AIOU Course Code 845-1 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 what are different levels of educational administration? Discuss in detail with examples.
The authoritarian management style involves managing through clear direction and control. It is also sometimes referred to as the autocratic or directive management style. Authoritarian managers typically assert strong authority, have total decision-making power, and expect unquestioned obedience.
This type of management style requires clearly defined roles and strict hierarchies and reporting structures. Employees should not have to question who is responsible for what. To be an effective authoritarian leader, you need to be willing and able to consistently stay up-to-date on your teams’ work and to make any and all decisions.
Bill Gates is an example of a positive authoritarian leader. He had a clear plan for his company. A plan that was difficult or impossible for many others to grasp until it became a reality and Microsoft became a household name.
Without being able to see and share what he had in mind, Gates couldn’t entrust his team to make decisions on their own. Which is why he directed the team and maintained the decision-making power.
In the right environment, an authoritarian management style has been shown to positively affect employee performance.
The best environment for authoritarian management typically includes a traditional culture, such as that commonly found in China and some other Asian countries. These cultures have a high power distance, where employees expect higher-level people to have more power and tend to automatically defer to those in higher positions.
Authoritarian management style can also be effective if you have new or inexperienced employees who need a lot of guidance and instruction.
It’s important to note that if taken to the extreme, an authoritarian style can easily create a negative workspace.
For instance, if you try to hold on to control too tightly, it can lead to micromanagement, which will drive away your best employees.
Maintaining total control of all decision-making can also require a great deal of time and effort. If you’re overseeing large and/or complex projects, this can be incredibly difficult to manage.
The laissez-faire management style emphasizes employee freedom. Laissez-faire originates from French and directly translates to “let do” in English. In other words, laissez-faire managers let their employees do what they will, with little to no interference.
Within the laissez-faire management style, there is no oversight provided during the creation or production process. Laissez-faire managers promote self-directed teams, and typically only get involved if something goes wrong or the team requests it.
In a smoothly operating team, a laissez-faire manager will only appear present at the beginning and the end of the work process. At the beginning, to provide guidelines, share information, and answer questions. And at the end to review the outcome(s) of the team and provide advice or recommendations about how the team can do even better next time.
Google uses laissez-faire management as a means of promoting employee creativity and innovation. Google Founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin created “20 percent time” way back in 2004. While the rule has changed over time, in essence, management allows employees a portion of their paid work hours to focus on whatever project they want, without any management oversight.
This freedom enables employees to focus on work they are passionate about and to experiment with creative new ideas. Hugely successful innovations such as AdSense, Gmail, and Google Maps can all be attributed to this “20 percent time.”
If you have a team of highly-skilled professionals, they may thrive with the freedom that a laissez-faire approach provides.
This management style can result in a high level of job satisfaction and high productivity for teams who enjoy the autonomy it provides. It can also help boost innovation and creativity throughout your organization.
If your team is not self-motivated, is not skilled enough to solve problems on their own, or struggles to manage their own time, laissez-faire can result in missed deadlines and poor quality work.
The lack of oversight inherent to this style is not appropriate for teams that cannot self-manage. It is also risky on large and/or critical projects, as you may not become aware of issues until it’s too late.
Q.2 critically analyze different functions of DEO elementary education.
Elementary and Secondary Education Department is the biggest of all departments. It has more than 1, 68,000 employees which are about 55% of the total employees of Pakistan. 3.9 million Students are learning in more than 28000 Government institutions having more than 1, 19,000 teachers.
- Formulation of policies, strategies and regulations for Schools Education & Literacy.
- Preparation of Annual Developmental Program (ADP) for Elementary and Secondary Education Sector.
- Processing of developmental projects.
- Monitoring and review of developmental Projects and schemes in coordination with concerned Directorates/PIUs.
- Improvement of Literacy and quality/standard at Primary and secondary education level.
- Financial Management (Recurring/non-recurring Budgets) and auditing of the Provincial Level releases to Schools & Literacy Department including PAC/DAC.
- Education Management Information System and Geographic Information System
- Regulation, Registration and Supervision of Private Teacher Training Institutions through BISEs.
- Preparation of draft Acts/Ordinances as per need for the approval of provincial assembly/ Chief Executive of the Province.
- Attending to the questions/queries of the Provincial/National Assemblies and Senate pertaining to Schools & Literacy sector in the province.
