Apna Business PK

Course Educational Psychology (840)

Semester: Autumn, 2021

LeveE MA. M / M.Ed.


Question 1

 Critically examine differential method of educatinal psychology. Do you think this method effective to teach at primary level?

Meaning of Psychology

The word “psychology” comes form the Greek word (Psyche mean Soul, Logos mean Science), thus the meaning of Psychology is the science of soul.

Education and Psychology

Psychology is the science of behaviour, the activities of animate creature, which can be observed and measured in an objective way.

Education in the narrow sense is the modification of behaviour of children in a controlled environment. To shape the behaviour of the subject and bring some positive or negative changes, it is necessary to study the science of behaviour. The developmental stages and characteristics of children are very essential factors from which the teacher must aware in order to be a successful teacher. If the teacher has no knowledge of children psychology, how can we expect from him that he would succeed in bringing about the desirable changes in children?

Definition of Educational Psychology;

Educational psychology is the application of psychological findings in the field of education. Educational psychology is the systematic study of the development of the individual within the educational settings. It helps the teacher to understand the students and enhance their skills.

Educational psychology is an applied discipline which combines the two different fields of education and psychology. It is the scientific study of human behaviour by which it can be understood, predicted and directed by education to achieve goals of life.


Judd describes educational psychology as, “a scientific study of the life stages in the development of an individual from the time he is born until he becomes an adult.”

Contribution of Educational Psychology

One simple question may be asked as to why educational psychology should be taught to prospective teachers in training colleges. The educational psychology helps the teachers in the following ways;

  1. To understand developmental characteristics

Children pass through different stages of development in life as infancy, childhood and adolescence. These developmental stages have their own characteristics and demands.

  1. To understand the nature of class room learning

With the help of education psychology the teacher understand the students and their need and problems, it help teacher in learning process in general and class-room learning in particular.

  1. To understand individual differences

With the help of psychology teacher understand the individual’s differences. Teacher faces a class of 30 to 50 students who have a different range of individual differences. Teacher with the knowledge of education psychology and individual differences may adjust his teaching to the needs and requirements of the class.

  1. To understand effective teaching methods

Every day experience shows that lack of proper methods of teaching sometimes results in failure of communication in the classroom. The educational psychology gives us the knowledge of appropriate methods of teaching. It helps in developing new strategies of teaching.

  1. knowledge of mental health

Mental health of the student and teacher is very important for efficient learning. With the help of educational psychology, the teacher can understand the various factors, which are responsible for the mental health and maladjustment.

  1. Curriculum construction


Psychological principles are also used in formulating curriculum for different stages.

  1. Measurement of learning out-comes

Psychological tools help the teachers to evaluate the learning out-come of the students. it helps the teacher to evaluate his own performance.

  1. Guidance for the education of exceptional children

Most important contribution of educational psychology is the provision and organization of the educational psychology is the provision and organization of the education for the education of sub normal children.

Methods of educational psychology

Different types of techniques are used by researchers to collect data and conduct research studies. With the increasing use of educational technology in education, psychology and other social sciences, new research strategies are evolved.


  1. It gives information about one’s own self which is difficult by other methods.
  2. It is an easy method and needs no equipment
  3. It makes a base for other methods such as experimental and observation method








  1. Observation

With the development of psychology as an objective science of behaviour, the method of introspection was replaced by careful observation of human and animal behaviour. Observation literally means looking outside oneself. It is a very important method for collecting data in almost all type of research studies. Different type of Observation used in research, direct or indirect, scheduled or unscheduled, natural or artificial, participant and non-participant. But there are two basic types of observation. They are;

  1. Natural observation

In natural observation the observer observe the specific behavioral and characteristics of subjects in natural settings and the subject does not aware of the fact that their behaviour is being observed by someone. The teacher can observe the behaviour of his student in the playground or in any other social gathering without making him conscious. Natural observation can be done any where with out any tools.

  1. Participant observation

In participant observation the observer became the part of the group which he wants to observe.

