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Q.1 what are different qualities of effective supervision? Discuss in detail.

  1. The supervisor has thorough knowledge appropriate to his or her supervisory assignment and stays abreast of recent developments in the field. The supervisor also exemplifies in his or her own work with faculty members the qualities that he or she hopes to develop in the faculty.
  2. The supervisor develops and administers a comprehensive system of hiring, consistent with the policies of the school, which results in the appointment of the best-qualified candidate and a well-informed match between school and teacher. Throughout the hiring and supervisory processes, the supervisor values racial, cultural, and gender diversity.
  3. The supervisor ensures that faculty members new to the school receive orientation and support sufficient for them to work effectively and with confidence that they are carrying out the educational mission, policies, and procedures of the school.
  4. The supervisor ensures that teachers are informed of both praise and criticism of their work and that useful support and assistance are available to each teacher to improve the quality of teaching.
  5. The supervisor makes available to all faculty members on an equitable basis whatever resources the school can provide for professional growth and development, both inside and outside the school.
  6. The supervisor encourages and challenges teachers to initiate curricular improvement by providing the necessary time and resources and by creating structures to foster faculty collaboration on curriculum development.
  7. The supervisor leads faculty members in upholding high standards of professional behavior and responds immediately when behavior occurs that is harmful to children or harmful to the school community.
  8. The supervisor evaluates and works to improve teaching through classroom visits, discussions with teachers, and other methods that are fair and consistent with the practices of the individual school. Evaluation is based on clearly articulated criteria that teachers have helped define and occurs in a context of respect for the teacher’s professional knowledge and decision-making capability. The supervisor also monitors his or her own work by inviting suggestions and critiques from teachers.
  9. When a faculty member’s future in the school is in question, the supervisor devotes sufficient attention and resources to ensure that the situation is resolved or that the faculty member’s departure from the school is handled with attention to due process and the dignity of the individual.
  10. The supervisor ensures that all personnel policies are clearly articulated to faculty members and makes every effort to promote the establishment of salaries and benefits commensurate with the professional responsibilities of teaching.

Teachers and head teachers play an imperative role in upholding and improving education standards in learning institutions. Head teachers are charged with the responsibility of overseeing the day-to- day operations of a school. Teachers on the other hand are very instrumental when it comes to imparting knowledge, discipline, beliefs and values to students. Over the years, a number of research studies have established a connection between high education performance among students and good relationship between head teachers and teachers. Thus it is evident that a good relationship between head teachers and teachers promotes a conducive learning environment that can lead to good performance amongst students. Basically, a healthy relationship between teachers and head teachers is one that is characterized by mutual respect, collaboration, trust and a common goal. In order for this to be actualized, it is important for head teachers to build a platform whereby teachers can learn new skills, communicate about issue that affect them and eventually get motivation to perform their duties unreservedly.

The purpose of this study is to investigate how good relationships between head teachers and teachers can lead to success and better performance amongst students. Several relevant literatures will be reviewed to establish the various factors revolving around good relationships between head teachers and teachers. Furthermore, the reviewed literature will establish how good relationships between head teachers and teachers can lead to success and better performance amongst students particularly in primary schools. This study will explore various conceptual frameworks with regards to good relationships between head teachers and teachers. In order to gather data on the relationships between head teachers and teachers, several questionnaires were distributed to head teachers and four teachers in two primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The results of these questionnaires will be conveyed in this study, thereafter this study will provide a discussion based on the findings of these questionnaires.

According to Mulkeen (2010, p108), head teachers are the senior leaders and managers of schools and thus they play an imperative role in the functioning of schools. Head teachers are expected to take responsibility in the overall management of the school this includes, managing teachers. Mulkeen notes that, too often head teachers tend to focus on external matters such as the schools communications with the education ministry instead of managing the operations of the school. This in turn causes them to be absent from school and as result certain issues affecting teachers are left unaddressed. Recent studies show that the rate of absentness amongst head teachers is relatively high as compared to that of teachers. The effective leadership of a headmaster positively influences the performance of both the teachers and students. On the other hand, ineffective leadership on the part of a head teacher can bring about disarray in educational goals and poor performance for both teachers and students (Mulkeen 108).