- Dealing the matters of BISEs & Public Schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
- Inter District posting/transfers of Officers of Provincial cadre (BPS-17 and above) in Schools on recommendations of the Directorates of Elementary and Secondary Education Department
- Processing of Selection grade, Move-over, Pension, GP fund final payment and Promotion cases for approval of the competent forum at Provincial Level in accordance with the existing approved Policy.
- Coordination with the Federal Government and Donors.
- Inter Provincial admissions in teachers training institutes on reciprocal basis.
- Performance evaluation reports of Provincial cadre Officers (ACRs).
- Processing the cases of short and long-term foreign visits/training and award of Scholarships for approval of the competent forum.
- Any other task assigned by the government.
Q.3 Write short notes on the following:
- a) Long term plans
Long-term planning involves goals that take a longer time to reach and require more steps; they usually take a minimum of a year or two to complete. They aim to permanently resolve issues and reach and maintain success over a continued period.
We’ll discuss an exact strategy to set and complete long-term goals later in this article.
Before that, let’s go over a few examples of long-term goals:
- Career goals: “Build a profitable business”, “Turn your passion into a career.”
- Academic goals: “Get a Bachelor’s degree”, “Get a Master’s degree abroad.”
- Personal development goals: “Learn a foreign language”, “Travel on all 7 continents.”
- Financial goals: “Save for retirement”, “Become a millionaire.”
- b) Medium term plans
A medium-term plan (MTP) is a sequence of work for a subject which shows what a teacher or educator is planning to teach over a period of weeks, such as a half-term or term.
A medium-term plan is essential for organising different aspects of the curriculum, such as subjects, lesson plans and daily activities. You don’t have to start with a blank sheet when writing your plan, we have some medium-term plan templates available for you to use to save you some time. Begin by identifying learning objectives and the goals you want your class to achieve for that term and what activities you will enable to accomplish these. You can go into detail about how these activities will help your students progress and the amount of time needed to cover each objective.
Teachers are required to complete at least one medium-term plan throughout the academic year, however, the more teaching plans completed will ensure efficient and engaging learning.
It may seem like a struggle at the beginning but implementing a medium-term plan becomes easier each time. It’s important to try and get the balance right between how many activities to do in the first lesson – too few can lead students to get distracted whilst too many can get them confused.
Introduce the medium-term plan to your class so they understand what the learning outcomes and goals are for that term.
- c) Problems of educational planning
1. Perception of the Opportunities:
The manager must first identify the opportunity that calls for planning and action. This is very important for the planning process because it leads to formulation of plans by providing clue as to whether opportunities exist for taking up particular plans.
Perception of opportunities includes a preliminary look at possible opportunities and the ability to see them clearly and completely, an understanding of why the organisation wants to solve the uncertainties and a vision what it expects to gain. This provides an opportunity to set the objectives in real sense.
2. Establishment of the Objectives:
The next step in the planning process lies in the setting up of objectives to be achieved by the enterprise in the clearest possible terms keeping in view its strength and limitation. Objectives specify the results expected in measurable terms and indicate the end points of what is to be done; where the primary emphasis is to be placed, and what is to be accomplished by various types of plans. Enterprises start with a general objective.
From this are developed subordinate goals that contribute to the attainment of the general objective. These, in turn, are supported by the specific objectives for the departments. In this process a hierarchy of objectives is created. The plans at each level of the organisation are made for the attainment of the appropriate objectives in the hierarchy. This hierarchy can be built up by coordinating the plans of different departments.
3. Building the Planning Premises:
After determination of the organisational goals, it is necessary to establish planning premises, that is, the conditions under which planning activities will be undertaken. This involves collection of facts and figures necessary for planning the future course of the enterprise. ‘Planning Premises’ are planning assumptions relating to the expected environmental and internal conditions.
So, planning premises are of two types—external and internal. External premises include total factors in the environment like social, political, technological, competitors’ plans and actions, government policies, etc. Internal factors include the organisation’s policies, resources of various types, and the ability of the organisation to withstand the environmental pressure. The plans are formulated in the light of both external and internal factors.
4. Identifying the Alternatives:
The next step in planning process is to search for various alternative courses of action based on the organisational objectives and planning premises. A particular objective can be achieved through various actions. For example, if an organisation has set its objective to grow further, it can be achieved in several ways like expanding the field of business or product line, joining with other organisations, or taking over another organisation, and so on. Within each category, there may be several alternatives.