Observational study is particularly very important and produces significant results on developmental characteristics of children. No doubt that observation is a scientific technique of collecting data, whose results can be verified and relied upon to locate behavioral problems


  1. this type of observation is a natural and normal way of knowing the external world but also the mind of the subject
  2. This method is objective in nature and free form personal bias and prejudice.
  3. Through this method we can observe as many children as we like


  1. This method id quite suitable for children and abnormal person who can not be examined through introspection.
  2. this can be used any time and anywhere


  1. Observation is useful only for collecting data about overt behaviour which is manifested in a number of activities. This overt behaviour does not provide reliable information regarding the internal mental process. We can only guess about the mental state of the individual on the basis of overt behaviour which may or may not be true. It becomes very difficult to draw any conclusion in case of adults who can hide their actual behaviour in the presence of the observer.
  2. Subjectivity of interpretation is another limitation of this method. The observer may interpret his sensation of external stimulus on the bias of his past experience. He may be biased in his interpretation. It has also been found in some studies that strong personal interests tend to make researcher see only those things which he wants to see.
  3. Observation is subject to two types of errors, sampling error and observer error. The first error occurs because of inadequacies of selecting situation to be observed. The observer error may be due to knowledge and background of the situation to be observed. Because some time the observer is not familiar with the total situation and hence he may commit error.
  4. Experimental Method

This method has been developed in psychology by the continuous efforts by psychologists to make objective and scientific study of human behaviour. One of the major contributions of the behaviorism is the development of experimental method to understand, control and predict behaviour. It is the most precise, planned systematic observation. The experimental method uses a systematic procedure called experimental design. Experimental design provides important guide lines to the researcher to carry out his research systematically. The lay out of the design depends on the nature of the problem that an investigator wants to investigate. The lay out or design of the experimental method is as follows:

  1. selecting a research topic
  2. formulating hypotheses
  3. selecting an appropriate design
  4. collect data
  5. analyzing and interpreting data
  6. discussion and conclusions

Experiments may be conducted in a laboratory or in the classroom or anywhere else in the community. Experimentation involves comparison between behaviour of a control group and that of an experimental group.

Hypotheses have a rational base or they emerged from a frame work of theory or preliminary experimentation. An experiment involves two or more variables for example; incentives have a measurable impact on learning.



 What is physical growgth and motor development? Also discuss general principles of growth and development


Physical development includes both growth and the ability to use muscles and body parts for particular skills. Both gross (large muscle movements) and fine (small movements) motor skills contribute to physical development, and children often learn a set of skills by a certain age.

Principles of Human Growth and Development:

Development is Continuous

Development is Gradual

Development is Sequential

Rate of Development Varies Person to Person

Development Proceeds from General to Specific

Most Traits are Correlated in Development

Growth and Development is a Product of Both Heredity and Environment

Development is Predictable


There is a Constant Interaction Between All Factors of Development

Principle # 1. Development is Continuous:

The process of growth and development continues from the conception till the individual reaches maturity. Development of both physical and mental traits continues gradually until these traits reach their maximum growth. It goes on continuously throughout life. Even after maturity has been attained, development does not end.

Principle # 2. Development is Gradual:

It does not come all on a sudden. It is also cumulative in nature.

Principle # 3. Development is Sequential:

Most psychologists agree that development is sequential or orderly. Every species, whether animal or human, follows a pattern of development peculiar to it. This pattern in general is the same for all individuals. The child crawls before he creeps, stands before he walks and babbles before he talks.

Principle # 4. Rate of Development Varies Person to Person:

Rate of development is not uniform. Individuals differ in the rate of growth and development. Boys and girls have different development rates. Each part of the body has its own particular rate of growth. There are periods of great intensity and equilibrium and there are periods of imbalance.

Principle # 5. Development Proceeds from General to Specific:

Development proceeds from general to specific. In all areas of development, general activity always precedes specific activity. For example, the fetus moves its whole body but is incapable of making specific responses. With respect to emotional behaviour infants approach strange and unusual objects with some sort of general fear response.

Later, their fears become more specific and elicit different kinds of behaviour, such as, crying, turning away and hiding etc.

Principle # 6. Most Traits are Correlated in Development:

Generally, it is seen that the child whose mental development is above average, is also superior in so many other aspects like health, sociability and special aptitudes.

