Course Educational Psychology (840)
Semester: Autumn, 2021
Q.1 Discuss educational implications of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Also differentiate between primary and secondary needs
According to Gorman in the Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal, there are six levels to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The first level is physiological needs. The first level must be met in order to move onto any other levels in the hierarchy. Physiological needs include the basic necessities of life (Gorman, 2010) These needs may include food, water, and shelter. Once physiological needs are met, students will then need the second level of Maslow’s hierarchy. The second level is safety needs. Students need to feel safe in the environment in which they are learning with no outside threats if a student feels like they could potentially be harmed, this level of safety will not be met After physiological needs and safety needs are met, students will reach the third level of the hierarchy. In the third level of the hierarchy, students need to feel a feeling of belongingness and love. At this level, students will want to feel a sense of belonging with other people in their environment (Masiow, 1943), In this level, students need to identify with a group or groups of other students and need to feel that they do fit in.In the fourth level of the hierarchy, which can only be reached after levels one, two, and three are met. students now have to face esteem needs. In the fourth level, students want to have good esteem through recognition and achievement (Maslow, 1943) By getting recognition from others, students feel confident in their ability to learn. At the fifth level, self-actualization becomes important. At the fifth level, the student looks for ways to fulfil their personal potential for learning, and seek fulfillment in their leaming. At this level students wil strive for certain learning goals and seek to achieve them (Gorman, 2010). For example, at this level, students may want to receive an “A” on their test or may seek to read a certain number of books.
In the final and soxth level of the hierarchy, which can only be reached if all levels are previously met, students now are motivated through self-transcendence. At this level, students have already met many of their personal goals and are now motivated to improve the people around them (Gorman, 2010). By motivating and helping those around them, they in tur can have a better sense of understanding and can improve their personal experience at this level students are concerned about the leaming of other students. For example, a student who is particularly good at math, may sign up to be a math tutor.
How does Maslow’s Hierarchy Relate to Learning? Maslow’s Hierarchy is directly related to leaming through motivation. In order for students to succeed in the classroom,
they must be motivated to learn. When all levels of Masiow’s Hierarchy of Needs are met, students are at their full potential for learning (McLeod, 2007). For example, a student would not be able to enter a classroom with an empty stomach and the fear of dying from starvation and successfully leam. Each student has needs that must be met in order to maximize learning. The higher up in the hierarchy a student is, the more levels that are met, the better the motivation and therefore the more learning that the student will experience.
How Are Students With Exceptionalities Affected by Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
Students with exceptionalities are especially affected by Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. According to Norman Kunc, all children are children and all children need to feel a sense of belonging (Kunc, 1992). In order for students with exceptionalities to be motivated to learn, they must have a sense of belonging. Belonging, the third level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, may be difficult for students with exceptionalities to obtain because they may have leaming or physical disabilities that may set them apart from their peers in many schools, students suffer with difficulty in school because basic needs of Masiow’s Hierarchy of Needs are not
being met. These students are typically students of low-socioeconomic status. Because students of low-socioeconomic status are not learning at the same rate as their peers, they are often misabeled as Teaming disabled”. Many Emes however, these students are simply not having the lower levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs met (Faye, 1983). Many of these students may be too worried about when their next meal is or where they are going to sleep that night to even worry about what they are learning in school. It is important to separate true learning disabilities from students who just need to have their basic needs in life met in order to learn. By separating these two populations, the student’s needs for leaming can more easily be met by the district or teacher.
Theory in Application
As an educator, it will be important to consider Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs for every student in the classroom. It will, however, be even more important to specifically link Masiow’s Hierarchy of Needs, students with exceptionalities, and specific practices in the classroom.
