Apna Business PK

Course: Foundation of Education (831)

 Level: MA/M.Ed

Assignment no 2



Q1 Describe the characteristics of effective objectives. Were these ensured in different educational policies of Pakistan?

Principles and general objectives of education

Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. The national aims of education and their implementation strategy as outlined in the National Education Policy 1998–2010 are as follows:

  • To make the Quranic principles and Islamic practices an integral part of curricula so that the message of the Holy Quran could be disseminated in the process of education and training; to educate and train the future generation of Pakistan as a true practicing Muslim who would be able to usher into the next millennium with courage, confidence, wisdom and tolerance.
  • To achieve universal primary education by using formal and non-formal techniques and to provide a second opportunity to school drop-outs by establishing basic education community schools all over the country.
  • To meet the basic learning needs of children in terms of learning tools and contents.
  • To expand basic education qualitatively and quantitatively by providing the maximum opportunities for free access of every child to education; imbalances and disparities within the system will be removed to enhance the access with increased number of middle and secondary schools.
  • To ensure that all boys and girls desirous of entering secondary education will get this basic right because of the availability of the schools.
  • To lay emphasis on diversification so as to transform the system from supply-oriented to demand-oriented; to attract educated youth in the world of work is one of the policy objectives so that they may become productive and useful citizens and give their positive contributions as members of the society.
  • To make curriculum development a continuous process and to make arrangements for developing a uniform system of education.
  • To prepare students for the world of work, as well as for entering professional and specialized education.
  • To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators; to upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programmes by introducing parallel programmes of longer duration at the post-secondary and post-degree levels.
  • To develop a viable framework for policy, planning and development of teacher education programmes, both in-service and pre-service.
  • To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing trained manpower, commensurate with the needs of industry and economic development goals.
  • To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of employment of technical and vocational education graduates by moving from a static, supply-based system to a demand-driven system.
  • To popularize information technology among children in order to prepare them for the next century, emphasizing the different roles of computers and employing information technology in the planning and monitoring of educational programmes.
  • To encourage the private sector to enrol a percentage of poor students giving them a possibility of free education.
  • To institutionalize the process of monitoring and evaluation at the lower and higher levels; to identify reliable indicators in terms of quality and quantity and to adopt corrective measures during the process of implementation.
  • To achieve excellence in the different fields of higher education by introducing new disciplines and emerging sciences in universities, and to create new centres of advanced studies, research and extension.
  • To upgrade the quality of higher education by bringing the teaching, learning and research processes in line with international standards.

Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Federal Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development. Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law”.

The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into six levels: preschool (for the age from 3 to 5 years), primary (grades one through five), middle (grades six through eight), high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC), intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate or HSSC), and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees.[6] The Higher Education Commission established in 2002 is responsible for all universities and degree awarding institutes.[7] It was established in 2002 with Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS as its Founding Chairman.

The literacy rate ranges from 82% in Islamabad to 23% in the Torghar District. Literacy rates vary by gender and region. In tribal areas female literacy is 9.5%,[while Azad Kashmir has a literacy rate of 74%. Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 25,000-30,000 computer science graduates per year. Despite these statistics, Pakistan still has low literacy rate.[13] And Pakistan also has the second largest out of school population (22.8 million children)[14] after Nigeria.

Only about 67.5% of Pakistani children finish primary school education.[15] The standard national system of education is mainly inspired from the English educational system. Pre-school education is designed for 3–5 years old and usually consists of three stages: Play Group, Nursery and Kindergarten (also called ‘KG’ or ‘Prep’). After pre-school education, students go through junior school from grades 1 to 5. This is followed by middle school from grades 6 to 8. At middle school, single-sex education is usually preferred by the community, but co-education is also common in urban cities. The curriculum is usually subject to the institution. The eight commonly examined disciplines are:


Computer Studies and ICT

General Science (including Physics, Chemistry and Biology)

Modern languages with literature i.e. Urdu and English

Social Studies (including Civics, Geography, History, Economics, Sociology and sometimes elements of law, politics and PHSE)

Most schools also offer drama studies, music and physical education but these are usually not examined or marked. Home economics is sometimes taught to female students, whereas topics related to astronomy, environmental management and psychology are frequently included in textbooks of general science. Sometimes archaeology and anthropology are extensively taught in textbooks of social studies. SRE is not taught at most schools in Pakistan although this trend is being rebuked by some urban schools. Provincial and regional languages such as Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto and others may be taught in their respective provinces, particularly in language-medium schools. Some institutes give instruction in foreign languages such as German, Turkish, Arabic, Persian, French and Chinese. The language of instruction depends on the nature of the institution itself, whether it is an English-medium school or an Urdu-medium school.


