AIOU Course Code 844-1 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Discuss the links of non-formal education with formal education with examples.
Non formal education is all organised education activities that are outside the formally established system. It can work separately or within a larger activity, according to the participants or learning goals. Non formal education isn’t a replacement to formal education, which is key and fundamental to the growth of the person, however, it can complement it by covering needs or certain aspects that the regulated institution lack. UNESCO, for example, emphasizes the flexibility of non-formal education and how it allows for more personalized learning to be developed for each person. In fact, this would be the most ideal model for them. The most common way of contrasting informal and formal education derives from an administrative or institutional concern and includes a middle form – non-formal education. Back in the late 1960s there was an emerging analysis of what was seen as a ‘world educational crisis’
(Coombs 1968). There was concern about unsuitable curricula; a realization that educational growth and economic growth were not necessarily in step, and that jobs did not emerge directly as a result of educational inputs. Many countries were finding it difficult (politically or economically) to pay for the expansion of formal education. The conclusion was that formal educational systems had adapted too slowly to the socio-economic changes around them and that they were held back not only by their own conservatism, but also by the inertia of societies themselves… It was from this point of departure that planners and economists in the World Bank began to make a distinction between informal, non-formal and formal education. At around the same time there were moves in UNESCO toward lifelong education and notions of ‘the learning society’ which culminated in learning to be. Lifelong learning was to be the ‘master concept’ that should shape educational systems. What emerged was the influential tripartite categorization of learning systems. Any organised educational activity outside the established formal system whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives. The distinction made is largely administrative. Formal education is linked with schools and training institutions; non-formal with community groups and other organizations; and informal covers what is left, e.g. interactions with friends, family and work colleagues. These definitions do not imply hard and fast categories. When we look more closely at the division there can be considerable overlap. For example, there can be significant problems around the categorizing the education activity linked to involvement in groups and associations (la vie associative) sometimes it might be informal, at other times non-formal, and where the group is part of a school – formal. We can see similar issues in some of the discussions of informal science education in the USA. The NSF definition falls in line with what Coombs describes as informal education – but many museums and science centers also describe their activities as informal science education (and would presumably come fall under the category of non-formal education). Similarly, some schools running science clubs etc. describe that activity as informal science education (and may well fulfill the first requirements of the NSF definition). Just how helpful a focus on administrative setting or institutional sponsorship is a matter of some debate. It may have some use when thinking about funding and management questions – but it can tell us only a limited amount about the nature of the education and learning involved. The National Science Federation While a great deal of the educational activity of schools, for example, involve following prescribed programmes, lead to accredited outcomes and require the presence of a designated teacher, a lot of educational activity that goes on does not (hence Jackson’s  famous concern with the ‘hidden curriculum’). Once we recognize that a considerable amount of education happens beyond the school wall or outside the normal confines of lessons and sessions it may be that a simple division between formal and informal education will suffice. Recognizing elements of these problems, some agencies have looked for alternative definitions. One possibility here has been the extent to which the outcomes of the educational activity are institutionally accredited. Such activity involved enrollment or registration – and this can also be used as a way of defining formal education. Non-formal education is, thus, ‘education for which none of the learners is enrolled or registered’. Using non-accreditation as a basis for defining an area of education has a strong theoretical pedigree.
Q.2 Identify the practices and major short comings of non-formal education in Pakistan
The present study was aimed to assess the performance of the non-formal basic education (NFBE) schools project initiated in the province of Punjab with the assistance of Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA). The study was conducted in 120 NFBE schools in four districts of Punjab. It was a survey study in which data were collected from female teachers, officers of NFBE, students and their parents. 100 NFBE school teachers, 20 officers of NFBE schools and 500 students and their parents participated in the study. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. It was found that the project is achieving its targets as planned. It was also found that drop-out rates were higher and the teachers were not satisfied with their job structure. It was further concluded that a proper media campaign may be initiated to mobilize the community. The study recommended that learning materials may be developed in the regional languages.
Pakistan is a developing country with limited resources and high population growth rate of 2.6 % per annum. The increase in the enrollment rate is not in line with the increase in the rate of population growth in the country, and each year millions of children school-age are deprived from getting admission to formal schools due the shortage of schools.
During the first decade of the 21st century – since the policy focused on rural areas – the number of primary schools increased sharply for both boys and girls, although the proportion of girls’ schools remained constant. The Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey, conducted by the Government of Pakistan in 2006-07, revealed that every year dropout rates for girls are increasing.