Indeed leadership is fundamental aspect in the vocation of head teachers. The form of leadership style that they exercise in their daily running of schools directly determines whether they will have good or bad relationships with teachers. In the book “Primary teacher’s stress,” the authors of this books, Troman and Wood (2001, p 61) explain that the phenomenon of teacher bullying is widespread in schools. A website study investigating issues with regards to bullying in the workplace indicated that 20% of the reported bullying cases in the workplace involved teachers. A third of the number of teachers involved in these surveys revealed that they were victimized by head teachers. Some head teachers are known to employing bullying and other form of tyrannical leadership styles with the aim of forcing teachers to discharge their duties accordingly. However, studies show that teachers who are mistreated or bullied in their workplaces tend to lack motivation to do their work and as a result their level of productivity is wanting, this in turn affects the performance of students in their academic work (Troman & Wood 62). Troman and Wood (2001, p 63) further demonstrate that in cases of bullying teachers and head teachers are involved in a strong emotional relationship and the thus the quality of relationship between the head teachers and teachers influences the teaching practice (Troman & Wood 63).

In reference to the sentiments of Green (2004, p 235), the leadership styles used in the headship of a school determines the kind of relationship that head teachers have with teachers and the performance outcomes of teachers and students. Basically, there are six main options of leadership styles that can yield varied results that either influence the performance of teachers and students positively or negatively. These styles of leadership include, authoritative, affiliative, coaching, pace setting and democratic. Based on this hypothesis it is evident that the leadership styles employed by head teachers determines the sought of relationship that they will have with teachers and other subordinates. It is therefore worth questioning what kind of leadership should head teachers use to ensure that they have good relationships with teachers.

A study commissioned by the National Association of Head teachers (NAHT) sought to establish the perspectives of both teachers and head teachers on effective school leadership. The findings of this study depicted that effective school leadership in the perspective of teachers entails the head teacher’s ability to form good relationships with teachers. Head teachers should be aware of the needs of teachers and they should take part in addressing the various issues that affect teachers. According to Harris, Day& Hadfield (2003, p 67) teachers accentuate that they value their professional and personal relationship with the head teachers. Most teachers prefer a relationship with head teachers that will enable them to freely communicate with the head teachers concerning any issue revolving around their work. Harris, Day& Hadfield observe that a good relationship between the head teachers and teachers is characterized by mutual respect, understanding and trust. Despite the fact that the head teachers are professionally superior to teachers, they should not use their authority to undermine or disrespect teachers. Instead they should foster a conducive work environment whereby teachers can be able to express themselves freely and grow professionally. On the other hand, teachers should also model ways in which they can work and build mutual respect and trust with their superiors, in this case head teachers.

Harris, Day& Hadfield (2003, p 67) further recommend that in order to establish a good relationship between head teachers and teachers, head teachers should embrace the contributions of teachers and show that their efforts and contributions are highly valued. In return teachers should be willing to be supportive towards the efforts of the head teachers. Moreover, a healthy work relationship between teachers and head teachers is one that enables and promotes the development of the teacher’s career. The development of the teacher’s career may sometimes change the type of relationship between head teachers and the teachers. As teachers gain more experience and skill in their career they become more confident in the articulation of their duties. According to the findings of a study commissioned by the National Association of Head teachers (NAHT), during the first years of their profession, a good number of teachers are often afraid of the head teachers thus their relationship with the head teachers is characterized by apprehension. In these instances teachers avoid seeking for help from the head teachers when they encounter difficulties (Harris, Day& Hadfield 67). However, as they gain more experience, skills and knowledge most teachers tend to have friendly associations with the head teachers and hence they can seek for guidance and support from the head teachers. Based on the findings of this study, it is evident the development of teacher’s career can promote good relationship between them and the head teachers. Therefore head teachers should provide learning opportunities that will allow teachers to advance in their careers. Head teachers should anticipate and find ways of addressing the arising demands. Head teachers should prioritize on forming good relationships with teachers as this will inevitable contribute success and better performance amongst students.