Q2. Discuss the development of education in per-Pakistan period 712 AD till 1947.



There are two systems of education in Pakistan: traditional and modern. The traditional system, which focuses on Islam, has experienced an exponential growth since the 1970s, influenced by the wave of Islamic fundamentalism from Iran. In the late 1990s, the traditional Islamic schools, called madrassahs, came increasingly under the influence of the anti-West Taliban movement in Afghanistan. The traditional schools have multiplied tenfold, for the large part training mujahideens whom the government of General Parvez Musharraf, who assumed authority in October, 1999, has lauded as freedom fighters, ready to wage a jihad (religious war) through terrorist activities against nonbelievers. While only 4,350 madrassahs are registered with the government, the actual number has been estimated at between 40,000 to 50,000. A revealing article by U.S. anti-terrorist expert Jessica Stern in Foreign Affairs (November-December 2000) has warned the world about the kind of “education” imparted by these “Schools of Hate” and their role in creating a “mindset” for jihad.


A critical examination of the modern formal education system extending from primary to the university levels by experts ranging from the World Bank to those in research institutes in Pakistan has found the colleges in the country “sub-standard, bureaucratic, government-controlled, poor and inefficient,” to quote Tariq Rahman of the National Institute of Pakistan Studies of the Quaid-I-Azam University. Such criticism fails to explain how the several hundred thousand Pakistani graduates who have migrated to the West, notably to Great Britain, the United States, and Canada, mostly as professionals—whether as doctors, engineers, pharmacists or educators—have with only marginal additional training been able to compete with the very best in those advanced countries.

Pakistan came into being when colonial British rule on the Indian subcontinent ended in August 1947 and the two sovereign states of India and Pakistan were created. Of these, Pakistan constituted two wings—West and East—separated by more than one thousand miles of Indian territory. The new state was the result of a demand for a separate homeland for India’s Muslims as articulated by the Muslim League political party and its sole spokesman, Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876-1948). The Lahore Resolution, adopted by the Muslim League in 1940, however, had called for independent states in the northeast and northwest. That was changed by Muslim League legislators in 1946, who called for a single Muslim state, Pakistan. The new state’s capital was Karachi. Partition still left one-third of the subcontinent’s Muslims in India; after the separation of East Pakistan and the birth of Bangladesh in 1971, Pakistan was left with 45 percent of its original population, the number of its Muslim citizens being less than those in India.

For the first 24 years of its history, Pakistan had two constituent parts: West Pakistan, comprising the four provinces of the Punjab (western half of the old Punjab), Sind, the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), and Baluchistan; and East Pakistan, comprising East Bengal, which seceded after a bitter political struggle and military conflict from Pakistan in December 1971 to become the new state of Bangladesh with 55 percent of the population. Pakistan is bounded to the west by Iran, by India to the east, China to the northeast and Afghanistan in the north. There are federally ruled territories, including the capital of Islamabad, and the country controls a part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Pakistan traces its history of education to the advent of Islam and Islamic/Arabic culture to the Indian subcontinent with the invasion of Muhammad bin Qasim in Sind in 712 A.D.. By that time, the Arabs had already distinguished themselves not only as conquerors and administrators over vast territories in the Middle East and North Africa but even more significantly as creators of a culture replete with literature, art, architecture, and religious studies. With the establishment of Muslim rule at Delhi in 1208 A.D., the Islamic culture made extensive inroads on the subcontinent, converting a quarter of its population to Islam over the next five centuries

The traditional school system had been the mainstay of education among Muslims of the subcontinent from the thirteenth to the eighteenth centuries until the rise of the British power beginning in 1757. Increasingly, some leaders of the Muslim community, notably Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898), urged the Muslim youth to join the modern educational system initiated by the British. With the adoption of English as a medium of instruction after Thomas Babington Macaulay’s infamous minute in 1835, and the rapid increase in the number of educational institutions following Sir Charles Wood’s Education Despatch of July 1854, learning in Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian receded, making way for English and for the adoption of Western education. In 1857 three universities were established in the “presidency” cities of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras, producing not only the subordinate bureaucrats as intended but also hundreds of university graduates wanting to take up higher education in the social sciences, humanities, and natural sciences.