A look around neighboring countries in South Asia shows that at the start of the new millennium, Maldives and Sri Lanka had both achieved literacy rates of well over 90 %, considerably higher than the regional average of 54 %. Similarly many countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America have quite successfully adopted non-formal education and are offering different programs. Developed countries like Japan, Norway, the Netherlands, France, UK and USA and developing countries like India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan have seized upon its advantages to meet pressing educational needs and social needs (Haq, 2002). Non-formal systems of education are being used effectively in different parts of the world in order to solve the long standing problems of mass illiteracy and creating social awareness. It was realized that through the formal system alone, illiteracy and other problems of education cannot be solved. Therefore, many countries of the world, both developed and developing, realizing the advantages of the non-formal system, have adopted it and made it an integral part of their national system of education. However, in Pakistan there is dire need to launch a national movement for literacy. The country is far behind the target of 100 % literacy as set by the Dakar Declaration (2000).
The need for NFE in Pakistan has arisen because not only is the formal system unable to cope with the rising demand of education in the country with its rigid nature but also because the costs of formal education are higher. In several of his writings, Ghafoor (1997) identified two factors for low progress of primary education, and these include inside school factors and outside school factors. The inside school factors include the poor physical facilities, dearth of teaching and learning materials, shortage of trained and qualified teachers, inadequate training of teachers, inadequate learning climate, high pupil/teacher ratio, overemphasis on subject matter rather than personality development, rigid educational policies and practices and urban based curriculum. The outside school factors, as identified, include low socio-economic background of the child, malnutrition among children and socio-cultural problems related to female education.
A report by UNESCO in 1999 on Basic Education in Pakistan points out that al-ready in the past several years non-formal education programs had been initiated. The Non-Formal Basic Education program (NFBE) was initially launched in Pakistan in the 1950s under the title of “Adult Basic Education Program”. Several non-formal education programs have been started but no effort has yet been made to launch a non-formal education program on a national level, although this may be changing.
Major initiatives towards “Education for All” were the Social Action Program (SAP), the Education Sector Reforms (ESR) and the National Plan of Action (NPA) which have specially targeted girls’ education and have allocated significant funds for this purpose. This factor encouraged gender equality in education. The NPA (2000) is a roadmap to meet the education for all (EFA) targets. This plan represents the will and determination of the nation to fight against illiteracy and universalize primary education. It aimed to achieve 100 % participation in basic education (grade 1-5) by the year 2015 both for male and female students.
Non-Formal Basic Education Schools
Non-Formal Basic Education Schools (NFBES) were first established in 1996 under the Prime Minister Literacy Commission Islamabad. The concept of these schools is based on the philosophy to involve parents, community and the non-governmental organizations in the promotion of education through non-formal means. Some of the objectives of the NFBE schools include the universalization of primary education, increased involvement of the community and NGOs, provision of employment opportunities to the educated persons and empowerment of rural women. The NFBES are based on the “Home school” model. The selected community provides a teacher with a fixed salary of Rs.1000 per month. The five years primary curriculum is taught in three and a quarter years. The government provides funds to the community through intermediary non governmental organizations (NGOs). Accordingly, the NFBES were established all over the country, covering urban slums, small towns and remote villages. The target of the NFBES are the dropouts of the formal schools of age group 10 to 14 for whom the completion period to cover primary level education is to be 2-3 years while students attaining the level of the school grades 5-9 have to complete this course in 3-4 years instead of 5-6 years, the time specified for formal schools. According to the Planning Commission of the Non- Formal Basic Education Schools (1998), these schools have to complement the formal school by offering education in those areas where regular primary schools do not exist and where children are out of schools for various reasons. This school model required fewer resources. The community provides the school building and manages the school. The teachers of NFBES do not have to worry about transfers and, therefore, work with a missionary zeal. According to PMLC (1996), the program of Non-formal Basic Education Schools is implemented through NGOs and community-based organizations that identify sites for schools, supervise them, give inputs and teaching aids, and pay remuneration to the teachers. These NGOs also manage to provide training to the teachers, form parent-teacher committees at local levels and hold meetings with the teachers and communities. In turn they are paid Rs.200 per school per month in addition to getting awards for the best performance.
It is a fact that a country’s social and economic development depend on education. Those nations who neglect education lag behind in the march of civilization and suffer the bad consequences. The history of the subcontinent shows that after the downfall of Mughal rule, Hindus turned to education quickly while the Muslims did not give attention to the acquisition of modern education. In the present-day world, every country increases its expenditure on education and so is getting the advantages of it. Despite the importance of education in the 21st century, the third world countries have not achieved their educational objectives. Pakistan is one of those unfortunate countries which have a low literacy rate. To overcome this problem; a national educational conference was convened just after the creation of Pakistan to bring reforms in the educational system. But the lack of political stability in the initial stage hindered the steps for reforms. Although overall adult literacy rates are low in the country, with over half the population illiterate, there has been impressive progress over the past two decades, especially in rural areas where literacy rates have doubled for females (Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement Survey 2007-08).