Principle # 7. Growth and Development is a Product of Both Heredity and Environment:

Development is influenced by both heredity and environment. Both are responsible for human growth and development.

Principle # 8. Development is Predictable:

The difference in physiological and psychological potentialities can ‘ be predicated by observation and psychological tests.

Principle # 9. Development:

Development brings about both structural and functional changes.

 Principle # 10. There is a Constant Interaction Between All Factors of Development:

Development in one area is highly related to development in other areas. For example, a child who has a good health can be active socially and intellectually.

Motor or Physical Development

Children grow and develop rapidly in their first five years across the four main areas of development. These areas are motor (physical), communication and language, cognitive, and social and emotional.

Motor development means the physical growth and strengthening of a child’s bones, muscles and ability to move and touch his/her surroundings. A child’s motor development falls into two categories: fine motor and gross motor.

Fine motor skills refer to small movements in the hands, wrists, fingers, feet, toes, lips and tongue. Gross motor skills involve motor development of muscles that enable babies to hold up their heads, sit and crawl, and eventually walk, run, jump and skip.

Typical motor skill development follows a predictable sequence. It starts from the inner body, including the head, neck, arms and legs, and then moves to the outer body such as hands, feet, fingers and toes. Motor development is important throughout a child’s early life, because physical development is tied to other development areas. For example, if a child is able to crawl or walk (gross motor skills), he/she can more easily explore their physical environment, which affects cognitive development. Social and emotional development progresses when a child can speak, eat and drink (fine motor skills).

Parents and caregivers can help develop a child’s motor skills at all ages. Some activities include:

Placing your baby on his/her tummy, and helping him/her reach for a toy.

Putting a toy on the couch for your child to stretch toward when a he/she starts to stand.

Encouraging walking with a stroller your little one can push.

Visiting playgrounds, where your child can climb, swing and slide.


Development has four basic elements:

  1. Growth
  2. Maturation
  3. Experiences
  4. Social transmission (learning through language, Schooling or training by parents)

their development and learning.

Development, growth and maturation are terms which are commonly used to convey the same meaning but there is a significant between all these words.


1. Quantitative Concept

2. Change in the quantitative aspect come into the domain of growth

3.The term growth is used in purely physical sense referring to an increase in size, length , height and weight.

4. Growth is one of the parts of developmental process.

5. Growth described the charge which take places in, particular aspects of the body and behaviours of the organism.

6. Growth does not continue through out life.

7. The change produced by growth are the Subject of measurement.

8. They may be quantified  and are observable in nature.

9. Growth may or may not  bring development, A child may grow by becoming fat but

this growth many not bring any functional improvement or development.






1.Quantitative Concept

2.It indicates the charges in the quality or character rather than in quantitative aspects.

3.Development implies overall Change in shake, form or structure resulting in an improved working or function.

4. Development is a wider, and comprehensive term. It refers

to overall changes in the individual .

5. Development describes the change in

the organism as a whole.

6. Development is a continuous process. It goes from womb to tomb. It does not end with the attainment of maturity.

7. Development, as said earlier implies

improvement in functioning and behaviour.

8. They may be qualitative charge which are difficult to measured directly. They are

assessed through Keen observation

in behavioural situations.

9. Development is also possible  without growth as in the cases of some children who do not gain in terms of height weight or size but they do experience functional

improvement or development in physical, social emotional or intellectual aspects


The change brought about in an individual by the process of growth and development

tend to follow some well defined principles. These are known as principle of growth and development. These principle are being described below :

(a) Principle of continuity

Development follows continuity. It goes from womb to tomb and never ceases. An individual starting his life from a tiny cell development his body, mind and other aspects of his personality through a continuous stream of development in these various dimensions.

(b) Rate of growth and Development is not Uniform

Although development follows continuity yet the rate of growth and development is not steady and uniform at all time. It proceeds more rapidly in the early years of life but shows down in the later year of childhood. Again at the onset of puberty, there is sudden rise in the speed of growth and development but it is not maintained for long. Therefore, at no stage the rate of growth and development show steadiness. It rather take place but fits and starts.