Q3 Discuss the need and significance of human resource development


Significance of Human Resource Development (HRD)

Human resource is needed to be developed as per the change in the external environment of the organization, hence, HRD helps to adopt such changes through the development of existing human resource in terms of skill and knowledge.

Human resource development (HRD) is an important factor for growth and economic development. It can arise at both the nationwide level and the firm-wide level.

The need and importance of human resource development can be measured from the following points:

Growth of organization:

Growth of organization is linked with the development of its workforce. In changing situation HRD must be the total system interrelated and interacting with other systems at work: production, finance, and marketing.

Development of work culture:

The necessity of HRD is felt as it improves the efficiency of employees, checks monotony at work, better communication, development of cooperation and creativity of all the members comes into limelight.

Developing potentialities:

The focus of HRD manager essentially is on enabling people to self-actualize through a systematic approach by which their existing talents are further developed.

Growth of employees:

HRD is linked with growth of employees. It aids employees to know their strengths and weaknesses and enable them to improve their performance. The management should provide adequate opportunity for the development of human resource management for the development of their talents so that their development will benefits the organizational growth.

Country Develops if The Human Resource is Developed:

To improve economic development the state constructs roads, buildings bridges, dams, power houses, hospitals, etc. to run these unit’s doctors, scientist, teachers, engineers, are required. So if the state invests in a human resource it pays dividend in response.

Entrepreneurship Increase:

Education, good health, clean environment, investment on the human resource, will all have its positive effects. Job opportunities would be created in the country. And even business environment will flourish in the country which creates many job opportunities.

The purpose of HR development is to provide the ‘coaching’ needed to strengthen and grow the knowledge, skills, and abilities that an employee already has. The goal of development and training is to make employees even better at what they do.

The importance or significance of HRD can be explained as follows:

HRD expands capable HR

HRD develops the skills and knowledge of individual; hence, it helps to provide competent and efficient HR as per the job requirement. To develop employment’s skill and competencies, different training and development programs are launched.

HRD builds prospect for Career Development

HRD helps to grasp the career development opportunities through the development of human skills and knowledge. Career development consists of personal development efforts through a proper match between training and development opportunities with employee’s need.

Employ Promise

Trained and efficient employees are committed towards their jobs which is possible through HRD. If employees are provided with proper training and development opportunities, they will feel committed to the work and the organization.

Job Fulfillment

When people in the organization are well oriented and developed, they show a higher degree of commitment in an actual workplace. This inspires them for better performance, which ultimately leads to job satisfaction.

Transform Management

HRD facilitates planning and management of change in an organization. It also manages conflicts through improved labor management relation. It develops organizational health, culture, and environment which lead to change management.

Opportunities for Training and Development

Training and development programs are tools of HRD. They provide an opportunity for employee’s development by matching training needs with the organizational requirement. Moreover, HRD facilitates integrated growth of employees through training and development activities.

Performance development

HRD develops necessary skills and abilities required to perform organizational activities. As a result of which, employees can contribute to better performance in an organization. This leads to greater organizational effectiveness.


Question 4

Differentiate between informal, formal and non-formal education by giving examples

What is formal education

When education is delivered systemically in a structured environment like school and university by teachers who are trained in the profession, it is referred to as formal education.

What is non-formal education

An organized educational activity, which is out of the preview of the formal education system, more centered on the learner than a general curriculum, is called as non-formal education. There are no specific age inclusions or other exclusions in the target group for non-formal education groups.

Difference between formal and non-formal education

In a formal setting, the attendance is compulsory for both teachers and kids, which means it will have the same set of teachers and a curriculum. In case of a non-formal setting, there is no definitive curriculum every year as it varies based on learner’s requirement. Also, the attendance on the non-formal setup is not consistent, and the teachers also change every time.

In a formal setting, teachers have to stick to the predefined curriculum, and there is no scope for including non-traditional content, and they have to meet with the standards of today’s education. The content and curriculum of the non-formal education is however not sacrosanct and can be changed to match with the learning curve of the students.

The knowledge and experience of classroom teachers and that of teachers in the non-formal education settings vary vastly. The former have training in teaching strategies, management of the classroom, content-based teaching methods, etc., while the latter is more focused on group management and content expertise as they deal with different age groups and in various disciplines.

The activities in a classroom-based educational program can last for more than one day which is not the case with the non-formal educational program. In the latter, the events have to be completed on the same day for a more effective outcome.

Non-Formal education has a more informal environment and is aimed at a different audience group while a formal education is more precise in their approach.

non-formal education: It is that education which takes place primarily outside the school’s formal hierarchy (from kindergarten to graduate school), and is aimed primarily at helping people in such areas as literacy, learning a skill, better farming, better health, better nutrition, etc.