The present study was aimed to assess the performance of NFBE schools project initiated in the province of Punjab with the assistance of Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA). The study was conducted in 100 NFBE schools in four districts of Punjab. The study revealed some important findings that led to the following recommendations:
- To create awareness among the masses, proper media campaign for community mobilization should be fully utilized.
- Proper training should be arranged for teachers of NFBE schools.
- Appropriate service structure should be introduced to attract talented teachers.
- Learning materials should be drafted in regional languages.
- Need assessment should be done before establishing NFBE schools.
Q.3 Discuss the criteria for design of planning programs of non-formal education.
“Strategic thinking” and “strategic planning” are popular concepts, throughout not only the corporate world, where they were first coined and where big business spends millions on such activities, but also among organizations in the developing world and even in the education sector of the developing world. But what is the value of strategic planning and strategic thinking for those of us working in non-formal education? Strategic planning, simply put, is the process of setting goals and making the best use of resources to reach those goals. To be successful, strategic planning must include goals that are realistic in terms of resources available. It must also lead to a creative use of resources—finding them and employing them efficiently in view of the goal.
What makes the strategic planning process challenging is its dynamic nature: goals and resources can and should change as time goes along, so strategic planning is not a one-time event. It is a constant process of adjustment. Strategic thinking, then, is the mindset, attitude, skills and tools required for this constant process of strategic planning. It is asking the simple questions over and over again, what do we want to do? Why? How? The “why” question is important, because it takes us to deeper levels of understanding our ultimate goal, and it gives us more options for answering the “how” question.
Goals: Vision or problem-oriented? Let us now apply these very general statements about strategic planning and strategic thinking to non-formal education at a national level. We will look at the Pakistan in which department of non-formal education have been planning to expand their programs significantly. Those who are engaged in strategic planning generally begin by stating goals, either in terms of a vision to be achieved or in terms of a problem to be solved.
In Pakistan, the department of non-formal education is also considering several alternative goals. Two of these alternatives are goals stated in terms of a vision of the future. One envisioned a non-formal education system that served every man, woman, and child who lacked a primary school education. The other vision is of a nation free of illiteracy. The department also considered some problem-oriented goals. One was to solve the problem of large numbers of young men who cannot find employment because they lack the basic skills needed for holding a job in the modern sector of the economy.
Another “problem” goal was to reduce the high drop-out rate in primary schools by helping parents learn to read, write, and do math so they could support their young children in school. A broader, sort of “meta-problem” was to improve on the poor quality of services currently provided to school dropouts and to parents. What kind of goal, vision-oriented or problem-oriented, is more “strategic” for a department of non-formal education? Vision goals are appropriate for an organization that wants to strengthen its own accomplishments or position in the economy or society. An electronics company, for example, will set its vision in terms of gaining significant market share in its products, or earning a reputation as the manufacturer of the highest quality electronic appliances worldwide. A ministry of education will set a vision of building a school system that allows every child to acquire a good-quality primary education; a teachers college will aim to ensure that every teacher is well trained. For the electronics company, the ministry of education, and the teachers college, these visions are suitable and may well be feasible.
Goals stated in terms of a vision, however, seem less appropriate for non-formal education. Even though non-formal education is often a unit of the ministry of education and therefore expected to function like a formal school system, in fact it is very different. A formal school system is intended to meet the common needs of all children to acquire accredited basic skills and to channel them through the system, with increasingly diverse—but very limited—options as they mature. Non-formal education, in contrast, picks up the pieces and looks for those whom formal education has missed. The clients, or beneficiaries, of non-formal education are not longer in the system. In fact, it is their “outsideness” or disadvantage that brings them into touch with non-formal education programs. Thus, to set a goal of meeting the needs of all disadvantaged men, women, and children is not likely to be feasible through a single, monolithic program and therefore not very “strategic.” Because non-formal education is aimed at different groups with different needs and requiring different approaches, strategic goals in non-formal education programs are better conceived in terms of problems that must be solved.
Let us look more specifically at goals in the area of literacy. Literacy officials were certain that they wanted to include literacy among the programs of the expanded non-formal education department. They were midway into a nationwide campaign in basic literacy. Once the campaign had been completed, how should they define a new goal in the area of literacy? They considered two alternatives. One alternative was in terms of a vision: for example, making every youth and adult self-sufficient in literacy. This would entail a post-literacy campaign to follow up the basic literacy campaign, providing out-of-school youth and adults with training that would consolidate their literacy skills.
