adjust as needed for the situation.|