Segregating students into special education classrooms will not provide a sense of belonging for students with exceptionalities in the school. For this reason, students should be included in the least restrictive environment possible. For example, a student who does poorly on English tests, should not be put into a separate special education classroom. but rather be put into a general education English classroom with the proper supports for that student to succeed Universal Design is a great way to give students with exceptionalites a sense of belonging. Universal design allows a teacher to plan ahead of time to avoid any disasters for a student who has a physical or intellectual disability (Hall, 2012). For example, if a student in your classroom uses a wheel chair, it will be important to make the classroom as handicap accessible as possible before school even starts. This way, a student will feel “normal” because he or she will easily be able to maneuver through the classroom just like his or her peers.
Another way that universal design may be used is with students with IEPS. For example, if a student’s IEP says that he or she requires a study guide three days in advance of an assessment, a study guide can be provided for all students and not just the student with the IEP. This way, all students will benefit, and the student with the exceptionality will never be different from his or her peers. By making each student the same, a student with an exceptionality will have a better sense of belonging.
A good educator will also recognize each individual student’s strengths and help him or her to excel in those areas providing the student with a sense of worth. This relates specifically to the esteem level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
Students with disabilities especially will need a sense of esteem. One way to do this in the classroom, is to provide differentiated instruction and also give several examples that may interest each student. Also, it may be possible to ask a specific question about a concept that you know the student is understanding well. This way, each student, even the students with exceptionalities, are participating in the class and receiving feedback
1 Primary or Basic needs
- Secondary needs
Primary Or Basic Needs – These are things required by all families for survival. They are so important that no family can do without them.
- Food: The family members required food of different kind for survival.
- Housing: Adequate shelter is required for its protection and comfort.
- Clothing: Family members need good clothes to cover their nakedness and protected from harsh weather, insects bites, bruises and cuts.
- Health care: it is important that the family should provide the health care needs of its members
- Education: Adequate education is required by family members in other to be enlightened and progress.
- SECONDARY NEEDS- These are often referred to as wants. They are things which a family desires or wishes to have, even though they can do without them.
Secondary needs include, transportation, extra clothing, pocket money, entertainment etc.
- What is family needs?
- What is the difference between family needs and wants?
- What are the basic needs?
- List type of needs.
Q2 Discuss different theories of leaming. Which leaming theory is suitable to teach distance leumer of Allama Iqbal Open University?
The difference between the traditional formal system of education and open distance system of education lies essentially in the teaching methodology. As far as the curriculum is concerned, it is more or less the same.
educational theorists in learning suggests, there’s actually an impressive variety of educational approaches to the art and science of teaching. Many of them have been pioneered by educational theorists who’ve studied the science of learning to determine what works best and for whom.
“Learning is defined as a process that brings together personal and environmental experiences and influences for acquiring, enriching or modifying one’s knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, behavior and worldviews,” notes the International Bureau of Education. “Learning theories develop hypotheses that describe how this process takes place.”
Generally, there are five widely accepted learning theories teachers rely on:
- Behaviorism learning theory
- Cognitive learning theory
- Constructivism learning theory
- Humanism learning theory
- Connectivism learning theory
Educational theorists, teachers, and experts believe these theories can inform successful approaches for teaching and serve as a foundation for developing lesson plans and curriculum.
The university is part of the Ministry of Education/Higher Education Commission system and abides by the mutually agreed curricula. The difference essentially lies in terms of teaching methodology and for reaching out to the people in the four corners of the country at their doorsteps. The university employs non-formal method of correspondence, radio and television broadcasts, special textbooks and reading materials prepared on self-learning basis, part-time teachers (tutors) engaged nearest to the student’s residences. And a system of study centers for applied training is spread throughout Pakistan.
Study Centers & Information Technology
The concept of study centers was first employed in the university for teaching practice in its education programs. Students enrolled in its PTC, CT and B. Ed. programs, were given teaching practice in the selected schools, and designated as the study centers. Recently, the concept of study centers for applied and practical training has been used extensively for professional and technical courses, for example, Business Administration, Computer Science and Information Technology.