Formal Education Non Formal Education  
 Long-term and general Short-term and specific  
Formal education is expected to provide the basis for an individual’s whole future life. Non-formal education meets short-term learning needs of individuals and communities.  
Therefore, even in technical fields, it is general in character. It therefore emphasizes the learning of specific knowledge and skills and the inculcation of specific attitudes which result in immediate functional behavioral changes.  
. Credential based Non-credential based  
The end product of formal education is the acquisition of qualifications and certificates which enable individuals to obtain specific socio-economic positions in the wider society. Rewards are therefore deferred. Non-formal education produces learning which is immediately valued in the context of the individual’s or community’s life situation. Rewards are tangible and may include improvements in material well-being, productivity, self awareness, ability to control the environment, etc.  
1. Long Cycle Short Cycle  
Formal education programs are rarely less than 1 year in length and usually last for much longer periods, often 10 years or more. One level of study leads immediately on to the next. Non-formal education programs are quite short, rarely longer than 2 years and often much shorter than this. Length will depend on the period required to achieve the learning objectives in question.  
Preparatory Recurrent  
Formal education is child-centered and future-oriented and provides the basis for future participation in society and economy. Non-formal education may be designed for children or adults, depending on the immediate learning needs arising from the individual’s roles and stage in life.  
Full-Time Part-Time  
Formal education takes place full-time and does not permit other parallel activities, especially productive work Non-formal education is part-time, and activities may be timed in a variety of ways to meet the needs and convenience of learners.  
Input-Centered and Output-Centered and
Standardized Individualized
The basis of the curriculum for formal education is a well-defined package of cognitive knowledge with limited emphasis on psychomotor or affective consideration. The content is standardized across large groups of learners. Non-formal education is task- or skill-centered and designed to produce quite specific changes in the learners. Units are discrete and variable and may be related to the precise functional learning needs of individual participants or small homogeneous groups
Academic Practical
The curriculum is founded in theory and isolated from environmental and social realities. The curriculum is dictated by the particular uses to which the learning will be put and consequently is closely related to the environment of the learners.
Clientele determined by  Entry Requirements
Entry Requirements Determined by Clientele
Clientele are defined in terms of their ability to cope with the level of education being offered. Non-formal education is geared to the needs and interests of the potential clientele
Literacy is essential (except at the lowest level) and successful levels is required for admission to higher levels. Specific characteristics such as literacy or formal educational qualifications are not essential for admission.


teaching-learning principles

PERCEIVED PURPOSE – Let the learner know why it is important or useful that he/she acquire a certain skill or knowledge (e.g., growing a window garden can save money).

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENTIATION – Consider the learner and the context within which he/she learns (e.g., one person might learn by your explanation, another may need to see a diagram).

APPROPRIATE PRACTICE – Allow learners to actually practice the new skill e.g., learners practice mixing soils before moving on to do so in the actual plot).

KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS – Give each learner feedback on how he/she is doing and what could be done better (e.g., a learner is told of his/her tendency to not prepare the soil thoroughly).

GRADUATED SEQUENCE – The learning activities are designed to follow a graduated sequence. That is, the matrices flow from easier concepts to more difficult (e.g., learners are taught the theory of mixing soil before they start actually experimenting with their own plots, which might be the last step).

Teaching-Learning Principles adapted from Peace Corps Program and Training Journal Volume 1, No. 6, June 1973.


Q5 Describe briefly the main problems and issues of educatem in Pakistan


The education system was envisioned by the founding fathers as the driving force behind all  national goals [5]. It was decided in the first national education conference 1974 held at Karachi that the  education system would work according to the national aspirations of Pakistan. Th education system would  be truly related to the needs of the people of Pakistan. The father of the nation Quiad-e- Azam Muhammad  Ali Jinnah the main goal of the education system of Pakistan was to develop national character of Pakistani generation [6]. This national character would contain high sense of responsibility, social integrity, selfless  service to the nation and morality on the part of the people of Pakistan.