Q.2 Discuss the significance of observational visits. Also make a specific checklist.

In the hall this morning, there is a full stage with students rehearsing for their pantomime show which will be staged at lunchtime to a real audience! Not far from the main hall is a “little theatre room” that is used for rehearsals. Equipped with full sound and lighting, both rooms are part of the school’s commitment to showcase theatre education.

My morning begins on the third floor with physics teacher and LSL lead Virginija Birenienė. The lesson begins with the teacher clapping a couple of fast rhythms and the students repeating them back. The room is full of energy and students all ready to present their work on the topic of water as part of the Physics curriculum and they have had just two lessons to prepare their presentations in small groups. It gives the teacher the opportunity to observe how the students work with their peers and also for the students to learn from each other.

The students have created their presentations using Keynote  on an ipad. Each student has access to an individual iPad for the lesson time, but these do not go home.  (At the end of each lesson, the students put their iPad into a black plastic box and the teacher takes them to a secure room to be charged in a purpose built cabinet – the school has 31 iPads altogether.)

The main lesson observation is an English lesson with Gintarius Petkus an LSL lead teacher. Gintarius is working with the fifth grade students looking at how to present stories. There are only 11 students in the class. The teacher asks the students 5 facts about Leonardo da Vinci to warm up their use of spoken English as the starter activity.

The students have had to prepare a mini presentation, but the rule is they must have some questions ready to ask their audience about the presentation. The aim of this is two-fold, it gives the students the opportunity to think about the kinds of questions the audience would be able to ask; but it also ensures that the audience is listening so that they can answer the questions if they are asked.

The first student has chosen to present on the winter Olympics.

She begins with asking “Where is the winter Olympics being held?”

In advance of the presentation, the teacher has also guided the students to identify five new words that they are going to introduce the other students to. These should have been written in large writing on white A4 paper so that they can be held up for the class to see, but also placed on the visualiser so that they are projected to everyone. The key words from the first student are: “suggest; mascot; speechless, routine and athletes.”

At the end of the presentation, the student asks: “What are the mascots of the Olympics? How many nations qualified for the Olympics?”

In the second part of the lesson, the teacher asks the students to take an iPad from the box at the front of the classroom, the teacher asks the students to go to dictionary.com . The teacher demonstrates to the students how to change the language in the General settings. He also shows the students how to ensure that SIRI is turned on. Finally, the students have to make sure the language is set to English. The teacher asks the students to search the word “qualify”. Students have to press the pronunciation and practise how to say it for 3 seconds. The students do the same for the word “routine”.

One of the most significant points within this lesson is the role of the teacher. Whilst at first it seems the teacher is focussed on listening to the presentations; it soon becomes apparent that the teacher uses the individual access to technology to increase the learning opportunities for the students. For example; after each presentation, the teacher asks the students to search for further information or how to define new words. This helps to maintain the pace of the lesson and the spontaneity adds to the challenge for the students as sometimes the teacher identifies particular students to do a task. When the second student presents about his “brother’s turtle”, it is not long before some students are challenged to find the correct pronunciation of “crustacean.”

Across this school there is an expectation that students and teachers will use technology across all subjects. There is a commitment from the management of the school to technological change and the LSL teachers are experimental with pedagogical change.

Having now visited schools in all twelve countries involved in the first wave of the Living Schools Lab project, it is clear to see that LSL “Advanced” schools are at different stages, but there are common features. There is certainly much to be learnt from observing the practice in real classrooms and I am extremely grateful to all of the LSL teachers who have opened their doors to the world. Developing practice in the use of technology is ongoing. It demands time, money and considerable effort, but if it leads to worthwhile change within learning and teaching, this needs to be mainstreamed.