Radio And TV Programs
The traditional method of teaching through correspondence and providing guidance through tutors was gradually supplemented by radio and television programs. The development of IET and its technical competence has made it possible for the university to produce quality audio and video programs, which are regularly broadcast on radio and television, and are also sent to the students in the form of audio and video cassettes. The IET facilities and Printing Press is being refurbished with 480 million rupees grant from JICA. The university is presently allowed one hour every day on PTV World which is not sufficient, for providing meaning full support in the large number of degrees and diplomas offered by the university,
Latest Development In The Communication & Information Technology
The latest development in the Communication and information Technology, particularly, the Satellite and Internet, have revolutionized the system of Distance Education. Satellite and Internet are being extensively used as a medium of instruction as well as a source of information. As we harness this technology for Distance Education, the traditional correspondence method and tutorial systems may be replaced by Distance teaching through the Satellite and Internet.
In order to guide the students during the semester, part-time tutors are appointed throughout the country out of the roster of qualified experts in each field available with the concerned region. Thus a group of students is assigned to a teacher/expert. A student seeks continuous guidance through correspondence, personal visits or face to face group coaching during, the tutorials. The tutorials are arranged at a Study Center established in institutions of formal education, or in the Regional Offices.
Many of the University programs and courses have audio/video or non-broadcast media support to help the students in learning and understanding concepts. These programs are broadcast / telecast according to a given schedule. Their copies are available at selected Study Center and for purchase by the students or any interested individual.
Students are required to submit two or four assignments to the tutors as per schedule who evaluates them, returns to the students with his positive comments. It is a student performance record and mode of feedback for the student. Assignments form a compulsory part of final evaluation of student. Non-credit courses usually do not have assignments or examination. In some courses students have to fill in a questionnaire based on its content at the end of the course.
Practical training for some courses is arranged at the study centers to develop necessary skills. Students, in certain subjects, are required to attend workshops at the end of the course and thus students have an opportunity not only to interact with their peer groups but also experts. The students are also required to make presentation during the workshops.
Face to Face Teaching
Has recently being started from those courses which require intensive practical/lab work or skill development.
Of short term and long term duration in industrial or business, concerns for Computer Science, BBA and MBA program.
OThe Final Examination is given on the pattern of public examination for each course at the end of semester. The weightge of assignment marks are 30% accept few programs i.e. BBA, MBA as detailed in respective program. The Final Examination counts 70%, while the aggregate require to pass course, generally 40% except where specify.
learning theories important
It is part of the human condition to crave knowledge. Consequently, numerous scientists, psychologists, and thought leaders have devoted their careers to studying learning theories. Understanding how people learn is a critical step in optimizing the learning process.
It is for this reason that teacher colleges or educator preparation programs spend so much time having teacher candidates study human development and multiple learning theories. Foundational knowledge of how humans learn, and specifically how a child learns and develops cognitively, is essential for all educators to be their most effective instructors in the classroom.
Pamela Roggeman, EdD, dean of University of Phoenix’s College of Education, explains her take on the role learning theory plays in preparing teachers:
“Just as no two people are the same, no two students learn in the exact the same way or at the exact same rate. Effective educators need to be able to pivot and craft instruction that meets the needs of the individual student to address the needs of the ‘whole child.’ Sound knowledge in multiple learning theories is a first step to this and another reason why great teachers work their entire careers to master both the art and the science of teaching.”
Although espousing a particular learning theory isn’t necessarily required in most teaching roles, online learning author and consultant Tony Bates points out that most teachers tend to follow one or another theory, even if it’s done unconsciously.
So, whether you’re an aspiring or experienced teacher, a student, or a parent of a student (or some combination thereof), knowing more about each theory can make you more effective in the pursuit of knowledge.
Q3 What idea personality development? Being teacher how can you play influential role in persoanlity development of students?
A great teacher takes a hand, opens a mind, and touches a heart.”