(d) Uniformity of Pattern

Although development does not proceed at a uniform rate and show marked individual difference, yet it follows a definite sequence of pattern and is somewhat  uniform in the off springs of a species. For example, the motor development and language development in all children seem to follows a definite sequence.

(e) Development  Proceeds from General to Specific Response

In all Phase of a child’s development, general activity precedes specific activity. His responses are of a general sort before they become of so specific response as reaching similarly, when a newborn infant cries, the whole of the body is involved.With growth, the crying is limited to the vocal cords, eyes etc. In language development the child learns general word before specific.

(f) Principle of Integration

while it is true that development proceeds from general to specific or from whole to parts, it is also seen that specific response or part movement are combined in the later process of learning or development. It is the integration of whole and its part as well as of the specific and general responses that makes a child develop satisfactory in the various dimension  of his growth and development.

(g) Principle of Inter-relation

The growth and development takes place in various dimensions like physical, mental, social etc. and these are interrelated and interdependent. Growth and development in any one dimension affects the growth and development of the child in other dimensions as well e.g children with above average intelligence are generally found to possess above average physical and social development. The lack of growth is one dimensions. If a child having poor physical development then it also tend to regress in emotional, social and intellectual development.

(h) Development is Predictable

With the help of the rate of growth and development of a child it is possible for us to predict the range in with his development is going to fall e.g. X-ray of the bones of the wrist of child will tell approximately what his ultimate size will be similarly the knowledge of the present mental ability of a child will help is predicting his ultimate mental development.

(i) Principle of Developmental Direction

Kuppu Swamy has thrown light thrown light on this principle and he points out two specific facts out two specific facts concerning the direction of development. He say that development is “ cephalic-caudal as well as proximodistal”

As per the principle of cephalic-caudal development, the development, the development proceeds in the direction of the longitudinal axis, first the child gain control over his head and arms and then on his leg on that he can stand.

According to the proximodistal tendency of the development, it proceeds from the center to the periphery. In the beginning child exhibits its control over the large fundamental muscles but afterward due to growth and development of smaller muscles he can  exhibit more movements that are refined e.g. Central over the arm and the hand.


Q.3 Discuss the following


Mental/Cognitive Development

Mental development is an important aspect of growth, embracing the various mental abilities. It begins right from birth, and as the child develops with the passage of time his mental reactions also change. These reactions are very simple to start with, but in due course, they lead to complex mental activities.

Mental development includes such abilities as attending, perceiving, observing, remembering, imagining, thinking, solving problems and growth of intelligence as well as of language. These abilities change, grow and mature with age and decline in old age. The rates of change vary with age and special experiences. In spite of a general pattern of mental development, each individual grows and develops in his down unique manner.

The various mental abilities or activities mentioned above are inter-related and they develop as a whole. They are inter-dependent and do not develop in isolation. Besides this ‘inter-dependence, another typical feature of mental development is its continuity.

Mental development is another name for extending the intellectual horizon of the child. To begin with, the world is one large, “booming, buzzing confusion” to the child. Gradually, details are perceived and understood, differences are realised and experiences and knowledge are organised into new relations. This is made possible through processes of differentiation and organisation or integration.

The development of children’s and adolescents’ mental and cognitive abilities has a tremendous influence on how coaches teach and develop players’ skills in sport or any other activity or function.  One of the commonly used and quoted sources for this mental and cognitive development is Piaget.  Piaget concluded from early observations of developing children that we should not be as interested in the quantity of what a child knows as we are in the quality of his or her thinking and manner of problem solving.  Piaget proposed three main concepts regarding cognitive development: assimilation, accommodation, and schema.  Assimilation is the “taking in” and adapting of information or experiences to add to an individual’s existing knowledge or strategies.  Accommodation is the modifying and adjusting of one’s strategies and concepts to arrive at new experiences and information.  Finally, schema is the action or strategy that results from assimilation and accommodation.

During the period between ages 8 to 11, the child is able to understand concrete mental concepts. He or she is taking in a great deal of information or assimilating.  During this time period, children have a greater acceptance of whatever information they are given, with little questioning.  Piaget refers to this time period as concrete operations.  The child can accept rules and structure reasonably well during this time period.