In order to be rolled out efficiently, such a campaign would have to rely on a fairly standardized curriculum. Yet learners who have been given basic skills, come to a post-literacy course with different levels of competence, different needs, and different interests. A standardized course would be difficult to teach in these circumstances. An alternative goal was in terms of a problem: breaking the barrier between out-of-school youth and opportunities for their participation in productive work, community involvement, and family care. This would entail a variety of integrated literacy and practical skills training programs, each aimed at a specific group of adolescents or adults who had opportunities for immediate application of their new literacy skills.
Instead, the goal of a literacy program should be set in terms of problem solving. For example: The goal of the organization is to improve the management of crop pests by teaching farmers to read information on integrated pest management. Or, the goal is to reduce childhood illness by teaching mothers to read simple healthcare manuals; or, to improve civic responsibility by teaching community members to read locally published newsletters.
This kind of strategic thinking is certainly not new to leaders of effective non-formal education programs, most of which have well-defined beneficiary groups and goals. What about more far-reaching goals of organizations with a broader mandate, such as the department of non-formal education in Pakistan? Officials there are reluctant to limit the department’s goal to one of helping to solve the problems of a few groups of people, such as crop farmers or young mother recognize that a “vision” goal of every person applying literacy skills was well beyond their resources. To think strategically about goals for a national department of non-formal education, they needed to probe further into some organizing principles of non-formal education. Organizing principles of NFE programs What principles guide the design of non-formal education programs and thus should guide strategic thinking about non-formal education on a large scale?
In formal education, policy-makers, teachers and administrators can more or less dictate what students must learn and even how they must learn, because they hold the keys to certification and advancement through the system. Educators in non-formal programs do not have these incentives to offer. They can only attract people who want to learn something in order to improve their lives and or to gain access to opportunities otherwise out of reach. In other words, people who choose to participate in non-formal education programs are usually those who have taken responsibility for their own learning and achievement. An effective non-formal education program recognizes this important quality of its learners and keeps the learner in control of his or her learning. So one principle guiding non-formal education is that the learner must be allowed to take charge of his or her own learning. A corollary is that communities of learners must be encouraged to take responsibility for opportunities for their members to learn.
A good non-formal education program begins with activities that ensure that the community is in charge and that providers of education are following their lead. A second principle, as we have discussed, is that non-formal education providers must be responsive to learners’ needs and interests. One size does not fit all. This means that non-formal education providers must help create curricula and materials that respond to the specific needs of specific groups of learners. The provider must work with the group to clearly identify the problem to be solved and the resources needed to solve it.
A third principle is that, more often than not, those resources will entail more than just training. For example, women in a community who want some economic freedom may need credit, equipment, and supplies as well as skills training. The non-formal education provider may not furnish more than training, but it may need to help the women find the complements to the training that will make it useful. These three principles—learners taking responsibility for their own learning, providers responding to learners’ needs, and the need for resources that complement training—argue against nationwide campaigns or other programs that put the government in the driver’s seat and deliver a “one size fits all” package throughout the country. Unlike formal schools, with their uniform, nationwide curriculum—at least through the junior secondary level, each non-formal education program is targeted to a small, difficult-to-reach group of learners, who learn only when they take responsibility for doing so.
Resources: How to stretch the limits? In recognition of these principles, Literacy department wanted to help provide literacy skills to groups of people that urgently needed literacy skills, and they knew they might have to set some priorities among those groups. But they could not make these decisions without facing the other aspect of strategic planning: matching resources to goals. Pakistan, like most African governments, is putting a much larger portion of its national budget into primary education and higher education rather than Non formal education & literacy.
With its limited monetary resources and pressure for financing of higher and secondary education as well as primary education, the government had little left for non-formal education. What limited role, then, could government play in the provision of non-formal education? Many non-formal education programs had already been well established in Pakistan by non-government organization and other government agencies. None of them had large budgets, but about ten large ones were funded by international donors. Another hundred or so were new but eagerly seeking funding. About a dozen line ministries had training activities that could be characterized as non-formal education, including agencies in the ministries of agriculture, health, labor, and local government. What could an underfunded department of non-formal education do amidst this complex, variegated field of programs for small, targeted groups of learners? How could government officials think strategically about non-formal education in this context? Government first step should be to discard formal education as a model for thinking strategically about non-formal education.
