Apna Business PK

Course: Foundation of Education (831)

 Level: MA/M.Ed

Assignment no 1

Q.1 Critically evaluate the need for studying Islamic foundations of education. Sugggest ways to make these foundations more solid in our system.

Islamic education is very important for school students, even small children before entering the world of school also need to be given Islamic education so that when children enter the world of education, they will get used to it and they only need to add and implement it in everyday life. In the current era, Islamic education is very much needed for students, because with this modern era there are many negative impacts among students, for example, elementary school children who have smoked, dating and others, by instilling Islam in students and good direction then the students will avoid the negative effects of modern times.

Islam is a way of life, if there no religion in us and our lives then life will be disorganized, and we will feel anxiety because there are no guidelines, in religion everything has been arranged in the Qur’an and hadiths, starting from the intention of the heart, worship, behavior, education, buying and selling or the economy, social. As explained in verse 255, Surah Al-Baqoroh.

The benefits of Islamic education for students include several things:

First, in the spiritual matters of children, if children have received Islamic education from TK di Depok they will be able to apply Islam in their daily lives, for example praying in congregation, shaking hands with parents or teachers, of course in applying, students really need help and support from the environment, family environment is the main thing that is parents, parents must direct and support children to implement in everyday life, after what students get in school about Islamic religious education, parents also have to monitor their children’s relationships, because this is very It is important to determine the future of the student, the more he has a high spiritual depth the more he will avoid damage in modern times, because they already know it is good or bad.

Second, in terms of behavior or morals, by getting an Islamic religious education their morals will be better, for example obedient to parents and teachers, polite, humble to everyone, helping each other to help, at this point, students need to be piloted from behavior or morals of parents and teachers, with the knowledge of Islamic religion and good moral behavior, students will be encouraged to apply it in their daily lives.

Sekolah SD Terbaik di Depok providing Islamic education to students and with the support of the family environment, parents, relationships, teachers, which are then applied in life will help generations of Muslim youth from the negative impacts and moral damage that have plagued students in modern times.

Use of Islamic Education

1) To develop the potential that exists for Muslim students as creatures that can be educated

2) To pass down the cultural values​​of Islamic religion to students as future generations or prospective leaders of the people.

3) Because the science of Islamic education is based on the Al-Quran and Hadith both of which use the Arabic language, so can train and practice the language to Muslim students.

4) To give understanding to students that he is only as a Muslim who is guided by the Qur’an and Hadith, but he is also an Indonesian citizen who has the philosophy of life of the nation namely Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.

Let us help save students from the damage of the times in the form of a good pilot or teach Islamic education to children of generations of Islam, for the glory of a noble religion (Islam).

Defining Foundations of Education

Foundations of Education refers to a broadly-conceived field of educational study that derives its character and methods from a number of academic disciplines, combinations of disciplines, and area studies, including: history, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, religion, political science, economics, psychology, cultural studies, gender studies, comparative and international education, educational studies, and educational policy studies. As distinct from Psychological Foundations of Education, which rely on the behavioral sciences, these Standards address the Social Foundations of Education, which rely heavily on the disciplines and methodologies of the humanities, particularly history and philosophy, and the social scienes, such as sociology and political science. The purpose of foundations study is to bring these disciplinary resources to bear in developing interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives on education, both inside and outside of schools. The interpretive perspectives use concepts and theories developed within the humanities and the social sciences to assist students in examining, understanding, and explaining education within different contexts. Foundational studies promote analysis of the intent, meaning, and effects of educational institutions, including schools. Such studies attend particularly to the diverse contexts within which educational phenomena occur, and how interpretation can vary with different historical, philosophical, and cultural perspectives. The normative perspectives assist students in examining and explaining education in light of value orientations. Foundational studies promote understanding of normative and ethical behavior in educational development and recognition of the inevitable presence of normative influences in educational thought and practice. Foundational studies probe the nature of assumptions about education and schooling. They examine the relation of policy analysis to values and the extent to which educational policymaking reflects values. Finally, they encourage students to develop their own value positions regarding education on the basis of critical study and their own reflections. The critical perspectives employ normative interpretations to assist students to develop inquiry skills, to question educational assumptions and arrangements, and to identify contradictions and inconsistencies among social and educational values, policies, and practices. In particular, the critical perspectives engage students in employing democratic values to assess educational beliefs, policies, and practices in light of their origins, influences, and consequences. Particular disciplinary studies in, e.g., the history, philosophy, or sociology of education shall be considered as study in the Foundations of Education provided the above perspectives are addressed and promoted. The objective of such study is to sharpen students’ abilities to examine, understand, and explain educational proposals, arrangements, and practices and to develop a disciplined sense of policy-oriented educational responsibility. Such study develops an awareness of education and schooling in light of their complex relations to the environing culture.