In the next activity, the teacher asks the students to work in pairs with access to a wireless mouse, but using Mouse Mischief all the students can participate to complete the questions projected onto the screen at the front of the class. At the beginning of each activity, the students have to place their mouse on the same starting point. There are a total of 11 mice connected. The students like it when they can spot the symbol for their mouse and are keen to be first to the correct answer. This activity gives the teacher the opportunity to reinforce some of the key points from the group work and addresses the main objectives of the lesson.

The children have to stand with a piece of paper in one hand and a pencil in the other. The teacher says the names of certain objects and the students have to indicate whether they see it on their plan (using the pencil) or whether they see in on their plan already. (using the paper) The teacher goes through the different parts of the plan and the student see whether any particular students have put things in different places.

In the final part of the lesson, the teacher gives each individual student an Optivote clicker. Students have to use the Optivote to select A/B. This voting allowed for the teacher to have some information about the individual student progress. The teacher presents the results to the students. The students who have achieved good results are given a sticker that can be put into their home school diaries so that their parents can see.

At the end of this action packed lesson, the teacher presents the students with three ‘emoticon’ faces and asks them to evaluate how they have found the work. Some of the students share that they liked working with the mouse, whilst others prefer the group work.

Q.3 Supervisor’s relation with students’ community is very important. Discuss in detail.

Positive and supportive relationships between students and teacher ultimately increase an intelligence of belonging and motivate students to willingly take part in different classroom activities.

It is very important that the interaction between a teacher and his student should be supportive of the learning environment. The relationship between teacher and student has been found to have immense effects on learning and schooling experience of the student.

An educator should plan to enhance their communications with students to allow for quality learning.

If the relationship between teacher and student is positive, it has several benefits at all levels of an educational establishment, inside the classroom and across the whole school environment.

There are a number of advantages from increased engagement to the self-esteem of establishing a positive teacher-student relationship between instructors and pupils of all age groups.

The presence of positive student-teacher interactions alone does not change to academic success, but learners that create a strong bond with their tutor to perform better than those learners who have some conflict with their teachers.

Teachers can help in improving the academic success of the students by expressing confident expectations for every student, giving students similar opportunities to take part in class discussion and motivate students that they are self-confident in their ability to get success when it comes to their homework or coursework.

Benefits of positive Teacher-student relationship

A healthy and positive relationship between students and teachers can be enormously favourable at all stages of an educational institution, inside the classroom and across the whole school environment. A positive relationship between continues to develop, its benefits not only teachers and students but also parents and administrators as well. It-

Promotes Academic Success– the presence of positive and supportive relationships alone does not get an academic success, but students that create a strong bond with their teacher do perform better than students whose behaviour with their teachers have some conflict.

Helps to develop self-worth-positive teacher-student relationships are beneficial for students, especially for those students with learning difficulties and with low economic status.

Professional Growth-one primary benefit of a healthy student-teacher relationship is that the teachers work to improve their interpersonal and professional skills.

Methods to improve teacher-student relationships

Provide structure- A mainstream of the students responds well to a structured environment. So, teachers should elucidate clear expectations to their students. Rules and regulations must be followed and continuously reinforced.

Teach with enthusiasm and passion-teachers should teach the students with enthusiasm and passion. It will help to create a positive learning environment in the class. Effective educators are those who have the skill to get the best out of all students in their class. Evolving the positive student-teacher relationship is the basic factor of quality education and student learning.

Display a positive attitude-Positive attitude promotes a sense of belonging and encourages learners to take part cooperatively in study activities. Where students are not constrained by the fear of failure, it will enhance confidence level to do experiments. Teachers should help the students with inspiration and set the objective and in turn to them for guidance.

Make learning fun-fun learning helps to build a good relationship between students and teachers.

Treat students with admiration-teachers should treat students with admiration. It is true that a teacher who respects their students will get more respect from their students.