From ages 12 to 15, the individual questions the information she or he is given, which often creates a great deal of confusion. Outright acceptance of commands and instruction decreases as greater amounts of information and more advanced thought processes dominate.  Piaget refers to this period as formal operations.  During this period, the individual is learning how to manipulate ideas in more complex ways and to systematically and methodically solve a problem.  Individuals at this stage will be able to solve problems more systematically than children in the 8- to 11-year-old age range.

Finally, during the ages from 16 to 18, adolescents become capable of more complex extractions and concepts.  They can better realize differences and problem solve at a higher level.  Individuals in this age group will challenge rules and will be less accepting of hard and fast rules in coaching situations.

Emotional Development

Before their teens, children want to work and produce. They want to do things well, and they take pride in doing so and in earning the praise of teachers, coaches, and parents. At this time, children will practice hard, learn the rules, and respond to goals set by authority figures.

As children move into adolescence, with the strong influence of peers and rapid physical changes, the search for identity becomes paramount. Although teens fear standing out from their peer group, they are struggling inside with who they want to be when they grow up. They often try on various roles to see how those roles fit. This search for identity is necessary if young people are to be capable of having intimate relationships with others.

  1. B) Language development

Language development is an amazing process. In fact, learning language is natural, an innate process babies are born knowing how to do.1 Interestingly, all children, no matter which language their parents speak, learn language in the same way.

Overall, there are three stages of language development, which occur in a familiar pattern. So, when children are learning to speak, understand, and communicate, they follow an expected series of milestones as they begin to master their native tongue. However, note that individual children will progress at their own pace along this timeline within an expected range of deviation.

Language Development Stage 1: Learning Sounds

When babies are born, they can hear and distinguish all the sounds in all the languages in the world. That’s about 150 sounds in about 6500 languages, though no language uses all of those sounds. The sounds a language uses are called phonemes and English has about 44.2 Some languages use more and some use fewer.

In this stage, babies learn which phonemes belong to the language they are learning and which don’t.3 The ability to recognize and produce those sounds is called “phonemic awareness,” which is important for children learning to read.

The best way to promote language development for babies is simply to talk to your child. Babies learn by experiencing (and listening to) the world around them, so the more language they are exposed to the better. Additionally, you can put words to their actions. Talk to them as you would in conversation, pausing for them to respond, then you can say back what you think they might say. However, note that simply talking to them attentively is enough for them to pick up language.

Baby Language Milestones

Though all children learn in basic stages, language develops at different rates in different children. Most children follow a familiar pattern.4

Birth: When babies are born, they can already respond to the rhythm of language. They can recognize stress, pace, and the rise and fall of pitch.

4 months: As early as 4 months, infants can distinguish between language sounds and other noise. For instance, they know the difference between a spoken word and a clap.

6 months: By 6 months, babies begin to babble and coo and this is the first sign that the baby is learning a language. Babies are now capable of making all the sounds in all the languages of the world, but by the time they are a year old, they will have dropped the sounds that aren’t part of the language they are learning.

Language Development Stage 2: Learning Words

At this stage, children essentially learn how the sounds in a language go together to make meaning. For example, they learn that the sounds m-ah-m-ee refer to the “being” who cuddles and feeds them, their mommy.

This is a significant step because everything we say is really just a stream of sounds. To make sense of those sounds, a child must be able to recognize where one word ends and another one begins. These are called “word boundaries.”

However, children are not learning words, exactly. They are actually learning morphemes,5 which are the smallest, discrete chunks words can be broken into. A morpheme may be a word on its own or may be combined with other morphemes to form a word. So in “mommy,” there are two morphemes: “ma” and “mee.”

Help your child build their language skills by reading to them often. And of course, keep having child-centric conversations with them as studies show that babies learn language best within a social context.6 Another way to encourage their communication and social skills is to mimic their noises (such as their babbling) and say them back to them. You can also mirror their facial expressions and describe their actions as well as narrate what is happening around them.

Baby and Toddler Language Milestones

As your baby develops over the second half of their first year and into toddlerhood, their ability to make sounds and respond conversationally will continue to improve.