Study in Foundations of Education shall NOT be equated with “Introduction to Education” coursework unless such study clearly addresses the three perspectives indicated in this Standard and is taught by individuals specifically trained in Foundations of Education.


Discussion of Standard

Foundations of Education study employs a number of different disciplinary perspectives to discern how schools equip young people to assume adult positions in American society. The aim of such study is not simply to describe accurately the connection between the internal organization of schools and their socializing mission. Foundations also refers to a tradition of academic inquiry that seeks to expose and make explicit the relationship between educational methods and values. Foundational inquiry compares words to deeds and intentions to consequences. In so doing it helps judge whether an action is warranted, that is, whether it is supported by reason and evidence. A foundational approach to the study of education assesses the logical connections between the educational goals we select and the means we employ to achieve them. Foundational study, therefore, contains a prescriptive as well as a descriptive dimension: to consider in tandem what schools are doing and what they ought to be doing. Such study focuses on the ways schools carry out their mission of preparing individuals to occupy productive roles in our society. A common theme is discernment of educational aims that are implied in current school practices as well as in recommendations for modifying such practices. Foundational study serves to gradually deepen the ability of prospective and veteran teachers to answer the overarching question: Why do American schools operate the way they do? From its origin in the 1930s, Foundations of Education has been subjected to a variety of interpretations and approaches. There are those who have promoted the idea that Foundations of Education should be assembled around educational issues, using the issues as curriculum-selecting and curriculum-organizing principles. Some have insisted that interdisciplinary and generalist concerns should supersede the commitments of Foundations of Education scholars to specific disciplines. Others have held to the priority of close disciplinary ties for Foundations of Education scholars. Some have promoted the desirability of curriculum liaisons between Foundations of Education scholars and teacher educators in other fields, for example, administration, counseling and guidance, urban education, and curriculum and instruction. Still others have argued for the establishment of working ties between Foundations of Education scholars and community groups and for involvement in areas of concern that go beyond the school enterprise. At the present time there are distinguished advocates for all of these approaches. The Council of Learned Societies in Education takes the official position of supporting a diversity of Foundations of Education arrangements in relation to academic, teacher-education, and community groups. This position is based on the belief that an overarching and profoundly important academic and professional purpose unifies persons who identify with the various approaches to Foundations of Education, namely, the development of interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives on education, including non-schooling enterprises. There is, moreover, a shared contemporaneous orientation among Foundations of Education scholars resulting in a deep concern for the cultural and educational consequences of present circumstances, events, and conditions. In responding to the social issues and crises of the times, Foundations of Education scholars maintain a professional and intellectual tradition which was initiated in the 1930s.

A common focus of attention on education differentiates Foundations of Education scholars from academicians in the liberal arts and sciences. Although the nature of Foundations of Education presupposes collaboration with scholars in the liberal arts and sciences, sound programs require faculty who are qualified as Foundations of Education scholars.


Write on note

(a) Reconstructurnism

Reconstructionism.  …..