For strengthening the role of education, various educational commissions were formed and  committees were constituted. But it is ironical to see that the implementation has been very poor [5]. Because  of this the quality of education in the country has suffered badly instead of making progress. Another problem which has affected negatively the system is the widening gaps and distance between the educational  institutions and community. Parental involvement in the education process is vital for ensuring the quality aspect. Home is the first school of a child. Without parental involvement in the process of education the  effective implementation of policies will remain a far cry. This will solve the problem of disparity as well


The education system of Pakistan despite of towering claims and plans faces the following problems  which are critically analyzed below;

Lack of uniformity

The system of education in Pakistan according to Iqbal (1981) is not based on uniform principles  Different systems of education are simultaneously working in the country. The curriculum is also not  uniformed which has given birth to different schools of thoughts. For example there is a world of difference between the attitudes of students coming out from the public educational institutions, Deeni Madaris and the  few private elite institutions. This trend has accelerated the pace of polarization in the society. According to  Zaki (1989) this is the result of divisive Pakistani education system [1]. This system has created a huge gap  among the nation and even has deeply penetrated into the cultural veins of the nation. The recent wave of  terrorism and the increasing sectarian division are the logical consequences of this divided system ofeducation. As a result of this current polarized system of education there has occurred a great social division  in the society on political, social and economic grounds rather than unity among the people which is cutting  knee deep the ideological and social foundation of the nation leading towards further divisions on linguistic and regional grounds which can poetentailly damage the social cohesion and fabric of the society

Education without direction

A sound education system is essential for every nation of the world [8]. Every nation develops its  generation on the basis of vigorous training and education on social, political, economic and ideological  grounds. Pakistani education system due being directionless and weak has not been able to develop and guide  its people on sound political and social grounds. There is lack of cohesion in the system and it is more prone towards general education which does not bring any skilled manpower to the market. Resulting there is  increasing unemployment. This situation may promote sense of deprivation among the masses . Due to this there is cultural and political unrest in the society. Besides, there is lack of educational opportunities for  science and technology. In this way the development of thinking, reasoning and creativity of students is not being polished.

Outdated curricula

Curriculum is the tool through which the goals of education are achieved. The curriculum of  education in Pakistan does not meet the demands of the current times. It is an old and traditional curriculum which compels the learners to memorize certain facts and figures without taking into consideration the reality  that education is the holistic development of an individual. It places much emphasis on the psychology of the learner as well which cannot be negated in the process of teaching and learning. The objectives of education  must be developed the psychological, philosophical and sociological foundations of education. The present  educational curriculum of Pakistan does not meet these modern standards of education and research. Hence  this curriculum is not promoting the interest of the learner for practical work, research, scientific knowledge and reflective observation, rather, it emphasizes on memory and theory

Lack of professional development of teachers

Training is essential for quality performance. Teaching is a challenging job. There is lack of training  opportunities for teachers in Pakistan. Although there various teacher training institutes in the country. These  institutes are either not well resourced or being poor run due to lack of fund and trained human resource such trainers and administrators. There are no proper training standards in the available training institutes around  the country. Most of the training institutes have been closed down due to lack of funds. The courses being  run in the teacher education intuitions are outdated and very traditional which does not enhance the skills, motivation and quality of teachers

 quality teachers

Teacher is the backbone of education system. The quality of teachers in Pakistani schools is  deplorable. According to a UNESCO report, the quality of the teachers and instruction in schools is of low quality [5]. This situation is grimmer in remote parts of Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan where even there are  no teachers available in schools. Research has found that teachers do not use new methods and strategies of  teaching and learning  Majority of the teachers do not know about lesson planning which renders them  incapable of dealing with various problems in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers encourage cramming of the materials by students. Students do not know the use of libraries in educational institutions.  Thus the reading habits are decreasing among the students. Teachers are highly responsible for all this mess.  It is their professional responsibility to guide the students towards book reading. Teachers rely on lecture  methods which do provide an opportunity to students to participate in the process of education as active  member. They only note does the information and memorize this just to pass the examination. Thus students  are evaluated on the basis of memorization of facts and information rather than performance

Aming dropouts

Due to lack of effective management of schools there is lack of discipline in schools and other  educational institutions which leads to high scale dropouts of students. This trend has increased to such an  extent that there are now 40 lac students out of school due to drop out in Pakistan. This trend according to  Hayes (1989) is due to partly the punishment in schools, poor motivating or unattractive school environment  and partly due to weak parenting on the part of parents [11]. Child labour and poverty is also one of the   reasons for dropouts form schools. An estimated 30 percent of children enrolled in primary education reach to  the matric level. This trend in Pakistan has added to the low literacy rate as well

