Course: Foundation of Education (831)
Semester: Spring, 2022
Assignment No. 01
Q.1 Explain each Islamic foundation of education in your own words.
Islam has, from its inception, placed a high premium on education and has enjoyed a long and rich intellectual tradition. Knowledge (‘ilm) occupies a significant position within Islam, as evidenced by the more than 800 references to it in Islam’s most revered book, the Koran. The importance of education is repeatedly emphasized in the Koran with frequent injunctions, such as “God will exalt those of you who believe and those who have knowledge to high degrees” (58:11), “O my Lord! Increase me in knowledge” (20:114), and “As God has taught him, so let him write” (2:282). Such verses provide a forceful stimulus for the Islamic community to strive for education and learning.
Islamic education is uniquely different from other types of educational theory and practice largely because of the all-encompassing influence of the Koran. The Koran serves as a comprehensive blueprint for both the individual and society and as the primary source of knowledge. The advent of the Koran in the seventh century was quite revolutionary for the predominantly illiterate Arabian society. Arab society had enjoyed a rich oral tradition, but the Koran was considered the word of God and needed to be organically interacted with by means of reading and reciting its words. Hence, reading and writing for the purpose of accessing the full blessings of the Koran was an aspiration for most Muslims. Thus, education in Islam unequivocally derived its origins from a symbiotic relationship with religious instruction.
Q.2 Describe the relationship between philosophy and education.
Education is the application of the fundamental principles of philosophy. Philosophy gives ideals, values and principles. Education works out those ideals, values and principles.
Education without philosophy is like a tourist who knows the name of the place where he wishes to go but does not know how to find the place. The existence of education is due to philosophy and in the same way the existence of philosophy is due to education. When we define education as the modification of behaviour, the direction in which, modification to be carried out is determined by philosophy. According to Fichte, “the art of education will never attain complete clarity in itself without philosophy”. A perennial conception of the nature of philosophy is that it is chiefly concerned with the clarification of concepts, such as knowledge, truth, justice, beauty, mind, meaning, and existence. One of the tasks of the philosophy of education, accordingly, has been the elucidation of key educational concepts, including the concept of education itself, as well as related concepts such as teaching, learning, schooling, child rearing, and indoctrination. Although this clarificatory task has sometimes been pursued overzealously—especially during the period of so-called ordinary language analysis in the 1960s and ’70s, when much work in the field seemed to lose sight of the basic normative issues to which these concepts were relevant—i
Q.3 How can we use philosophy to improve our system of education?
Many aims have been proposed by philosophers and other educational theorists; they include the cultivation of curiosity and the disposition to inquire; the fostering of creativity; the production of knowledge and of knowledgeable students; the enhancement of understanding; the promotion of moral thinking, feeling, and action; the enlargement of the imagination; the fostering of growth, development, and self-realization; the fulfillment of potential; the cultivation of “liberally educated” persons; the overcoming of provincialism and close-mindedness; the development of sound judgment; the cultivation of docility and obedience to authority; the fostering of autonomy; the maximization of freedom, happiness, or self-esteem; the development of care, concern, and related attitudes and dispositions; the fostering of feelings of community, social solidarity, citizenship, and civic-mindedness; the production of good citizens; the “civilizing” of students; the protection of students from the deleterious effects of civilization; the development of piety, religious faith, and spiritual fulfillment; the fostering of ideological purity; the cultivation of political awareness and action; the integration or balancing of the needs and interests of the individual student and the larger society; and the fostering of skills and dispositions constitutive of rationality or critical thinking.
Q.4 Write notes on:
a. Advanced organizers
‘Information overload.’ What comes to mind when you think of those words? Have you ever experienced information overload when studying for an exam or even just when sitting in class? Sometimes learning everything that’s required can be overwhelming and seem nearly impossible. Even if you are provided with all of the information, it can be hard to remember everything.
This is a challenge that teachers face regularly. We must provide our students with large amounts of information in a way that helps them understand, retain and remember it. There are a number of strategies that teachers use to do this, but the one we’ll discuss in this lesson is the use of advance organizers.
An advance organizer is a tool used to introduce the lesson topic and illustrate the relationship between what the students are about to learn and the information they have already learned. They are used during expository instruction, which is the use of an expert to present information in a way that makes it easy for students to make connections from one concept to the next.
By using an advance organizer to link the new information to old information, the new information can be remembered more easily. There are three basic purposes of advance organizers. First, they direct students’ attention to what is important in the upcoming lesson. Second, they highlight relationships among ideas that will be presented. Third, they remind students of relevant information that they already have. An advance organizer is relevant introductory materials presented in advance in any format of text, graphics, or hypermedia (Ausubel, 1968). Instructors may use an advance organizer to present a framework for module content
Ausubel’s idea of an “advance organizer” is to relate what a student already knows to the new content to be learned and thus increase retention. Advance organizers should be at a higher level of abstraction, generality, and inclusiveness than the content to be presented. Although not technically advance organizers, some faculty may choose to provide overviews, outlines, statements of objectives, pre-instructional questions, etc. for similar reasons.
Q.5 Discuss the importance of educational aims and objectives to bring socio-economic changes in the country.
It is proved that a country’s development is primarily based on its people and its resources. However, it ultimately depends on the people only, as to what extent they can use the scarce resources efficiently in order to achieve a rapid rate of development and breakthroughs in innovation. As people play the most important role in shaping the status of the country; education is responsible for shaping a person. Therefore, education is the backbone of any country, it plays a crucial role in technological developments and imparts various skills, values, and awareness. If a country has a higher literacy rate, it will lead to a lower unemployment rate and greater GDP growth. Today, countries face various issues including terrorism, discrimination, global warming, poverty, and gender inequality. Proper education for everyone can eradicate these problems from its roots and would lead to a better country with higher standards of living. In the long term, education reaps greater benefits, educated kids today will develop a very civilized and moral society tomorrow. The human mind has a great potential to achieve radical developments in society. To reap the benefits of the human mind, education is the most important step to work on. It is an investment which is crucial for development of every being