  2.  Also known as SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM, this theory claims to be the true successor of progressivism and declares that the chief purpose of education is to “RECONSTRUCT” society in order to meet the cultural crisis brought about by social, political, and economic problems.
  3. Social Reconstructionism is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy. Typically a Reconstructionist focuses on a curriculum that highlights social reform.
  5. Theodore Brameld (1904-1987) was considered the founder of social reconstructionism.  He recognized the potential for either human annihilation through technology and human cruelty  and the use technology and human compassion to create a beneficent society
  6. George Counts (1889-1974) – recognized that education was the means of preparing people for creating this new social order.
  7. Paulo Freire (1921-1997) – a Brazilian whose experiences living in poverty led him to champion education and literacy as the vehicle for social change. – humans must learn to resist oppression and not become its victims, nor oppress others. – saw teaching and learning as a process of inquiry in which the child must invent and reinvent the world.
  8. The Purpose of Schooling Critically examine all cultural and educational institutions and recommended change and reform as needed. To teach students and the public not to settle for “what is” but rather to dream about “what might be”. Prepare Students to become agents for change Foudations of American Education Josh Wilson
  9. Nature of the Learner Students are a critical element in bringing social change Students are capable of initiating and adapting to change especially if they are influenced by appropriate adult role models Foundations of American Education Josh Wilson
  10. Curriculum Reflect democratic ideals and emphasize civic education Opportunity for students to gain first hand experience in studying real social problems and controversial issues Students consider societal problems such as place of ethics in improving quality of life, conserve natural resources, and issues of foreign policy and naturalism. Foundations of American Education Josh Wilson
  11. Instructional Methods Cooperative learning, problem solving, critical thinking Focus on active learning and activities outside of school Students spend time in the community to learn its problems Would analyze research and link issues to place in the community and larger society Take action or responsibility in planning for change Foundation of American Education JoshWilson
  12. Classroom Management Teacher and students question the assumptions of the status quo and examine social issues and future trends. Organize classroom in a classless nonsexist and non racial manner Less emphasis on management and control and more focus on community building Atmosphere promotes analysis, criticism, and research would best describe the classroom environment Conflict resolution and differences in world views would be encouraged and reinforced. Foundations of American Education Josh Wilson
  13. Assessment Students have the ability to think in critical terms and expose their assumptions and practices Oppose standardized test of both students and teachers. Should only if mandated by local, state, or federal authorities. Foundations of American Education Josh Wilson
  14. As a Teacher Must be willing to engage in ongoing renewal of their person and professional lives Criticize and evaluate work conditions and extend educational role outside of the classroom Must be comfortable with constant change Dislikes the status quo and views school as a particular culture in evolution Willing to engage and form alliances with the community and parents to make the school better. Foundations of American Education Josh Wilson


 (b) Pragmatism

Pragmatism: Doctrine that knowledge should be used to act on things. An idea is indeed true if it has a practical efficiency.


Pragmatism is the Theory that the intelligence function is not to know to find, but to know to act. William James defended an idea is true only when it has been proven, but can he argue that an idea is only true because it is already true. We can also understand that an idea is true only if it is useful, which may mean that any idea (theory) is born of a practice, that is to say that abstract representations of systems are born concrete conditions, which have their own development and determine the scope of their validity. This thesis is found both in the case of history through dialectical materialism, in the case of the psychology of knowledge (Piaget) and psychoanalysis, where the taste for truth expresses an interest to another order (mechanism of sublimation, for example).


Explanations and Pragmatic Philosophers

Pragmatism (from Greek pragmatic business) has an ordinary meaning (‘stick to reality’) and a philosophical meaning (‘to bind the meaning, cognition and action’). Pragmatism is a philosophical school founded in the 19th century by philosophers and scientists who opposed the modern metaphysics (Hegel) and the dichotomy of theory / practice (Aristotle, Kant). The ‘founding fathers’ are Peirce, James, Dewey, Mead (1850-1950) and ‘new pragmatists’ are Rorty, Putnam, Quine, Goodman (1950-2000). The philosophy of pragmatism born in America has been criticized by some philosophers of Europe, such as Russell and Popper, who accused him of being a ‘philosophy for engineers’ because of its emphasis on practice. However, pragmatism is more a philosophy than a set of unique philosophies, as evidenced by the variety of options that are his own about the relationship between truth and meaning, cognition and action, science, morality and art. Pragmatism is also, thanks to Dewey, a significant contribution to the philosophy of technology.