Teachers are the role models for the students. A modern-day teacher has gone beyond giving marks, lectures, making exams, and teaching. A teacher’s job is to influence and create a solid foundation for the future of society. With their teaching styles, they leave a lasting impression on the students. A teacher, either through positive or negative attitude in communication, affects the child. The approach of the teacher to students is related to their growth.
A teacher plays an important role in the student’s personality development. When the teacher asks questions, shows interest, understands their thoughts, and appreciates, it increases their motivation. Giving feedback for their work, complimenting, and wanting to listen helps them. Non-verbal actions and gestures like smiling improve the students learning development. When the teacher supports the student, it makes a lot of difference in his personality. Students whose teachers displayed positive attitudes will have a positive attitude.
Let us find out how the teacher’s attitude and behavior affect the student’s learning?
The teacher’s personality plays a crucial role
The personality of the teacher cannot be separated from the teaching and the thinking. A teacher’s behavior reflects his personality. His behavior should be open-minded and confident. So if the personality of the teacher is powerful and strong, the students will benefit. A good teacher is the one who can weave a web of connections between themselves, students, and subjects. They know their subjects well and prepare them with a variety of examples. They bring to life their subjects and make them vivid and imaginative.
The characteristics that make a great teacher are:
- Strong communication skills to build a teacher-student relationship.
- Friendly teaching style to foster adaptiveness.
- Impeccable listening skills to develop a bond with students.
- Deep understanding of the subject and knowledgeable.
- Excellent organization skills to manifest growth.
- Community building skills that create oneself.
- Influence or Impact on the student
A teacher’s attitude can help or hurt a student’s achievements and state of mind. Studies show that a negative teacher can impair academic achievements. It also hampers the mental growth of the student and increases stress. Teachers who are humiliating and sarcastic are harmful. They instil fear and leave a child feeling belittled. Teachers who are harsh and loud tend to lower the child’s self-esteem. They work against the basic principle of growth of a child.
Personality of teacher
Those who show indifference to the child may leave a lingering feeling of negativity. The students may feel overwhelmed by the bad remarks of the teacher. Teachers who nag students, underestimate them may leave them with lower self-esteem. Some teachers are quick to react and have a bad temper. The students will hate them, and they will be less approachable. Some teachers are rigid; they take everything seriously and never accept mistakes. This behavior will hurt the students. Some students may even emulate such teachers and become one of them.
Effective methods to work on
The teacher’s goal is to ensure what they want to teach and find a path to get there. For this, the teacher has to take the student’s abilities into consideration. They have to master the skills of being patient and taking care of their needs. To ensure that the student understands better, not get stressed while learning. They have to motivate them constantly and take care of their needs. Give them lots of encouragement and avoid unnecessary insults. To focus more on the struggling students and shaping their future. Tapping their inner strength and allowing them to grow into finer human beings.
Another good method is to call their parents when they did something positive and showed off their good work. Allowing them to open up by being liberating with them. Treat them with dignity and respect. Some teachers have an attitude problem. They expect the students to follow them blindly without any motivation. When the teacher does that, the student suffers. The teachers are driven by ‘How can I get better at this?’ which make tons of difference. Another effective way to consider is how much does the teacher want to learn, improve and grow? This is the key to a good teacher.
Teaching is both a science and an art. The teacher can make teaching more enjoyable and constructive. The best teachers are those who can maximize the learning potential of the student in a classroom. Furthermore, fruitful results will be obtained if he considers himself not just an instructor who teaches. But also the one who cares about the needs of the students and behaviour. Teachers who try to perform their job righteously and devote their time are crucial. The teachers that can balance patience and discipline will go a long way.
As rightly stated by Brad Henry, “A good teacher can inspire hope, ignite the imagination, and instill a love of learning.”