System of examination

Examination is the evaluation of student’s learning. It should be based on qualitative and  quantitative techniques to comprehensively evaluate the performance of students. The standards must ensure  validity and reliability of the procedures used in the assessment process. The basic aim of assessment is to  evaluate the performance of students. The examination system of Pakistan is not only outdated but it also  does not have the quality to evaluate the performance of learners comprehensively. The examination system  of Pakistan tests only the memory of students. It does not evaluate them in all aspects of learning  Moreover, the examinations are influenced by external and internal forces which have encouraged  the trend of illegal practices such as unfair means. As a result of this the examination system promotes rote  learning and cramming which negates the role of high intellectual power of learners in the education process  such as critical thinking, reflection, analytical skills and so on. It does not measure the actual achievements  and performance of students

 supervisory standards

The role of supervision is to explore weaknesses or faults of teachers and showing a harsh treatment  in form of transfers to remote areas or even termination from services Supervision is the monitoring of  teaching and learning. Through effective supervision techniques the process of teaching and learning could be  improved. The system of school supervision is aimless. There is not only lack of supervisory activities in  schools but the process of supervision itself does not bring any positive results for teachers and students.Supervision system is concerned with controlling and harassing the teachers rather than providing help and  guidance for improvement of performance

 Internal and external influences

Education system in Pakistan is not free from external and internal influences. Externally the system  has been made hostage to political interference and internally it is plagued by the bureaucratic manipulations

. There is a greater favoritism and nepotism in matters of transfers, appointments and promotions. Due to  this the basic infrastructure of the education system in Pakistan has affected

 Lack of resources 

Education resources such as books, libraries and physical facilities are important for smooth running  of educational process. There are despairingly no facilities of books, libraries and reading materials in all  educational institutions of the country. Besides, there are overcrowded classrooms, inadequate teachers and  ill-equipped laboratories. This entire grim situation has resulted in a despair and low standard education  system

 Policy implementation

Since the inception of Pakistan a number of education policies were created. There has been lack of  political will on the part of successive government to implement the policies vigorously The policies were  highly ambitious but could not be implemented in true letter and spirit. There has been problem of corruption,  lack of funds and gross inconsistency in successive planning on the part of various political regimes in  Pakistan. Moreover, in the overall policy formulation teachers have been ignored. They are regarded asunimportant element which has led to alienation between the teachers and the system of education

 budgetary allocation for education

Finance is considered the engine of any system. The education system of Pakistan has been crippled  mainly due to scarce finance. The successive governments have been giving less tha 2.5 percent budget to  the education sector which is not sufficient for the growing educational needs of the nation in the present  changing times. In many of the developing regional countries such as Sri Lanka and Bangladesh the  budgetary allocation for education has increased. But in Pakistan it is declining day by day  According to International Crisis group, Pakistan is amongst the 12 countries in the world that spent  less than 2 percent of their GDP on education sector [3]. With this insufficient budgetary allocation, the  country is hardly going to meet the targets of universalization of primary education as a signatory to the  Dakar Conference’s MDG goals by 2015 and onward.


Among other causes, corruption is the main contributing factor which has deeply affected the  education system of Pakistan [8]. There is a weak system of check and balances and accountability which has  encouraged many criminal elements to misappropriate funds, use of authority illegally and giving  unnecessary favors in allocation of funds, transfers, promotions and decision making. According to  Transparency International, Pakistan is included in the list of the most corrupt countries of the world  . Due  to low salaries, teachers in search of decent life standards and to keep their body and soul together attempt to  unfair means in the examination and matters relating to certificates, degrees and so on.


This paper conludes that education develops people in all domains of life such as social, moral,  spiritual, political and economic. It is a dynamic force which enables every nation to achieve its overall  national goals. It is an established fact that countries that have developed a sound system of education have a  sound social and political system. With effective educational systems many countries are playing a leadership  role in the comity of nations. They are enjoying their liberties and also are politically and economically free  and developed. The education system of Pakistan has not been able to play its role effectively in nation  building. This factor has contributed towards development of frustration among the Pakistani society. The  future generation of Pakistan is directionless due to defective education system which has drastically failed to  raise the nation on sound economic, social, political and moral grounds.The directionless system of education  is producing forces of degree holders who are deficient in high order live skills such as reflection, critical  thinking, analysis, research and creativity. The education system instead has focused on feeding the  individuals with outdated information and knowledge which is less relevant to the current fast changing world. Students coming out of the Pakistani education system are theoretically sound but have no skills to

apply whatever they learn from their institutions due to the traditional methods of teaching and learning.  Finaly, this study concludes that the there is an urgent need to reform the system of education of  Pakistan and for this purpose this study presents the following recommendations.

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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔


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