Pragmatism is primarily a method of philosophy designed to ‘make our ideas clear’ (Peirce) and to avoid confusion by referring our ideas to their practical effects. The basic rule stated by Peirce’s pragmatism is: ‘Look what the practical effects that you think can be produced by the object of your design: the design of all these effects is the whole of your conception of the object’ . Similarly, for James, if there is no practical difference on the effects of two different concepts (eg, water and H2O), then they refer to the same thing. Still, representatives of pragmatism have developed a variety of designs, including the crucial concept of truth. For Peirce, truth is a belief state based on a perfect and complete information associated with the completion of an investigation conducted by a community of researchers, for James, truth is not a property of objects but of ideas and indicates the completion of a verification process on the basis of a criterion of satisfaction or utility to an individual or community, and finally, to Dewey, the truth is a ‘assertibility guarantee’ that depends on an ability to build an adequate justification about an assertion (or affirmation).

One of the destroyers of pragmatism in Europe, Russell, considered the instrumental conception of truth (truth as an instrument of prediction, rather than a copy of reality) is both logically inconsistent and politically dangerous. In this, he says pragmatism is a ‘philosophy for engineers’, waiting theories that they conform to the wishes of men of action, or men of faith. As for Popper, he believed that pragmatism leads to confusion between science and technology, assimilating scientific theories to simple calculation rules, ‘rules computational’. Contemporary pragmatists such as Rorty responded by arguing that there is no way any rational method of research, or Discourse on Method (Descartes) or Logic of Scientific Discovery (Popper). The true and the good can not be discovered by any “method” scientific or philosophical, but only through the discussion in a human community whose outcome is contingent. However, for Putnam, another neo-pragmatist, if we can reach the truth, at least we can demand that our assertions that they have a rational acceptability involves a set of justifications.


Q3 Which school of thought appeals to you the most and why? Explam in detail


Psychology has a long past but only a short history.” With these few words, Hermann Ebbinghaus, one of the great thinkers in psychology, aptly captured the essence of this field’s development. Since time immemorial, men and women have pondered over questions that are psychological in nature. From the early Egyptians to the ancient Greek philosophers, there has been no letup in efforts to understand human thought and behavior. If you were given a psychology homework assignment to document the full history of the field, you would probably be toiling on it for ages. Yet, in spite of its long past, the formal history of psychology dates back only 133 years to 1879 – the year when Wilhelm Wundt opened the doors of the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany. As a result of this significant move, Wundt is widely regarded as the founder of psychology. He was also the first person to refer to himself as a psychologist. Yet, this was just the beginning of Wundt’s contributions to the field. He went on to become the first of several spirited speakers to engage in an ongoing debate over what should be the focus of psychology. The history of psychology is indeed short, but it has never been short of drama. With that said, let the drama unfold…

Major Schools of Thought in Psychology

When psychology was first established as a science separate from biology and philosophy, the debate over how to describe and explain the human mind and behavior began. The first school of thought, structuralism, was advocate by he founder o the first psychology lab, Wilhelm Wundt. Almost immediately, other theories began to emerge and vie for dominance in psychology. The following are some of the major schools of thought that have influenced our knowledge and understanding of psychology:

Structuralism vs. Functionalism: Structuralism was the first school of psychology, and focused on

breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. Major structuralist thinkers include Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener. Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of William James. Major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr.

Behaviorism: Behaviorism became the dominant school of thought during the 1950s. Based upon the work of thinkers such as John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. F. Skinner, behaviorism holds that al behavior can be explained by environmental causes, rather than by internal forces. Behaviorism is focused on observable behavior. Theories learning including classical conditioning and operant conditioning were the focus of a great deal of research.


Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud was the found of psychodynamic approach. This school of thought. emphasizes the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior, Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: the ic, the ego, and the superego. Other major psychodynamic thinkers Include Anna Freud, Carl Jung, and Erik Erikson.

Humanistic Psychology: Humanistic psychology developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Humanistic psychology instead focused on individual free will, personal growth, and self actualization, Major humanist thinkers included Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.

Gestalt Psychology: Gestalt psychology is based upon the idea that we experience things as unified wholes. This approach to psychology began in Germany and Austria during the late 19th century in response to the molecular approach of structuralism. Rather that breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest element, the gestalt psychologists believed that you must look at the whole of experience.

According to the gestalt thinkers, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

Cognitive Psychology: Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember, and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics, One of the most influential theories from this school of thought was the stages of cognitive development theory proposed by Jean Piaget.


Q4 What type of learning environment by created to address the needs of special

students? Discus

Special education teachers face a unique set of challenges, and so do the parents of special needs students. Keep reading to learn some practical tips for making your life as a special needs teacher or parent easier.

They say that teaching is a thankless job – not only are teachers underpaid, but many of them dedicate countless hours of their free time to do extra work for their students. Being a teacher, in general, can be very difficult, but being a special needs teacher comes with its own unique set of challenges. Whether you are a special needs teacher or the parent of a special needs child, keep reading to learn some helpful tips for making the most of your child’s education.

What are the Challenges of Working with Special Needs Students

Compared to most other professions, the burn-out rate for special needs teachers is extremely high – approximately 50% of special education teachers leave their jobs within just 5 years. Teaching is a difficult and stressful career in and of itself, but special education adds an extra layer of difficulty. Some of the biggest challenges of working with special needs students are as follows:

Lack of parental support. You can pour your heart and soul into your efforts as a special education teacher but if the child’s parents are not on board, all of that work could be for nothing. Having a positive relationship with the parents of your students is essential.

Lack of appreciation. Teachers do not teach because it is a prestigious or high-paying career – they do it for love of the students. Still, a little appreciation goes a long way, especially in a challenging and stressful field like special education.

Too much paperwork. Every special needs child needs an Individual Education Plan (or IEP) and each one can easily reach 10 to 20 pages long. Not only do these plans take time to develop, but there is a lot of documentation that needs to take place. This is all on top of your regular teaching duties which include curriculum planning, progress reports, lesson planning, and more.

Scheduling challenges. Many special needs students have special schedules for their school day depending on which classes they are able to take and taking into account their needs for additional services like occupational or speech therapy.

Working with other teachers. As a special education teacher, you have to develop your own curriculum for your students, but you also need to know the general education curriculum so you can work with your students to help them with their regular classes. Collaborating with other teachers can be very difficult, especially if they do not understand the challenges of special education.

Too much documentation. In addition to developing each student’s IEP, you also need to collect data and provide evidence of student growth. If you claim that your student is struggling in a particular area, you need hard data to back up that claim and then you need to develop a plan for improvement.

Every situation is different so, as a special needs teacher, you may struggle with some of these challenges more than others. To help make your job as a special education teacher easier – and to ensure that your special needs students get the help they need – follow the parenting and teaching tips provided in the next two sections.

This video discusses teaching students with special needs

Teaching Tips for Students with Special Needs

Each and every special needs child is an individual so your teaching style will be dictated by the unique challenges each child faces. To help you succeed in teaching special needs students in general, however, you should consider the following five teaching tips:

Keep your classroom organized. Structure is very important for special needs students and it can be very helpful for you as a special education teacher. Whether you have one student to keep track of or twenty, sticking to a daily routine as much as possible will help both you and your students. Keeping your classroom organized will also help to minimize stress and distractions.

Remember that each child is an individual. Every special needs student is unique so try to get to know your students as individuals instead of identifying them by their diagnosis. As a special education teacher you may be responsible for developing IEPS – not only are these a federal requirement, but they can be a helpful tool for you and the child’s parents to come together to create an education plan that works for everyone.