Since all alternatives cannot be considered for further analysis, it is necessary for the planner to reduce in preliminary examination the number of alternatives that do not meet the minimum preliminary criteria. Preliminary criteria can be defined in several ways— minimum investment required, matching with the present business of the organisation, control by the government, etc.
5. Evaluation of the Alternatives:
Various alternative courses that are considered feasible in terms of preliminary criteria have to be taken for detailed evaluation. Alternative courses of action can be evaluated against the criteria of cost, risks, benefit and organisational facilities. The strong and weak points of every alternative should be analysed carefully.
Since there are so many complex variables connected with each goal and each possible plan, the process of comparative evaluation is extremely difficult. For example, one alternative may be the most profitable but requires heavy investment; another may be less profitable but also involves less risk.
Moreover, there is no certainty about the outcome of any alternative course because it is related with future which is not certain. Ultimately, the choice will depend upon what is determined as the most critical factor from the point of view of the objectives of the enterprise.
6. Choice of the Course of Action:
After the evaluation of various alternatives, the most appropriate one is selected as the plan. Sometimes evaluation shows that more than one alternative are equally good. In such a case, the manager may choose more than one alternative at the same time. There is another reason for choosing more than one alternative. Alternative course of action may be required to be undertaken in future in changed situations. So, the planner must also be ready with alternative—normally known as contingency plan— that can help coping up with the changed situation.
7. Formulation of Supporting or Derivative Plans:
After the best alternative is decided upon, the next step is to derive various plans for different departments or sections of the organisation to support the main plan. In an organisation, there can be various derivative plans like planning for buying raw materials and equipment, developing new product, recruiting and training the personnel, etc.
These derivative plans are formulated out of the main plan and so they support it. The break-down of the master plan into departmental and sectional plans provides a realistic picture of the actions to be taken in future.
8. Establishing the Sequence of Activities:
After formulating the basic and derivative plans, the sequence of activities is determined so that the plans are put into action. Based on the plans at various levels, it can be decided who will do what and at what time. Budgets for various periods can be prepared to make plans more concrete for implementation.
9. Securing Participation:
Plans must be communicated in greater details to the subordinates to increase their understanding of the proposed action and for enlisting their co-operations in the execution of plans. It will, thus, add to the quality of planning through the knowledge of additional facts, new visions and revealing situations.
10. Providing for Future Evaluation:
For ensuring that the selected plans are proceeding with the right lines, it is of paramount importance to devise a system of continuous evaluation and appraisal of the plan. It will help in detecting the shortcomings and pitfalls of the plans and taking remedial actions well in time. All the steps in the process of planning must be linked and co-ordinated with each other. For successful implementation of a plan, it must be communicated to all levels of the organisation.
- d) Elements of planning
Planning as a managerial process consists of the following elements or components:
The important task of planning is to determine the objectives of the enterprise. Objectives are the goals towards which all managerial activities are aimed at. All planning work must spell out in clear terms the objectives to be realised from the proposed business activities. When planning action is taken, these objectives are made more concrete and meaningful. For example, if the organisational objective is profit earning, planning activity will specify how much profit is to be earned looking into all facilitating and constraining factors.
It is the analysis and interpretation of future in relation to the activities and working of an enterprise. Business forecasting refers to analysing the statistical data and other economic, political and market information for the purpose of reducing the risks involved in making business decisions and long range plans. Forecasting provides a logical basis for anticipating the shape of the future business transactions and their requirements as to man and material.
Planning also requires laying down of policies for the easy realisation of the -objectives of business. Policies are statements or principles that guide and direct different managers at various levels in making decisions. Policies provide the necessary basis for executive operation. They set forth overall boundaries within which the decision-makers are expected to operate while making decisions. Policies act as guidelines for taking administrative decisions.
In a big enterprise, various policies are formulated for guiding and directing the subordinates in different areas of management. They may be production policy, sales policy, financial policy, personnel policy etc. But these different policies are co-ordinated and integrated in such a way that they ensure easy realisation of the ultimate objectives of business. Policies should be consistent and must not be changed frequently.
The manner in which each work has to be done is indicated by the procedures laid down. Procedures outline a series of tasks for a specified course of action. There may be some confusion between policies and procedures. Policies provide guidelines to thinking and action, but procedures are definite and specific steps to thinking and action. For example, the policy may be the recruitment of personnel from all parts of the country; but procedures may be to advertise and invite applications, to take interviews and offer appointment to the selected personnel.