Unlike the formal system, where the government’s goal is to envision and build a system that accommodates all children and most youth, the government in non-formal education can help those who have missed out on the formal school system—to incorporate training and education into the solution of their problems. Instead of helping teachers and administrators authorize students to move from one level of the system to the next, government can help non-formal education providers to authenticate courses that have practical, immediate application in learners’ lives. Instead of a uniform formal curriculum, the non-formal education department can foster myriad curricula. Instead of maintaining professional support systems such as teacher training colleges, and administrative and infrastructure support systems such as payroll and construction, the non-formal education department must encourage disparate groups of learners to find their own support. These tasks are not easy, and they may explain why governments and funding agencies are much more willing to build large school formal systems than to support the non-formal education sector.
Non-formal education does not lend itself to bureaucratic strategies. Government’s next step should be to invite the other providers of non-formal education—NGOs and other government organizations—to participate in its strategic planning. This invitation resulted from the department’s thinking strategically about resources. Officials recognized that the department’s budget was unlikely to grow much more than its current. They also recognized that by far the largest share of funding for non-formal education went through NGOs, and that a sizeable amount went through other government agencies. The department’s strategy, they concluded, should continue to rely on NGOs and other government agencies to provide non-formal education in the country. This was not simply because government did not have the funds to replace NGOs or take over their programs because NGOs also provide non-formal education in good way.. They were small, flexible, and mobile. Thus, one NGO or agency could help address the problems of one or more limited groups of people. Among them, they could use a variety of methods to help solve a variety of problems. They could form alliances, including alliances with organizations and agencies that provided complements to education and training, such as credit, equipment, supplies, and even work.
Government’s role: What is strategic? We have defined strategic planning as the process of setting goals and making the best use of resources to reach those goals. What makes planning strategic is creative thinking about choices among goals and among resource uses and among the dynamic interaction between goal choices and resource choices. If the government adopts a problem-solving goal, and if it relies on NGO and other government agencies to provide resources to non-formal education, what then is government’s role? Or, in terms of strategic thinking, how can government facilitate the use of available resources (mostly those of other organizations and agencies) in meeting its goals (problem solving)? In full consultation with all non-formal education providers, Literacy &NFE department has arrived at useful role of government in this situation, and thus it has set its goal: to help non-formal education providers improve the quality of their services. To do this, the department of non-formal education should work with providers to set standards, share information, and improve accessibility of services. To set standards, the department has considered several options. One is to write exemplary curricula in several courses, including literacy, that non-formal education providers could adopt or adapt to their own programs.
Another is to certify service providers to offer certain courses and perhaps to regulate providers, outlawing any that were not certified. A third is to prepare tests in literacy and math that would allow learners to certify their acquisition of skills equivalent to those taught in primary school. Literacy Department is still considering these options and which is the best to pursue. To share information, the department should established a sub-goal of offering workshops and forums at which non-formal education service providers within the country could keep informed about best practices and other developments. Forums would allow providers to regularly share with each other information about their programs, challenges, successes and problems. Workshops would allow those with some expertise to train others; they would also allow providers to present particular challenges and ask for help, and they would bring in experts from outside the country.
The department would also help finance visits by providers to regional meetings and to other countries with strong non-formal education programs. To improve accessibility of services, the department should convert the temporary centers it established for basic literacy training into more permanent village-based centres for non-formal education where non-formal providers could offer courses and information. This is a challenging goal, and officials are defining various options for reaching it. They are thinking strategically about its feasibility, including the likely need to limit this program to selected villages—at least in the near future. They are also looking for ways to mobilize local resources in establishing and operating village centers.
Literacy officials recognize that in order to meet two of its three sub-goals, information sharing and service improvements, the department should operate closer to the local level. Thus, they plan to open offices at the Tehsil level/Local level within the next year and have asked for new posts to be created. Officers at the Tehsil level will have authority and discretionary budgets that allow them to hold information sharing events and to help villages establish non-formal education centers. Thus, Literacy should work with its partners in non-formal education to determine its strategy for improving the quality of services. It should be thought strategically about goals, opting for addressing solvable problems rather than aiming at an unachievable vision. It should should be thought strategically about resources, opting for collaboration in mobilizing a range of resources rather than building its own monolithic structure.
Non-formal education will never be a static field, with all the necessary structures in place and resources on track. As the country develops, its economic and social needs change continually, and the role of education and training in meeting those needs changes as well. The department of non-formal education in Pakistan has begun and will continue to think strategically about its goals and resources. The department has found that the strategies best suited to supporting non-formal education are extremely different from those suited to supporting formal education. It has decided to frame its goals in terms of problems to be solved rather than visions to be achieved, and it has set goals in view of available resources. These resources are not limited to what the ministry of education budget can provide. Instead, they mobilize resources in the nongovernment sector, in other government agencies, and even in communities.