Give your students opportunities for success. Maintaining a positive outlook is incredibly important in a field as challenging as special education. Some days will be harder than others and some students will progress more slowly than others. Encourage your students to work hard and to improve by offering opportunities for small successes and then celebrate those successes.

Create a support network. As a special education teacher, you will need to be able to work with your students’ general education teachers as well as his therapists and parents. The more you communicate with everyone, the easier things will be and the more your student will benefit.

Keep things simple. When it comes to teaching special needs students, it is important to break down tasks into small, manageable steps – you should also keep projects short and sweet  Whether you are a special education teacher or the parent of a special needs child, you will face an endless array of challenges throughout the course of the child’s educational career. Being realistic about these challenges and preparing yourself for them will make your life infinitely easier and it will benefit your special needs student as well


Q.5 Social conditions and education of the society are inter dependent Discuss (20)

Education plays a very important role in breaking the cycle of poverty and increasing opportunity. Various forms of social movements play an important role in providing educational opportunities to communities and social groups that might otherwise be excluded, filling the gap left by the state. This book edited by Ashok Swain critically examines the origin and outcome of social action for education in different parts of the world.

Society may be viewed as a system of interrelated mutually dependent parts which cooperate (more or less) to preserve a recognisable whole and to satisfy some purpose or goal. Social system refers to the orderly arrangement of parts of society and plurality of individuals interacting with each other. Social system presupposes a social structure consisting of different parts which are interrelated in such a way as to perform its functions.

To perform its functions every society sets up various institutions. Five major complexes of institutions are identified: familial institutions, religious institutions, educational institutions, economic institutions and political institutions. These institutions form sub-systems within social system or larger society.


Education as a Sub-System:

Education is a sub-system of the society. It is related to other sub-systems. Various institutions or sub-systems are a social system because they are interrelated. Education as a sub-system performs certain functions for the society as whole. There are also functional relations between education and other sub-systems. For example, Education trains the individuals in skills that are required by economy. Similarly education is conditioned by the economic institutions.The effectiveness of organised activities of a society depends on the interaction and inter relationships of these institutions which constitute the whole. Now we will examine the role of education for the society and the relationship between education and other sub-system of society in terms of functionalist perspective. The functionalist view of education tends to focus on the positive contributions made by education to the maintenance of social system.

Emile Durkheim says that the major function of education is the transmission of society’s norms and values. He maintains that, “society can survive only if there exists among its members a sufficient degree of homogeneity; education perpetuates and reinforces this homogeneity by fixing in the child from the beginning the essential similarities which collective life demands”. Without these essential similarities, cooperation, social solidarity and therefore social life would be impossible. The vital task of all society is the creation of solidarity.

This involves a commitment to society, a sense of belonging and feeling that the social unit is more important than the individual. Durkheim argues that to become attached to society the child must feel in it something that is real, alive and powerful, which dominates the person and to which he also owes the best part of himself.

Education in particular the teaching of history, provides this link between the individual and society. If the history of his society is brought alive to the child, he will come to see that he is a part of something larger than himself, he will develop a sense of commitment to the social group.

Durkheim argues that in complex industrial societies, the school serves a function which cannot be provided either by family or peer groups. Membership of the family is based on kinship relationship, membership of the poor group on the personal choice.

Membership of society as a whole is based neither of these principles. Individuals must learn to cooperate with those who are neither their kin nor their friends. The school provides a context where these skills can be learned. As such, it is society in miniature, a model of the social system. In school, the child must interact with other members of the school in terms of fixed set of rules.

Drawing on Durkheim’s ideas, Talcott Parsons argues that after primary socialisation within the family, the school takes over as the ‘focal socialising agency’. School acts a bridge between the family and society as a whole, preparing the child for his adult role. Within the family, the child is judged and treated largely in terms of ‘particularistic’ standards.