Thus, procedures mean definite steps in a chronological sequence within the area chalked out by the policies. In other words, procedures are the methods by means of which policies are enforced. Different procedures are adopted in different areas of business activities. There may be production procedure, sales procedure, purchase procedure, personnel procedure etc.
Production procedure involves manufacturing and assembling of parts; sales procedure relates to advertising, offering quotations, securing and execution of orders; purchase procedure indicates inviting tenders, selecting quotations, placing orders, storing the goods in go-down and supplying them against requisition to different departments and personnel procedure is the recruitment, selection and placement of workers to different jobs.
A rule specifies necessary course of action in a particular situation. It acts as a guide and is essentially in the nature of a decision made by the management authority. This decision signifies that a definite action must be taken in respect of a specific situation. The rules prescribe a definite and rigid course of action to be followed in different business activities without any scope for deviation or discretion.
Any deviation of rule entails penalty. Rule is related to parts of a procedure. Thus, a rule may be incorporated in respect of purchase procedure that all purchases must be made after inviting tenders. Similarly, in respect of sales procedure, rule may be enforced that all orders should be confirmed the very next day.
Programmes are precise plans of action followed in proper sequence in accordance with the objectives, policies and procedures. Programmes, thus, lead to a concrete course of inter-related actions for the accomplishment of a purpose. Thus, a company may have a programme for the establishment of schools, colleges and hospitals near about its premises along with its expanding business activities.
Programmes must be closely integrated with the objectives. Programming involves dividing into steps the activities necessary to achieve the objectives, determining the sequence between different steps, fixing up performance responsibility for each step, determining the requirements of resources, time, finance etc. and assigning definite duties to each part.
Budget means an estimate of men, money, materials and equipment in numerical terms required for implementation of plans and programmes. Thus, planning and budgeting are inter-linked. Budget indicates the size of the programme and involves income and outgo, input and output. It also serves as a very important control device by measuring the performance in relation to the set goals. There may be several departmental budgets which are again integrated into the master budget.
A project is a single-use plan which is a part of a general programme. It is part of the job that needs to be done in connection with the general programme. So a single step in a programme is set up as a project. Generally, in planning a project, a special task force is also envisaged.
It is a scheme for investing resources which can be analysed and appraised reasonably and independently. A project involves basically the investment of funds, the benefits from which can be accrued in future. Examples of such investment may be outlays on land, building, machinery, research and development, etc. depending upon the situation.
Strategies are the devices formulated and adopted from the competitive standpoint as well as from the point of view of the employees, customers, suppliers and government. Strategies thus may be internal and external. Whether internal or external, the success of the plans demands that it should be strategy-oriented.
The best strategy of planning from the competitive standpoint is to be fully informed somehow about the planning ‘secrets’ of the competitors and to prepare its own plan accordingly. Strategies act as reserve forces to overcome resistances and reactions according to circumstances. They are applied as and when required.
Q.4 Discuss different human relations models of administration which help to develop good human relations between people.
The human relations approach constituted the second major approach to administration. In response to perceived defects of the classical school of management thought which ignored or underestimated the human factor in administration, the Human Relations Movement emerged. Its major exponents were Mary Follet, Elton Mayo and McGregor. The human resource frame is built on the following pillars:
- Organisations exist to serve human needs rather than the reverse
- People and organisations need each other: organisations need ideas, energy, and talent; people need careers, salaries, and opportunity
- When the fit between individual and system is poor, one or both suffer: individuals will be exploited or will exploit the organisation-or both will become victims.
- A good fit benefits both: individuals find meaningful and satisfying work, and organisations get the talent and energy they need to succeed
The human relations movement started between 1935-1950. It was a radical reaction to the scientific movement which treated human being as machines. The principles of human relations believed that organizations should see and treat the workers as human beings. It was a product of what is known as the Hawthorne studies, by George Elton Mayo, which examined the effects of social relation, motivation and employee satisfaction on productivity. Elton stressed the following:
- Natural groups, in which social aspects take precedence over functional organizational structure
- Upwards communication, is two way, from worker to chief executive, as well as vice versa.
- Cohesion and good leadership is needed to communicate goals and to ensure effective and coherent decision making.