Role of Education in Personality Development
Education gives Knowledge: Knowledge is important. If you sit in a group of people without any knowledge, you will be considered not less than a fool. Lack of knowledge can cut down the pleasing effect of politeness and a good dressing sense. Knowledge will let you indulge in a good discussion with your fellow mates and will leave your unforgettable imprint in their mind. It is just like a magical booster to your personality. Education increases your intellectual growth. Education can keep your mind directed in the right direction. It can give you a motive in your life. So you will get to know what you are doing and will be its consequences. For every step you take in life, you will know why you are doing so. This will reflect in your personality and enhance it.
Education can Teach you Ethics:
To be successful, you need to face many defeats. You will have to accept the defeats. Education will teach you to use fair means no matter what happens. A cheater is always a cheater and this reflects his personality. The badge of a cheater is more than enough to completely ruin your personality. Education will teach you to be fair to everyone. In every situation, you need to avoid cheating and dishonesty. Education will give you many lessons so that you can differentiate between what is right and what is wrong. And when the time comes, you will know what the truthful track is and you will opt for that. Remember, lies are temporary and the truth is forever. So whatever personality you make by incorrect means, it will be temporary. Only fair means will offer you a good and a permanent personality.
Education Boosts your Confidence:
Confidence is a must for personality development. Education is the only booster which can help you in passing the hurdle of low self-confidence. Most of the people are usually very shy. Education gives them a chance to develop self-confidence. Education system gives them a chance e to sit with other people, talk with them, befriend them, have a healthy communication with them, learn new things and clear the doubts. Every little step will increase your confidence. Every new person you meet in your day, you need a lot of confidence to talk to them. We can see that children studying in schools can easily talk with other people without any shyness. They can also address a group of people. This is because the education system is injecting confidence in them and they are using it to enhance their personality.
Education can give you Opportunities and Experience:
A good personality needs opportunities. Opportunities can be considered a way to show off your personality. A personality without an opportunity is of no use. Your personality has nothing to do if you have to just sit idle at your home. Opportunities and experience are interrelated. Opportunities give you experience and experience gives you more opportunities. Opportunities to teach you many new things. There are some things which can only be learnt through experience, not through education. But then also these experiences come from opportunities given by education.
Education can teach you how to Behave:
A good behaviour towards others is always appreciated and admired. As quoted above, a wrong behaviour can spoil the whole personality that you have created for many years. Code of conduct that is how to behave is also taught by the education system. Education can teach how to act when you are in a conference or at a party, or somewhere else. Education can teach how to talk to other people. Education can teach you what to speak and what not to. In the modern education system, you are surrounded by many people around you and you need to communicate with them some or the other time. This can be considered as a practical test for your code of conduct. You can develop into a very good person if you can learn how to behave.
Education can Develop Healthy Habits:
Healthy habits can be associated with good manners. It includes how to eat, how to walk, how to talk, and many others things. These things are taught to students from the very beginning. These are the first things taught to them when they join the school. An important factor in healthy habits is cleanliness within you and outside you. This is also taught in the education system. Schools often teach the student to keep their surroundings neat and clean. They also teach them to stay physically neat and clean. Bathing daily, cutting nails, regular haircut, are all part of cleanliness within you. At some point in time, these things affect the personality of a person.
Education can help Increase Memory and Thinking Skills:
Memory and thinking skills can be considered as showstoppers of your brain. Your thinking skills and memory can easily impress anyone. Excellent thinking skills will lead to healthy discussion and will give you an unforgettable personality. Sharp memory skills will let you remember previously met faces and facts. When you remember something which you have not encountered for a long time it is quite impressive. It leaves a positive remark on your personality. You and your personality will be praised. Memory and thinking skills are god gifted to some people and others get this skill from education. Education can sharpen these skills.
Education makes a Person Disciplined:
Discipline is always overlooked. But it is a very important trait in personality development. Discipline is what differentiates between man and wild. Obviously behaving wildly will show your non-serious attitude and an unwanted and unappreciated personality.in the schools, from beginning to passing, students are taught to stay in the discipline. In all professional areas, discipline is a must. If you are undisciplined, you will be soon kicked out of there. On the other hand, if you will always be in discipline, everyone will praise your work, everyone will like you, and no one will have any problems with you. This is what a good person wants
Q4 Define intelligence in your own words Keeping in view different types of intelligence tests, how would you measure intelligence of students? Explain with examples.