It will take a significant time and effort to build a positive relationship teacher-student but it will be beneficial for both students and teachers. It is clear that there are many noteworthy benefits of good student-teacher relationships.

Based on visits to hundreds of classrooms and hundreds of supervisory conferences, Gold hammer developed a five-phase process of clinical supervision that was designed to involve teachers and supervisors in a reflective dialogue.

  • Phase 1—Pre observation Conference:This phase was designed to provide a conceptual framework for the observation. During this phase, the teacher and supervisor planned the specifics of the observation.
  • Phase 2—Classroom Observation:During this phase, the supervisor observed the teacher using the framework articulated in Phase 1.
  • Phase 3—Analysis:Data from the observation was organized by the supervisor with the intent of helping teachers participate “in developing evaluations of their own teaching”.
  • Phase 4—A Supervision Conference:The teacher and supervisor engaged in a dialogue about the data. The teacher was asked to reflect upon and explain his or her professional practice. This stage also could include providing “didactic assistance” to the teacher.
  • Phase 5—Analysis of the Analysis:The supervisor’s “practice was examined with all of the rigor and for basically the same purposes that Teacher’s professional behavior was analyzed theretofore.

In 1973, Morris Cogan wrote the book Clinical Supervision. As mentioned previously, Cogan was one of Goldhammer’s professors at Harvard. His focus was on specific classroom behaviors. He noted that supervisors should be looking for “critical incidents” that “impede desired learnings in striking fashion”. He also emphasized the fact that the supervisory process should be viewed as a vital aspect of the process of continual improvement in teaching:

A cornerstone of the supervisor’s work with the teacher is the assumption that clinical supervision constitutes a continuation of the teacher’s professional education. This does not mean that the teacher is “in training,” as is sometimes said of preservice programs. It means that he is continuously engaged in improving his practice, as is required of all professionals. In this sense, the teacher involved in clinical supervision must be perceived as a practitioner fulfilling one of the first requirements of a professional—maintaining and developing his competence. He must not be treated as a person being rescued from ineptitude, saved from incompetence, or supported in his stumblings. He must perceive himself to be engaged in the supervisory processes as a professional who continues his education and enlarges his competences.

Q.4 Discuss the main issues of human relation in educational administration.

A bureaucracy is a system of organization noted for its size and complexity. Everything within a bureaucracy — responsibilities, jobs, and assignments — exists to achieve some goal. Bureaucracies are found at the federal, state, county, and municipal levels of government, and even large private corporations may be bureaucratically organized. People who work for government agencies, from high-level managers and executives to clerical staff, are called bureaucrats. The superintendent of a large urban school district is a bureaucrat, as are the teachers, librarians, nurses, and security guards.

The terms bureaucrat and bureaucracy have negative connotations. They bring to mind long, difficult forms; standing in long lines; and encounters with inflexible and unsympathetic clerks. The simplest requests are tangled in red tape, the paperwork that slows down accomplishment of an otherwise simple task. Despite this popular perception, bureaucracy is necessary for big governmental agencies to operate.

All bureaucracies share similar characteristics, including specialization, hierarchical organization, and formal rules. In the best circumstances, these characteristics allow a bureaucracy to function smoothly.


Workers in a bureaucracy perform specialized tasks that call for training and expertise. Trained personnel can accomplish their jobs efficiently. The downside of specialization is that bureaucrats often cannot (or refuse to) “work out of class” — that is, take on a task that is outside the scope of their job description.

Hierarchical organization

The structure of a bureaucracy is called a hierarchy, a succession of tiers from the most menial worker in the organization to the highest executive. Each level has clearly defined authority and responsibilities.

Formal rules

Bureaucracies function under formal rules. These instructions state how all tasks in the organization, or in a particular tier of the hierarchy, are to be performed. The rules are often called standard operating procedures (SOP) and are formalized in procedures manuals. By following the rules, bureaucrats waste no time in making appropriate decisions.