8 months: Babies can now recognize groups of sounds and can distinguish word boundaries. Although they recognize these sound groups as words, they are still learning what these words mean. Babies of this age are more likely to comprehend the meaning of words related to their everyday experiences, particularly food and body parts.7

12 months: At this point, children are able to attach meanings to words. Once they can do that, they can begin to build a vocabulary. They also begin to mimic new words they hear.

18 months: In order to communicate, children must know how to use the words they are learning. In this stage of language development, children are able to recognize the difference between nouns and verbs. Generally, the first words in a child’s vocabulary are nouns.

Language Development Stage 3: Learning Sentences

During this stage, children learn how to create sentences. That means they can put words in the correct order. For example, they learn that in English we say “I want a cookie” and “I want a chocolate cookie,” not “Want I a cookie” or “I want cookie chocolate.”

Children also learn the difference between grammatical correctness and meaning. Noam Chomsky created an example of this difference in the sentence “Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.”9 Children will know that although the sentence is grammatically correct, it doesn’t make sense. They know that green is a color and so it can’t be colorless and that ideas don’t sleep. However, they also know that the noun and verb structure of the sentence works.

To promote language development during this stage model good speech habits by speaking clearly, looking at them in the eye, not interrupting, and giving them a chance to talk. You can also add on to what they say to give them an idea of more complex ways to articulate their ideas and requests. Ask your child lots of questions and encourage their questions too to keep the dialog going.

Toddler and Preschooler Language Milestones

Your toddler and preschooler is now using full words, simple sentences, and eventually more complex dialog.

24 months: At this stage, children begin to recognize more than nouns and verbs and gain an understanding of basic sentence structure. They can use pronouns, for example. They also know the right order of words in a sentence and can create simple sentences like “Me cookie?”, which means “May I have a cookie?”.

30 to 36 months: By this age, about 90% of what children say is grammatically correct.10 The mistakes they make are usually things like adding -ed to irregular verbs to form the past tense. For example, they might say “I falled down” instead of “I fell down.” They learned the grammatical rule to form the past tense by adding -ed to a verb but have not yet learned the exceptions to the rule.

Beyond 3 years: As they grow, children continue to expand their vocabulary and develop more complex language.11 Their language use doesn’t completely resemble adult language until around the age of eleven.

By the pre-teen years, kids begin to use what are called although-type sentences. These sentences show a concession such as, “Even though the man was tired, he kept working.” Young children would likely say “The man was tired, but he kept working.”


Q4 Describe the term adolescence. Also describe the possible results special care is it not taken during this period.


Adolescence is the period of transition between childhood and adulthood. Children who are entering adolescence are going through many changes (physical, intellectual, personality and social developmental). Adolescence begins at puberty, which now occurs earlier, on average, than in the past. The end of adolescence is tied to social and emotional factors and can be somewhat ambiguous.

physical changes of adolescence?

There are three main physical changes that come with adolescence:


The growth spurt (an early sign of maturation);

Primary sex characteristics (changes in the organs directly related to reproduction);

Secondary sex characteristics (bodily signs of sexual maturity that do not directly involve reproductive organs)

What are the intellectual changes of adolescence?

Adolescent thinking is on a higher level than that of children. Children are only able to think logically about the concrete, the here and now. Adolescents move beyond these limits and can think in terms of what might be true, rather than just what they see is true. They are able to deal with abstractions, test hypotheses and see infinite possibilities. Yet adolescents still often display egocentric behaviors and attitudes

healthy adolescent development?

While adolescence can be a trying period for both youth and their parents, the home does not have to become a battleground if both parents and young people make special efforts to understand one another. The following guidelines may help parents:


Give your children your undivided attention when they want to talk. Don’t read, watch television or busy yourself with other tasks.

Listen calmly and concentrate on hearing and understanding your children’s point of view.

Speak to your children as courteously and pleasantly as you would to a stranger. Your tone of voice can set the tone of a conversation.

Understand your children’s feelings, even if you don’t always approve of their behavior. Try not to make judgments. Keep the door open on any subject. Be an “open/approachable” parent.

Avoid humiliating your children and laughing at what may seem to you to be naive or foolish questions and statements.