Q.4 critically examine the procedure of casting for non-formal education.
Non-formal education refers to education that occurs outside the formal school system. Non-formal education is often used interchangeably with terms such as community education, adult education, lifelong education and second-chance education. It refers to a wide range of educational initiatives in the community, ranging from home-based learning to government schemes and community initiatives. It includes accredited courses run by well-established institutions as well as locally based operations with little funding.
As non-formal education is diverse, this element has many aspects in common with other elements, particularly Lifelong learning. For the purposes of these guidelines, this element focuses on non-formal education for children and young people outside the regular school system. However, CBR personnel need to be aware that non-formal education reinforces marginalization and stigmatization, so if possible it should not be offered as the only educational option for children with disabilities. Inclusion in a regular school should be prioritized as every child’s right.
While non-formal education is often considered a second-best option to formal education, it should be noted that it can provide higher-quality education than that available in formal schools. Non-formal education can be preparatory, supplementary or an excellent alternative (where necessary) to formal schooling for all children.
Non-formal education expresses the core principles that should be at the heart of all good education. Non-formal education is all of the following.
Relevant to the learner’s life and the needs of society, and will be so in the future. Mechanisms for involving children, parents and local communities as well as educators in deciding the content of what is taught will ensure that non-formal education is relevant to the needs of communities and draws on local resources and personnel.
Appropriate to the level of the learner’s development, with new content and experiences being introduced when the learner is ready. Teaching is learner-centred and student-directed.
Flexible in what is taught and how it is taught, and to the needs of the different learners, e.g. adults and children who work, who live on the street, who are sick, who are in prison, who have a disability or who are victims of conflict or emergency, and flexible to traditional/indigenous learning styles.
Participatory in that learners are active participants in their learning, and that they and their families and communities are involved in running the non-formal education programme.
Protective of children from harm, and protective of their rights to survival and development. Places of non-formal education should be healthy and safe, and provide proper nutrition, sanitation and protection from harm.
Inclusive of all children regardless of background or ability, respecting and utilizing the differences between them as a resource for teaching and learning. Non-formal education often targets marginalized groups, e.g. nomadic communities, girls, people with disabilities, school dropouts and working children. For students with disabilities and other marginalized groups, non-formal education is very helpful, responding to and fitting their needs.
Quality: non-formal education programmes have the potential to be of exceptionally high quality, because they can respond more easily to the needs of individuals and specific groups in the community.
Help make existing non-formal education programmes inclusive
A wide range of non-formal education programmes may already be operating in the community. These programmes may be oriented towards literacy and basic education, health promotion (reproductive health issues, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS), environmental issues, agriculture, fishing, rural development and/or community development. Non-formal education programmes offer excellent opportunities for people with disabilities to be educated alongside their non-disabled peers.
CBR programmes can identify existing non-formal education programmes and encourage them to become inclusive rather than establish parallel programmes for people with disabilities. Making non-formal education programmes inclusive will involve encouraging the enrolment of people with disabilities in all types of programmes, and ensuring that teaching is conducted in accessible places and that teaching formats are accessible.
Government ministries, e.g. ministries of social welfare, education or youth, are often responsible for managing non-formal education programmes. These programmes are usually focused on literacy, adult learning and vocational training. CBR programmes need to find out about existing non-formal education policies, who is responsible for implementing these policies, the current focus of non-formal education, whether people with disabilities are included and whether grants or loans are available to enable them to participate. This will help CBR programmes to shape a strategy to include people with disabilities in existing non-formal education programmes. These may include nongovernmental organizations carrying out various development or awareness activities, faith-based schools, crèches or day care centre, schools to promote girls’ education and schools for older children with disabilities (who were not identified early or included in primary education), formal school dropouts and working children. CBR programmes can identify the different forms of community-based non-formal education initiatives available and facilitate the inclusion of people with disabilities, including children.
CBR personnel can work together with non-formal education facilitators to ensure teaching materials are accessible (e.g. large print, Braille, tape, audio facilities), that the environment is accessible and welcoming, and that students are supported in their learning. Lacking the rigid constraints of formal schools, non-formal education curricula often have greater flexibility and can be easily adapted to suit the needs of individuals. CBR programmes can help ensure that non-formal education:
- prioritizes basic literacy and numeracy;
- is oriented to practical skills, life skills and personal development;
- is effective in teaching decision-making skills;
- focuses on vocational skills, income-generating activities and job creation;
- empowers students, instilling confidence and a sense of ownership in programmes and projects – CBR programmes can ensure that disabled people’s organizations are involved in promoting the empowerment of students with disabilities;
- Promotes effective communication between students with disabilities and their families, peers and the community, e.g. through basic sign language, Braille, speaking clearly.