What Is Intelligence
It might seem useless to define such a simple word. After all, we have all heard this word hundreds of times and probably have a general understanding of its meaning. However, the concept of intelligence has been a widely debated topic among members of the psychology community for decades.
Intelligence has been defined in many ways: higher level abilities (such as abstract reasoning, mental representation, problem solving, and decision making), the ability to learn, emotional knowledge, creativity, and adaptation to meet the demands of the environment effectively.
The different types of intelligenceWhile some types of intelligences are generally more recognised, and sometimes even more valued, the reality is no one type of intelligence is better than another. Instead it is more important to know what type of intelligence you have. This can help you to maximise your inherent advantages and highlight an area where you may need to exercise some extra grit to succeed. What kind of intelligence or smarts are you?What types of intelligence do I have?The word intelligence often conjures up images of maths and science or IQ tests and complicated algorithms. People who are thought to have high intelligence are valued and often considered a cut above the rest. What is intelligence? And, is there only one kind of smarts? What if you are useless at maths, but brilliant at languages…does that make you unintelligent? Or do you just need a different way of framing things when you studying?9 Types of intelligence in PsychologyThese are the very questions that Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner addressed in his 1983 book, “Frames of the Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.” Here, Gardener explains that people do not have a set intellectual capacity, but rather many kinds of intelligences, for example a person can be musically intelligent, but terrible with numbers.In his book, Gardener argues that traditional psychometric views of measuring intelligence are too narrow and that they can’t possibly capture all the abilities and talents people possess. He states that it would be incomplete to judge someone’s intelligence by one or two factors alone. Instead to help us understand ourselves better, Gardener explains the nine types of intelligence with examples.Gardeners
types of intelligence
- Naturalistic intelligence Have you noticed how some people can make anything grow? It’s as if they have a ‘green thumb’. Others connect with animals easily and some are completely at home in nature. Naturalistic intelligence describes people who are sensitive to the natural world. They enjoy being outside, nurturing and exploring the environment. People with high naturalistic intelligence are sensitive to subtle changes in nature and the environment around them
.2. Musical intelligence Not everyone has green thumbs and a love for the great outdoors. Instead, some people are naturally drawn towards music. People with musical intelligence are generally more sensitive to sound and often pick up on noises that others would not normally be aware of. They have an excellent sense of rhythm and the ability to recognise tone and pitch. More often than not they play an instrument or are involved in music as a profession.
- Logical–mathematical intelligenceOf all the types of intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence is the most similar to what we typically associate with general intelligence. People with this type of intelligence are excellent at maths and working with numbers. They can recognise patterns easily and work out processes in a logical manner. They have excellent reasoning skills and can often talk themselves out of trouble. People with high logical–mathematical intelligence are often drawn to games involving strategy and the solving of puzzles
.4. Existential intelligence While many of us are happy with going about our lives day by day, people with high levels of existential intelligence often think more deeply about daily occurrences. They ask questions similar to why are we here? And, what is the point of all this? They are often deeply philosophical thinkers and they have the capacity to look for answers to questions bigger than themselves. Existential intelligence is often called spiritual or moral intelligence.
- Interpersonal intelligence Do you have a natural ability to get on well with others? Are you good at reading people and social situations? If this is the case, chances are that you have a high level of interpersonal intelligence. People with this type of intelligence are often good at reading verbal and non-verbal cues as well as determining temperament and mood. They feel empathy easily. Often this type of intelligence can be found in leaders, politicians, social workers, life coaches and psychologists.