Encourage your children to “test” new ideas in conversation by not judging their ideas and opinions, but instead by listening and then offering your own views as plainly and honestly as possible. Love and mutual respect can coexist with differing points of view.

Help your children build self-confidence by encouraging their participation in activities of their choice (not yours).

Make an effort to commend your children frequently and appropriately. Too often, we take the good things for granted and focus on the bad, but everyone needs to be appreciated.

Encourage your children to participate in family decision-making and to work out family concerns together with you. Understand that your children need to challenge your opinions and your ways of doing things to achieve the separation from you that’s essential for their own adult identity.

The changes that take place during adolescence suggest nine observations with implications for health policies and programmes:


Adolescents need explicit attention. Adolescents are not simply big children or small adults. Unique developmental processes take place during this period. Adolescents have specific characteristics that need to be taken into consideration in policies and programmes and in the strategies to reach this section of the population with health promotion, prevention, treatment and care.

Adolescents are not all the same. During adolescence the components of physical and psychosocial development take place at different speeds and duration, even if the sequence is universal. Policies and programmes need to take into consideration the heterogeneity of adolescents, including the differing developmental phases and abilities of younger and older adolescents and of adolescent girls and boys.

Some adolescents are particularly vulnerable. The environments in which some adolescents live, learn and grow can undermine their physical, psychosocial and emotional development—for example, where adolescents lack parental guidance and support, face food shortages, or are surrounded by violence, exploitation and abuse. Policies and programmes need to specifically and explicitly address these adolescents to protect, respect and fulfil their rights to the highest attainable standard of health.

Adolescent development has implications for adolescent health Developmental changes during adolescence have broad implications for health and disease and for the initiation of health-related behaviours during adolescence. Prevention efforts need to direct interventions to factors that negatively affect development and increase health-compromising behaviours. Service delivery programmes and providers need the awareness and skills to diagnose and respond to health problems related to the developmental changes taking place.

Adolescent development has health implications throughout life. Adolescence provides opportunities to make up, both physically and mentally, for developmental deficits in the first decade of life. At the same time, health interventions are needed in adolescence to build on the investments made during the first decade, in order to maintain positive momentum for transitions to adulthood and health throughout life.

The changes during adolescence affect how adolescents think and act. Recent findings about neurodevelopment have implications for policies and programmes in a range of sectors. For example, understanding the impact of emotionally charged situations on adolescent behaviour (so-called “hot cognition”) supports policies for graduated driving licenses.


 What are mal characteristics of personality? Also discus the presonality and children ajatrent problems. How teacher can play influential role in personality development of students


Personality development can be defined as the development of behaviors in an organized pattern and also human attitudes which makes an individual distinctive from others. Personality development happens because of the ongoing interaction which takes place between individuals taking into account their temperament, character, as well as their surrounding environment.

Teachers, professors, lecturers and all who are in the teaching profession are considered pioneers towards shaping the lives of all students who interact with them for getting knowledge. They play an important role in building good character in students. We have to agree to the fact that when we were children, we all learned several things from our teachers and each and every set of knowledge we gathered proved to be useful even today. But when the discussion is on the teacher’s personality, we will again agree that everyone is not that attractive or a disciplined personality in life.

The personality development of teachers needs to be given due importance as they are going to be the one who will be responsible for the development of the personality of the students whom they will teach. They need to interact with the parents of the students to give an update on how they are doing in class and what improvements are needed. So having a good personality is a must for the students. There is no importance of looks of a teacher to decide if he/she is having a good personality or not. The few points which will decide the personality of a teacher include:

  • Excellent communication skills.
  • Being trustworthy towards students and parents, and share a correct update about their performance and progress in class.
  • Should have good morals to make an impactful influence on the students and their development in education and as human beings.


  • Need to have a motivational personality to encourage and motivate students in doing better in life as a whole.

In short, teachers must have a good personality to shape the future of the nation.