In the wider society the individual is treated and judged in terms of ‘Universalistic’ standards. Within the family the child’s status is ascribed, it is fixed by birth. However, in advanced industrial society, status in adult life is largely achieved. Thus, the child must move from particularistic standards and ascribed status of the family to universalistic standards and achieved status of adult society.

The school prepares young people for this transition. Schools operates on meritocratic principle, status is achieved on the basis of merit. Like Durkheim, Parsons also argue that the school represents society in miniature. By reflecting the operation of society as a whole, the school prepares young people for their adult roles.

As part of this process, schools socialise young people into the basic values of society. These values have important functions in society as a whole.

Finally, Parsons sees the educational system as an important mechanism for the selection of individuals for their future role in society. In his words, it “functions to allocate these human resources within the role structure of adult society”. Thus, schools, by testing and evaluating students, match their talents, skills and capacities to the jobs for which they are best suited. The school is therefore seen as the major mechanism for role allocation.

Relationship between Education and Society

Following our relationship between education and Society:

  1. Education perform certain functions for the society as whole, Emile Durkhemi says that the major function of education is the transmission off society’s norms and values. He maintains that, “society can survive only if there exist among its members. a sufficient degree of homogeneity; education perpetuates and reinforces this homogeneity by fixing the child from the beginning the essential similarities demands”. which Without collective these life essential similarities, cooperation, social solidarity and therefore social life would be impossible. The vital task of all society is the creation of solidarity. This involves a commitment to society, a sense of belonging and feeling that social unit is more important than the individual. Durkheim argues that to become attached to society the child must feel in it’s something that is real, Alive and powerful, which dominate the person and to which he also owe the best part of himself.


  1. Education, in particular the teaching of history provide this link between the individual and Society. If the history of his society is brought alive to the child, he will come to see that he is a part of something larger than himself, he will develop a sense of commitment to the social group. By reflecting the operation of society as a whole, the school prepares young people for their adult As a part of whole, school socialize young people into the basic values of society. These values have important functions in society as a whole.


  1. Education not only transmits a general ruling class ideology which justifies and legitimates the capitalist system. It also reproduces the attitudes and behaviour required by the major groups in the division of labour. It teaches workers to accept and submit to their exploitation, it teaches the agents of ‘exploitation and repression’, the managers, administrators and politicians, how to practice their crafts and rule the work force as agents of ruling class.


  1. It can be stated here that education performs certain role for the society. At the same time, education is also conditioned by the social structure. Society creates educational institutions such as schools, colleges and universities to perform certain functions in accomplishing its end. The educational system may be viewed as a part of the to perform functions in accomplishing its end. The educational system may be viewed as a part of the total social system. It reflects and influents the social and cultural order of which it is a part. The class system, the cultural values, the power structure, the balance between individual freedom and social control, the degree of urbanisation and industrialization all these factors exercise a profound influence on school system of any society.


  1. There is also a functional relationship between education and economic system. Skills and values learned in education are directly related to the way in which occupational the economy structure and the operate. Education trains the individuals in skills that are required by the economy. Similarly, education is also influenced by economy. Today, the rapid expansion of the tertiary occupation in industrial societies has produced an increasing demand for clerical, technical, professional and managerial skills. Education reflects these changes in the society.


  1. The educational system is the steady increase in the bent of specialization of educational provision and the rapid expansion of higher and vocational education. In a changing society, the educational provision and the rapid expansion of higher and vocational education. In a changing society, the interdependence of social institutions has a good deal of significance, to quote Ogburn and Nimkoff, “for a change in one institution may affect other institutions.” For example, when a country changes its constitution, the change is never confined to its political institutions. Corresponding changes take place in economic relationships in the educational system, in the class structure and so on. All the social institutions would be in balance, each being adjusted to other forming a single unified scheme. 7. Education is a social concern. It is a social process. Its objective is to develop and awaken in the child those physical, intellectual and moral states which are acquired of the individual by his society as a whole and the milieu for which he is specially destined. It is the significant means of socialization. The function of education is to socialize the young by imparting to them norms and values, culture and heritage and to provide them with skills and placement.

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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔


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