- Linguistic intelligence Linguistic intelligence is the type of intelligence that is most commonly shared by humans. It involves our ability to think in words and use these words to make oneself understood. People with high linguistic intelligence are very good at putting their feelings and thoughts into words in order to make others understand them. They are drawn to activities such as reading, writing and public speaking
.7. Bodily–kinaesthetic intelligence People high in bodily–kinaesthetic intelligence have an excellent sense of timing and a great mind-body coordination as well as fine and gross motor skills. They are able to use their bodies to convey feelings and ideas and, as a result, they often take up roles in dance, sports or medicine. They use their bodies to solve problems and create something meaningful.
- Intra–personal intelligenceDo you understand your thoughts, feelings and emotions and are you able to use this understanding in your everyday life? If this is the case, you probably have high intra-personal intelligence. Intra-personal intelligence refers to an understanding of oneself and the human condition as a whole. They are known as ‘self-smart’ people and, despite having a deeper understanding of their own emotions, they are often quite shy. Philosophers, spiritual leaders, psychologist and writers usually have high intra-personal intelligence.
- Spatial intelligenceSpatial intelligence is defined as the ability to consider things in three dimensions. People with high spatial intelligence are generally very creative and usually have a vivid imagination, high artistic ability and excellent spatial reasoning. These people are often referred to as ‘picture smart’ and can be found in professions such as architecture, design and map reading.
Q5 What is difference between individual tests and group tests?
Individual Test and Group Test
The term intelligence refers to the individual differences in mental ability. Intelligence tests can be administered individually or in a group.
A test can be said individual test in the sense that they can be administered to only one person at a time. Many of the tests in these scales require oral responses from the examinee or necessitate the manipulation of the materials.
Many individual tests require carefuloral questioning or close observation of responses. On the Stanford-Binet Test, for example, the verbal part includes direct question and answer exchanges between the examiner and examinee, and the performance part contains items which require observation and timing. On the TAT, a “picture-story” technique, the examiner attempts to gain insight into the subject’s personality dynamics by asking questions about the characters, the ending, and where the story came from. These operations could not be carried out on a group basis.
Individual intelligence tests are preferred by the psychologist in clinics, hospitals and other settings where clinical diagnoses are made, and where they serve not only as measures of general intelligence but also as means of observing behavior in a standard situation.
Group test was developed to meet a pressing practical need. Group test can be administered to a group of persons at a time.
A Group Test consists of tests that can be administered to a large group of people at one time. This is opposite of an Individual Test, which is administered to one person at a time, typically by someone receiving payment to administer the test. Most testing today is administered as group tests considering the many benefits that are associated with these tests. Considering the many standardized tests that are administered each year, it is understandable that many of these are group tests. Examples of group tests include statewide testing throughout K-12 students, placement examinations into college, and placement examinations into graduate coursework.
Group tests were designed as mass testing instruments; they not only permit the simultaneous examination of large groups but they also use simplified instruction and administration procedures. There by requiring a minimum of training on the part of examiner.
Advantages and Disadvantages of individual tests:
Examiners can pay more attention to the examinee.
Examiners can easily encourage the examinee and observe his behavior during the test more closely.
Scores on individual tests are not as dependent on reading ability as scores in group tests.
It is very time-consuming
This type of test requires a highly-trained examiner.
It costs more than the group test.
Individual Test •
Individual Administrated Academic Aptitude Test are divided into two major individual intelligence Test Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale fourth edition Wechsler intelligence Scale for children-III (WISC-III)
Individual Test This Published by Houghton Miffin.