Also Mary Parket Follet (1868-1933) who wrote a series of brilliant papers dealing with the human side of administration believed that the fundamental problem in all organization was in developing and maintaining dynamic and harmonious relationships.
According to Mary Follet, a prominent pioneer of the new line in National Society for the study of education (1964); “it is not just a production and distribution of manufactured articles, it is also to give opportunity for individual development and self-actualization through better organization of human relationships. The process of production is as important as that of the welfare of the society as product of production”.
- The formal work group the social environment employees has great influence on the productivity.
- To Mayo and others, the concept of social man (motivated by social needs, wanting-on the-job relationships and more responsive to work group pressure than to management control) has to replace the old concept of rational man motivated by personal economic needs. This theory marked the beginning of the recognition of human factor in the effectiveness of an organization.
Other proponents of the Human Relations Theory are Douglas McGregor, Chris Agris and Abraham Maslow. Under the human relations movement, McGregor’s theory X and Y and Maslow’s hieracy of needs theory.
THEORY X AND Y
Oreamesi (2001) advanced that Doulas McGregor’s in his book “the human side of enterprise” postulated dichotomous view of the attitudes of managers towards employees. The two theoretical assumptions which are separately known as theory X and Y present diverse perception of the relationships between manager and subordinates in organizational life.
Theory X portends a pessimistic view of workers. It assumes that employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. As a result of this management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of control developed. According to Michael (2011) if organizational goals are to be met, theory X managers rely heavily on threat and coercion to gain the employees compliance.
Theory Y presents a different orientation about the relationships between managers and employees. In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitions and self-motivated and exercise self control. It also believes that employees enjoy their mental and physical work.
Its goes further to state that to them work is as natural as play and the average human bring does not inherently dislike work, given the proper conditions, theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
According to Abraham Maslow, man always has needs to satisfy. These needs can be satisfied in a hierarchical order starting from the basic needs to the higher order needs. The theory further explains that once a particular need is satisfied, it ceases to be a motivator and another one arises. He classified needs into:
- Physiological: Basic physical needs like air, food, shelter, water.
- Safety: The need for physical and psychological security.
- Social: The desire for satisfying social relationships with others, like acceptance and feeling of belonging.
- Ego: This is the need for self-respect, recognition and appreciation by management.
- Self actualization: The desire to be an that one can be
Maslow succeeded in classifying human needs as least as an aid thinking for management. What is disputed in Maslow’s theory is the issue of successive saturation. Satisfying one need can help alleviate another, therefore they overlap.
THE ESSENCE AND IMPACT OF THE HUMAN RELATIONS THEORY ON EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION
The human relations theory occupied a great role in the development of organizational administration. During the era of Human Relations theory, numerous themes, ideas or notions were emphasized in education administration.
The Human Relations School of Management Thought, which emphasized treating employees in a human manner, has impact in the educational administration is several ways (Kimbough and Nunnery 1983). These include:
Increasing effort to democratize the practice of educational administration.
Growing emphasis on the utilization of concept from the social sciences, anthropology, psychology, sociology and the behavioural elements of economics and political sciences.
Educational administrators were responsible for the promotion of relations between organization members that were mutually satisfying. Harmony and high staff morale were considered essentials for improved teaching and learning.
This movement also proposed the implementation of methods of dealing with workers as a psychological being. Eg: teachers and non-academic staff in school system etc.
Educational administrators began to stress the exercise of group authority within the legal frame work governing educational organizations.
It made educational administration come to be seen as service activities contributing to the effective instructional programmes, as a means and not an end itself. Mochlman (1940), put this idea more clearly and when he stated that: “Administration in essentially a services activity, a tool or agency through the fundamental objectives of the educational process may be more fully and efficiently realized”.
Human relations is seen as an attempt of humanization of labour that is of practical value for increasing profits and social responsibility.
There emerged an increasing emphasis and support among educational administrators participative or cooperative decision making.
It aims at addressing the social needs of workers and therefore elicits their cooperation as a workforce.
Finally, the advocates of democratic administration stressed that the executive educational administrator should take steps to satisfy psychological needs.
CRITICISMS OF HUMAN RELATIONS THEORY
The human relations movement made very significant contribution to management thought. It brought into limelight human and social factors in organizations; it made management to regard workers as human beings rather the cogs in the machinery. Furthermore, Human Relations Movement led to the emergence of participative management or decision making. It stressed the significance social or informal group in the organization. It also brought about the humanizing of management and sense of flexibility in bureaucratic enterprise. Finally, it led to a lessening of the emphasis on “one best way” of getting a work done.