There are contradictions in the operation of a bureaucracy, however. The narrow focus on special expertise may blind a bureaucrat to a flaw in the performance of a task. Compounding the problem may be the bureaucrat’s inability to recognize the problem if it occurs in an area outside the bureaucrat’s expertise. The hierarchical structure also prevents a democratic approach to problem-solving. Lower-level staff find it difficult to question the decisions of supervisors, and executives and managers may be unaware that a problem exists several rungs down the organizational ladder.

Bureaucratic structure is intended to have the following benefits:

(i) Specialisation:

There is a systematic division of duties, rights and powers. Every member is specialised in a particular function and knows the limits of his job. Each official is responsible for a specific function and he is given matching authority to carry out his responsibility. The means of compliance of his instructions at his disposal are strictly limited to his area of specialisation.

(ii) Well-Defined Structure of Relationship:

A clearly-defined hierarchy is created through delegation of authority. Every office and every official are part of this hierarchy. Each official exercises supervision and control cover his subordinates with provisions for appeal to higher authorities. All activities follow the principle of hierarchy. Each position in the hierarchy has complete jurisdiction on a particular function in terms of both authority and competence.

(iii) Uniformity of Action:

Detailed rules and procedures are prescribed in writing for carrying out all administrative functions. These rules and procedures are designed to guide the employees and to ensure uniformity of operations. Officials are accountable for the use of official rules and procedures for the performance of their tasks.

(iv) Rationality of Behaviour:

The administrative behaviour is governed by rule of law rather than rule of man. This implies that the rules are framed on the basis of technical competence and rational considerations. Further, the performance of officials is judged on the basis of such rules which are known to them and to their superiors. Thus, each person knows clearly and precisely what is expected of him.

(v) Predictability of Behaviour:

There is a high degree of predictability of administrative behaviour in the bureaucratic structure. This results from the reliability of the formal relations that exist between various officials and employees throughout the organisation. Every official is responsible for carrying out the duties assigned to him.

This helps in the predicting the production capacity of each office or unit. Moreover, employees work in the same department for a reasonably long period. The departmental manager is able to understand the behaviour of subordinates better. This also brings about predictability.

(vi) Efficiency:

Bureaucracy intends to produce efficiency through rationality, consistency and predictability of behaviour. Division of labour and specialisation also lead to efficiency in terms of goal achievement and exercise of control. Bureaucratic structure emphasises rules and regulations which are also intended to increase efficiency of operations.

The disadvantages or limitations of bureaucracy are given below:

  1. Rigidity – Rules and regulations are very rigid and inflexible under bureaucracy. The initiative and creativity of employees are discouraged with rigid compliance of rules and regulations. There is a resistance to change on the part of employees also. The reason is that bureaucracy provides a scope to employees to shink responsibility for failures.
  2. Red Tapism – There is too much red tapism and paper work. Every decision is taken after having detailed discussion with many persons. These discussions are recorded in a number of documents. These documents cannot be cancelled after having been taken. Bureaucracy has a lot of paperwork.
  3. Displacement of Goal – An organisation has been divided into various units i.e., sub- units. The objective of sub-unit is also framed by the top management. A person who is in charge of a sub-unit may try to achieve its objective reflecting the overall objectives of the organisation. In such a case, the management finds it very difficult to achieve the goals of the organisation.
  4. Impersonal Nature of Work – Service with devotion is not expected from the employees. It does not faster in them a sense of belongingness. The employees do not care about the well-being of the organisation. This is because of impersonal nature of work.
  5. Failure of Co-Operation and Co-Ordination – Organisational rules and regulations are given priority over situation. Jobs are performed according to norms and procedures. It hampers the free flow of work. So, this restricts the management from getting the mutual co-operation and co-ordination.
  6. No Mutual Understanding – Personal feelings, views, needs and opinions are not given any importance or consideration under bureaucracy. Contractual obligations are given much importance over human relations. This results non-existence of mutual understanding.
  7. Mechanical Treatment – Initiative and creative thinking of an employee are not recognised. Employees are treated like machine and not like individuals.
  8. Empire Building – Every superior tries to increase the number of his subordinates. The reason is that the maximum number of subordinates is considered a symbol of power and prestige. In other words, a person wants to have a number of followers while walking on a road. It is a symbol of prestige i.e., empire building.