Students must choose a role model to follow. Teachers can make a conscious effort to highlight positive characters from science, literature, history, and arts as role models. They can teach about the personalities that students deliberately emulate. Let your students elaborate, assess, and match their behaviors and traits of these personalities and some commendable characters in fiction or story. Teachers can even make them dramatize story elements and styles with role plays and let them make a better choice to inspire. Discuss open-ended about current scenarios and leaderships, celebrities, sports figures as role models as well. Ask them to select people matching their words with actions and help them to elaborate on how they can improve their own and other’s lives with good quality traits.


There is a famous saying that; “Character can be measured by what one would do if no one were looking.” Hence, if the correct character is infused deeply at an early age, positive behavior is automatic. There are individual pillars of character building, including; respect, care, responsibility, fairness, trustworthiness, courage, diligence, and integrity. Teachers can address them one by one, by choosing weekly assignments and get creative ways to highlight them. Make a bulletin board or an interactive collage wall in the classroom, assign them writing projects, encourage elementary reading, and let students explore their norms. This is an ideal way to infuse every trait in their personality, raise awareness so they can strive to get them in-depth to themselves. Suggest them a book and read specific chapters with them that can come up with their personal slogans for it.


As a teacher, it is your responsibility to set appropriate and practical rules for classroom behavior. Get a clear perception of ground rules. Let them know what is acceptable and what is unacceptable in the premises. Let the character traits and practices infuse built by every rule. Set good examples of yourself, as well. Get your work done on time. Be punctual, neat, and respectful. “Launching a healthy contest to let students suggest rules that are beneficial for the whole class is an ideal way to give them ownership of the activity.” (Martha Lynn, History Instructor – Crowd Writer and Academist Help). Stay positive in praising students who exhibit good character and good behavior. As mentioned above, make positive role models for the class and employ appreciation and reward system in the form of gold stars, chocolates, and applause for good behaviors. Make ways to exchange those credits for privileges.


Make a zero-tolerance policy for character assaults, name-calling, and bullying. Encourage caring and empathetic attitudes. Ensure every student is included in caring activities and describe or enlist the random acts of kindness. Concept reward and appreciation systems for students and let them elaborate on their understanding.


An ideal class should be established on the foundations of respect and pillars of politeness. Respecting other’s points of view and protecting their own self-respect without being defensive based on the positive traits of characters. For any miss conduct of rules and situations, met with inappropriate consequences, make a strict application of rules on abuse and negativity intolerance in any kind of situation. Extol the virtues of treating everyone with dignity and respect and create anti-bullying and anti-assault campaigns.


Highlight the virtues and importance of volunteerism in your classroom. Make different volunteer ship program in your class or school and motivate your students to participate in them. Let them assist in lab, plantations, read for junior classes, help at a local fundraiser, collect donations, provide support to students recovering from injury or illness. Make a worthy cause campaign primarily that serves disabled or elderly people to encourage emotions of sympathy into them. Let your students organize a recycling project to contribute healthy habits for the sake of the environment as well. Pledge biking, cycling, and walking is also a good idea which they might enjoy.


Learning and knowledge is of no use if not applied well. Hence, challenge your students to do projects out of their education to benefit school, community, or city. Sit with them and brainstorm creative ideas to cultivate the pillars of personality development. Let them strive for a spirit of a will to do. Let senior students help junior ones to plan the necessary steps of the activity. Also, it involves parents to motivate them at home as well.


Just like character assault, labeling children with a habit or a thing is the worst thing that can happen with them. It affects their thought processing. Also, avoid comparing a kid with another even if they are too good to be idealized. Let them express their own potential and personality. This will help them to behave in a meaningful way.


It is not necessary that punishment always have to be violent and abusive. To handle your students properly, you need to punish them lovingly. Make them on the point of stress to differentiate between the right and the wrong. Explain the reasons for not approving certain activities and convince them for their own benefit. Make sure you both don’t disappoint each other.


Listen to the individual concerns of your students. Give them undivided attention. Let them open up to your trust as the golden rule of working wonders. This is an ideal way of giving them a sense of worthiness and built confidence in their personalities.


Childhood is the age of lots of learning and changes that are quick and a lot to deal with. Help them out with being there for your students whenever they need you. Be the ultimate support for them as a responsible teacher. Guide them to go through life’s ups and down successfully with inner strength.

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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔


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