In spite of its contributions, human relations approached ideas and practices have a number of criticism: In many case. Human relations programmes were implemented as a technique for manipulating people to comply with management directives instead of for bringing management to an understanding of human nature and thereby creating the desirable changes in the organization.
Human Relations is also criticized for overemphasizing human needs at the expense of need for accomplishment or responsibility, or for organizational task and process. (Structured and technical aspects). Subsequently, there was lack of comprehensiveness in the notion advanced.
iii. The effect of human relations theories did not result in the demise of the numerous applications of classical theory.
- Some of the postulates advanced by human relations theorists did not give the rise of derivations that were subject to empirical testing.
There was a lack of evidence of confirm some of the derivations from the postulates advanced. For instance, Unde (2007) pointed out that the evidence is less conclusive with regard to the often assumed relationship between increase employee satisfaction and increased productivity. Human resources-oriented theories of the latter of the era generally assumed that good and meaningful performance leads to job satisfaction and not the reverse.
Q.5 critically discuss the following:
- a) Methods of financing
Post-secondary education can be expensive, however having the opportunity to plan for it helps with making sure that you’re capable to meet the costs of education. In addition, when you have a plan, it’s easer to make financial decisions that align with your goals and provide peace of mind. We outline 7 sources of funds for paying for post-secondary education:
- Registered Education Savings Plan
- Tax Free Savings Account
- Life Insurance
- Scholarships, grants, bursaries
- Personal Loans, Lines of Credit
- Government Student Loan
- Personal Savings
Many private foundations in developing countries as well as developed countries are potential sources of funding, both for capital investments and for student scholarships (Wisconsin Medical Society n.d.). European foundations can be identified through the European Foundation Center, and North American foundations can be found through CharityNavigator.org. The Rockefeller Foundation, for example, has a long history of financing both capital investments in medical schools and student scholarships and fellowships (Jones and Rahman 2009).
Religious communities and institutions
Especially for faith-based schools, religious communities and institutions are a potentially large source of financing. Given their social mission and historical interests in health, many religious communities and institutions are quite willing to invest in the training of health workers.
Research funding from external sources such as the US National Institutes for Health or the Wellcome Trust can be used to subsidize the salaries of faculty or the stipends of students who engage in research work (NIH Clinical Center n.d.). In addition, some of the facilities and equipment, such as laboratory space, purchased with research funding can also be used for teaching.
Student scholarships that are provided by governments, foundations, or private companies can pay directly for education (AMA n.d.). At the College of Medicine, University of Malawi, students with the top 20 premedical program entrance exam scores are given scholarships, provided that funding is available (SAMSS 2009). In addition, some countries compel private universities to offer scholarships to students in order to maintain their accreditation. For example, Mexico, Syria, and the Philippines have required private schools to give scholarships to a percentage of students to offer opportunities to low-income or needy students.
In order to subsidize their students on school scholarships many schools, such as the medical school in Malawi, have started to accept students on a tiered basis. The most qualified students are given full scholarships, and other students who still meet admission criteria are admitted on a self-pay basis. The tuition paid by the self-pay students subsidizes the scholarships of the first tier of students. In some cases the second tier of students may be admitted from outside the country, as at the College of Medicine in Malawi (Muula 2009).
- b) Sources of educational finance
For either public or private schools, tuition can be a major source of funding. For private schools, tuition is often the only source of funding, whereas in public schools, tuition is supplemented by funding from the Ministry of Health or the Ministry of Education. Tuition tends to have a variety of different sources, including the student’s extended family and income earned by students working as research assistants or in laboratories. Other sources of tuition funding include public and private loans as well as grants from public and private sources. In developing countries, the ability of the extended family to pay for a young person’s education should not be underestimated. Many families have at least one member who either has access to credit within the country or is a member of the global Diaspora. Such loans within the extended family are often expected to be paid back over time once the student graduates and starts to earn an income. Because health professional students will become some of the top earners in their countries on graduation, it is quite feasible for them to pay for a portion of their education. Student loans are currently not widely used in developing countries, mainly due to concerns over accountability in repayment. By connecting loan repayment to certification renewal or paying for loans directly out of recipient paychecks, this accountability can be increased and revolving loan funds can be established.