Q.5 Explain the impact of problems and issues on learning through non-formal education.
Education lays the foundation for political, social, and economic development of any country. An effective non-formal education system enables the nation to achieve that national goals. Pakistan as a developing country is facing serious problems in education since its inception therefore, the non-formal education system has failed to customize. There are many types the factors that cause this condition. This Blog examines some of the key issues problems that have plagued the non-formal education system in Pakistan. Use on the basis of critical reviews of available documents, this article outlines solutions for existing problems of the non-formal education system in Pakistan.
Today, Pakistan is faced with a host of problems, such as poverty, insecurity, sectarianism, and terrorism. The causes of these problems are intolerance, lack of general awareness and illiteracy are encouraged.
Through an inefficient non-formal education system. The important role of education is ignored in Pakistan which has led to it in low development in all spheres of life. Education is treated as an adopted child. The lowest budget we have provided with education program since the establishment of Pakistan which has weakened the foundation of quality in the non-formal education system. The non-formal education system, therefore, has failed to grow the nation economic, political, and social. After the expiration of 100 years and the acceptance of more than 25 years education policies, however the non-formal education system has failed miserably to rid the nation of this growth Economic, political and social problems. Problems associated with the non-formal education system in Pakistan lack of adequate budget, lack of policy implementation, inefficient testing system, defective body structures, and lack of quality of teachers, lack of education policy implementation, indirect education, low enrollment, high-level resignation, politics interference, outdated curriculum, corruption, mismanagement and supervision, lack of research. The problems mentioned above can be solved by developing sound policies as well planning and ensuring the effective implementation of policies. Education is a nourishing force. By constructive aspect of any society. Education enables people to work for their growth and development. Education therefore exposes the hidden power of human beings and develops them
The educational system was thought of by the founding fathers as the driving force behind it all
national goals. It was decided at the first 1974 national education conference held in Karachi that
the non-formal education system will operate in accordance with the national aspirations of Pakistan. The non-formal education system would do they are really related to the needs of the people of Pakistan. The father of the nation Quiad-e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah the main purpose of the non-formal education system in Pakistan was to improve the morale of the country of Pakistan generation. This national character will contain a high sense of commitment, social integrity, self-sacrifice nationalism and the morals of the people of Pakistan. To strengthen the role of education, various education commissions were also established committees were formed. But it’s funny to see that the performance has been so bad. Because this time the standard of education in the country is poor instead of making progress. One the problem that has affected the system is the growing gaps and the distance between education institutions and the community. Parental involvement in the non-formal education system is important in ensuring quality feature. Home is the child’s first school. Without parental involvement in the education process I Successful implementation of policies will remain a long way off. This will solve the problem of diversity as well. The non-formal education system in Pakistan despite major claims and programs faces the following problems which is analyzed by analysis below.
Lack of uniformity
The non-formal education system in Pakistan according to Iqbal (1981) is not based on the same principles.
Different educational programs operate simultaneously in the country. The curriculum also does not exist
a uniform full of different schools of thought. For example there is a different world among the attitudes of students from community learning institutions, Deeni Madaris and a few specialized institutions. This practice has accelerated the pace of social isolation. In accordance with Zaki (1989) this is the result of Pakistan’s segregated non-formal education system . This program has created a huge gap within the nation and even deeper into the cultural veins of the nation. The latest wave of terrorism and the proliferation of sectarian systems are the logical results of this divided system of education. As a result of the current divisive non-formal education system there has been a huge social divide in society for political, social, and economic reasons rather than social cohesion deepening is the foundation of the ideological and social fabric of the nation that leads to the further division of language and regional causes that may undermine social cohesion and social fabric.
Education without direction
A sound non-formal education system is important for all nations of the world. Each nation is building its own
generation on the basis of intensive training and education in social, political, economic and ideological
reasons. Pakistan’s non-formal education system because it has no direction and is weak could not develop and manage its people for legitimate political and social reasons. There is a lack of unity in the system and it is very common with regard to general education that does not bring skilled workers to the market. The result is there
increased unemployment. This condition can promote feelings of deprivation among many people. Due to
this has cultural and political tensions in the community. Apart from that, there is a lack of educational opportunities for science and technology. In this way the development of thinking, reasoning and art of students is not polished.