The Fourth addition is appeared in 1985. This test has 15 subset divided into 4 areas 1-Verbal reasoning , 2-Quantitative reasoning, 3- Abstract/verbal reasoning, 4-Short term memory. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
- How Stanford Binet IQ test is calculated? • The Stanford-Binet intelligence test used a single number, known as the intelligence quotient (or IQ), to represent an individual’s score on the test. This score was calculated by dividing the test taker’s mental age by his or her chronological age and then multiplying this number by 100. • For example, a child with a mental age of 12 and a chronological age of 10 would have an IQ of 120 (12/10 x 100)
Individual Test Wechsler intelligence Scale for children-III (WISC-III)
This test is published by Psychological Corporation. It is appropriate for students between 6 and 16 years of age Wechsler test include 1. Verbal IQ scores 2. Performance Non-verbal IQ Scores 3. Full –Scale IQ Scores
- Information Similarities Arithmetic Vocabulary Comprehensi on Digital span Picture completion Coding Picture arrangement Block Design Objective assembly Symbol research Verbal Performance • This verbal score is the average of the first 5 verbal subset scores. • The performance IQ is the average of the first 6 performance subset. • The full-IQ score result from all 11 subset scores.
- Group Administrate Academic Aptitude Tests are divided into 3 types. Cognitive Ability Test Otis Lennon School Ability test Test of cognitive skills
Cognitive Ability Test
- This test include non-reading test and multilevel test that provide verbal quantitative and non verbal score • This test normed with Test of Basic test skill & Test of Achievement Proficiency. • Non-reading Test have 4 subset i-e Oral vocabulary ,Relational concept, Quantitative, Multimental • The verbal test include Vocabulary , sentence completion, verbal classification and verbal analogies. • The Quantitative test measure Quantitative comparison, Number series & equation Building. • The Non-verbal include Figure Analogies, Figure classification & Figure synthesis.
- Otis-Lennon School Ability Test • This test based on Levels of material available.This test is also called Otis Quick scoring Mental Ability Test or Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test. This test require 60 to 70 minutes to administer. • This test measure comprehension verbal reasoning, pictorial reasoning, Figure reasoning, Quantitative reasoning & yield score for verbal ,non-verbal & total performance. • This test normed with Metro-Politan Achievement Test and Stanford Achievement Test to enhance identification of aptitude achievement.
. Group Test
- Test Of Cognitive Skills Second Edition: • This test is appropriate for grades 2-12 • Six level of this test covered the grade range. • This test has four subset at each level Sequences, Analogies, Memory and Verbal Reasoning
Difference between Individual & Group test
A individual test can be administered to only one person at a time. The individual test mainly done to observe characteristic to of individual. Expensive to administrate . These test involves one to one consultation with individual and verbal and non verbal subsets. Example: intelligence test by school psychologist Group test can be administered to a group of persons at a time. Group test mainly done to meet the practical needs. Cheaper to administrate. These tests include multiple choice items. Example: traditional college exams Individual test Group test
What is Measured in Group & Individual test?
Your ability to influence others. Your level of involvement in performing a group task. Your communication style – are you kind, aggressive, dominant, controlling, accommodating, listening when interacting with others? The quality of your contribution to the team.
How are you measured in a group or individual exercise?
Your individual and others style of interaction during the entire group activity are observed and assessed by qualified observers who are typically psychologists or people with special qualifications. The group activity is used as an opportunity to measure your ability to work and interact with others such as your communication skills, listening skills, influencing skills, negotiating skills, social confidence, ability to encourage others, decision making skills.
Advantages and Disadvantages of group tests:
- can be administered to very large numbers simultaneously
- simplified examiner role
- scoring typically more objective
- large, representative samples often used leading to better-established norms
- A highly verbal group test can have a higher validity co-efficient than an individual test.
- Scores on the group test are generally dependent on the reading ability.
- Information obtained by the group test generally less accurate than the individual tests
- the examiner has less opportunity to establish rapport, obtain cooperation, and maintain interest
- not readily detected if examinee tired, anxious, unwell
- evidence that emotionally disturbed children do better on individual than group tests
- examinee’s responses more restricted
- normally an individual is tested on all items in a group test and may become boredom over easy items and frustrated or anxious over difficult items
- Individual tests typically provide for the examiner to choose items based on the test takers prior responses – moving onto quite difficult items or back to easier items. So individual tests offer more flexibility.