Bureaucracies have certain unintended consequences or limitations also.

These are discussed below:

  1. Delay and Red Tapism – Bureaucratic procedures involve inordinate delays and frustration in the performance of tasks. The procedures are typically valued, perpetuated and multiplied for their own sake as also to pass the buck.
  2. Rigidity – Rules and regulations in a bureaucracy are often rigid and inflexible. They encourage status quo and breed resistance to change. Rigid compliance with rules and regulations discourages initiative and creativity. It may also provide the cover to avoid responsibility for failures.
  3. Goal Displacement – Rules and procedures framed to achieve organisational objectives at each level become an end in themselves. When individuals holding office at lower levels pursue personal objectives or objectives of sub-units, the overall objectives of the organisation may be neglected. Once the organisational objectives get so displaced, there might be a question mark on the existence of the organisation.
  4. Lack of Human Touch – A bureaucratic organisation stresses mechanical way of doing things. Organisational rules and regulations are given priority over individual’s needs and emotions. The office a person holds is more important that the person himself. Contractual obligations are given primacy over human relations.
  5. Compartmentalisation of Activities – Jobs are divided into watertight categories which restricts people from performing tasks that they are capable of performing. It also encourages preservation of jobs even when they become redundant. The sequential flow of work may contain an element of idle time at every level. Bickerings over respective jurisdictions of members may hamper co-operation and coordination between various sub-units of the organisation.
  6. Empire Building – People in a bureaucracy tend to use their positions and resources to perpetuate self-interests or the interests of their sub-units. Every superior tries to increase the number of his subordinates as if this number is considered a symbol of power and prestige. It is hard to destroy bureaucracy even if it has outlived its utility.
  7. Excessive Paperwork – Bureaucracy involves excessive paperwork as every decision must be put in writing. All documents have to be maintained in their draft and original forms. This leads to a great wastage of time, stationery and space.

Despite its drawbacks, bureaucracy continues to be an integral and concomitant feature of modern organisations. It cannot be wished away. It is, therefore, necessary to understand it and to overcome its negative aspects through proper reckoning of individual needs and organisational goals.

Q.5 Discuss the administrative bodies recommended by all Pakistan National Conference 1947″.

After freedom in 1947 a conference was arranged to structure the education system of Pakistan. Quaid-e-azam could not attend this due to illness, but he forwarded his message which later laid down the foundation for recommendations of education policy. His message contained four major aspect;

1). Education system should suit the genius of Pakistan.

2) It should be consonant with our history and culture.

3) It should inculcate high sense of honor and integrity.

4) It should emphasis on science and technology.

The major recommendations of the conference were:

Education should be teamed with Islamic values.

Free and compulsory education in Pakistan.

Emphasis on science and technical education.


This policy could not be implemented properly due to increased number of immigrants and other administrative problems of new born country. So more or less british colonial system was continued.

The article 25-A of Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan says,

“The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law”.

Pakistan achieved independence from British colonial rule on August 14, 1947. At independence 85% of the population was illeterate , and the condition of women and backward areas was even worse.

One of the first steps towards education development in Pakistan was the National Education Conference in 1947. The Quaid-e-Azam, in his message to the Conferences said,

“There is no doubt that the future of our State will and must greatly depend upon the type of education we give to our children, and the way in which we bring them up as future citizens of Pakistan. We should not forget that we have to compete with the world which is moving very fast in this direction.” This conference (Karachi: Nov. 27,Dec 1, 1947) produced a strong philosophy of as well as a number of ambitious recommendations indicating the future goals of education in Pakistan Nevertheless, many of its recommendations remained in documentary form only for the lack of institutional or economic resources to pursue them.




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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔


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