Curriculum is the tool through which the goals of education are achieved. The curriculum of
education in Pakistan does not meet the demands of the current times. It is an old and traditional curriculum which compels the learners to memorize certain facts and figures without taking into consideration the reality
that education is the holistic development of an individual. It places much emphasis on the psychology of the
learner as well which cannot be negated in the process of teaching and learning. The objectives of education
must be developed the psychological, philosophical and sociological foundations of education. The present
educational curriculum of Pakistan does not meet these modern standards of education and research. Hence
this curriculum is not promoting the interest of the learner for practical work, research, scientific knowledge
and reflective observation, rather, it emphasizes on memory and theory.
Lack of professional development of teachers
Training is essential for quality performance. Teaching is a challenging job. There is lack of training
opportunities for teachers in Pakistan. Although there various teacher training institutes in the country. These
institutes are either not well resourced or being poor run due to lack of fund and trained human resource such
trainers and administrators. There are no proper training standards in the available training institutes around
the country. Most of the training institutes have been closed down due to lack of funds. The courses being
run in the teacher education intuitions are outdated and very traditional which does not enhance the skills,
motivation and quality of teachers.
Lack of quality teachers
Teacher is the backbone of non-formal education system. The quality of teachers in Pakistani schools is
deplorable. According to a UNESCO report, the quality of the teachers and instruction in schools is of low
quality. This situation is grimmer in remote parts of Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan where even there are
no teachers available in schools. Research has found that teachers do not use new methods and strategies of
teaching and learning. Majority of the teachers do not know about lesson planning which renders them
incapable of dealing with various problems in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers encourage
cramming of the materials by students. Students do not know the use of libraries in educational institutions.
Thus the reading habits are decreasing among the students. Teachers are highly responsible for all this mess.
It is their professional responsibility to guide the students towards book reading. Teachers rely on lecture
methods which do provide an opportunity to students to participate in the process of education as active
member. They only note does the information and memorize this just to pass the examination. Thus students
are evaluated on the basis of memorization of facts and information rather than performance.
Poor supervisory standards
The role of supervision is to explore weaknesses or faults of teachers and showing a harsh treatment
in form of transfers to remote areas or even termination from services. Supervision is the monitoring of
teaching and learning. Through effective supervision techniques the process of teaching and learning could be
improved. The system of school supervision is aimless. There is not only lack of supervisory activities in
schools but the process of supervision itself does not bring any positive results for teachers and students. Supervision system is concerned with controlling and harassing the teachers rather than providing help and guidance for improvement of performance
Internal and external influences
Non-formal education system in Pakistan is not free from external and internal influences. Externally the system
has been made hostage to political interference and internally it is plagued by the bureaucratic manipulations. There is a greater favoritism and nepotism in matters of transfers, appointments and promotions. Due to
this the basic infrastructure of the non-formal education system in Pakistan has affected.
Lack of resources
Education resources such as books, libraries and physical facilities are important for smooth running of educational process. There are despairingly no facilities of books, libraries and reading materials in all
educational institutions of the country. Besides, there are overcrowded classrooms, inadequate teachers and
ill-equipped laboratories. This entire grim situation has resulted in a despair and low standard non-formal education system.
Since the inception of Pakistan a number of education policies were created. There has been lack of
political will on the part of successive government to implement the policies vigorously. The policies were
highly ambitious but could not be implemented in true letter and spirit. There has been problem of corruption,
lack of funds and gross inconsistency in successive planning on the part of various political regimes in
Pakistan. Moreover, in the overall policy formulation teachers have been ignored. They are regarded as
unimportant element which has led to alienation between the teachers and the system of education.
Low budgetary allocation for education
Finance is considered the engine of any system. The non-formal education system of Pakistan has been crippled
mainly due to scarce finance. The successive governments have been giving less than 2.5 percent budget to
the education sector which is not sufficient for the growing educational needs of the nation in the present
changing times. In many of the developing regional countries such as Sri Lanka and Bangladesh the
budgetary allocation for education has increased. But in Pakistan it is declining day by day.
According to International Crisis group, Pakistan is amongst the 12 countries in the world that spent
less than 2 percent of their GDP on education sector. With this insufficient budgetary allocation, the
country is hardly going to meet the targets of universalization of primary education as a signatory to the
Dakar Conference’s MDG goals by 2015 and onward.
Among other causes, corruption is the main contributing factor which has deeply affected the
non-formal education system of Pakistan. There is a weak system of check and balances and accountability which has encouraged many criminal elements to misappropriate funds, use of authority illegally and giving
unnecessary favors in allocation of funds, transfers, promotions and decision making. According to
Transparency International, Pakistan is included in the list of the most corrupt countries of the world. Due
to low salaries, teachers in search of decent life standards and to keep their body and soul together attempt to
unfair means in the examination and matters relating to certificates, degrees and so on.