Q.1 Discuss the unified approach of teaching Pakistan Studies. Why is it important to teach Pakistan Studies?
The most important is to inculcate the values of love, unity; how Pakistan created, how will it progress and how the children will defend the homeland when they will grownup. This subject is essential for the students. But it depends on the teachers how are they teaching, are they just giving emotional speeches or giving lessons on rational basis. This subject must be taught with rationality so the students get proper guidance about homeland. They must learn to respect their homeland, culture, different religions, languages and societies. But they not only respect their own culture, religion, state but others too.
The ‘two nation theory factor’ is majorly and seriously behind that in all its glory and complex history. Every nation prepares its coming generation, equips them with the knowledge of their history, geography and their principles. To tell them who they are, to introduce them to their roots. But in case of Pakistan and Israel it’s a must to really understand the background or their sovereignty is in danger.
Like Israel, Pakistan was also created on the ideological basis, the difference is Pakistanis were not the ‘settlers’ they lived, ruled and owned their lands since ages even before Pakistan, their country was already there in their personal lives just the official procedure to firm their ideology of ‘two-nations’ the independence movement was started.
In the greater India, Pak and India was already there, under the Mughal umbrella then the British one but when British had to leave, people decided that are so bored of being under umbrellas and shelters and they have to face the open sky of independence. Muslims and Hindus in all their customs, religions, norms and even food were two different nations and a total sharp contrast to each other. Hindus worship cow, Muslims love eating them- how can one say they can live side by side in a single country being the majorities. Two giants who hate each other and living in a single house will surely have some consequences. To this day Indian Muslims and Pakistani Hindus, the minorities in both the countries are suffering because of their religions and of course because of the impotent governments, failed policies and poverty.
They have been under the shelters of Iranian, Turkish, Arab and British shelters that they can’t govern themselves. Coming back to the domain of this question, it is important to understand the complications and the reasons behind separation. To is important to teach Indian and Pakistani students why at the time of great partition Muslims killed Hindus and Hindus and Sikhs killed Muslims mercilessly and raped their women, even after living together for ages in a single country.
If they forget the reason behind two nation theory the creation of their countries will be a confusion, confusions like these leads one to disasters.
If you pick up Pakistan studies, you may be an expert in this field and make a living out of your expertise. Don’t be satisfied only with the academic studies of Pakistan. Be passionate about it, and also make a great living out of it. Here’s why and how: Almost everything China does will impact the world. China is one of the key players in the new world order. When China looks east, it gets plenty of troublesome issues involving Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan
When China looks west, it sees friendly faces in the form of Kazakhstan, Pakistan, and most of the Middle East and Europe. Pakistan will be one of the show pieces of China’s One Belt One Road Initiative. Furthermore, by developing Pakistan to its fullest potential, China may succeed in combating terrorism and bring world peace and prosperity to a new level.
When you study Pakistan now, you’ll know firsthand exactly how China manages all the mega-projects happening in Pakistan.
I believe that this Pakistan-China cooperation may be the trigger for India to cooperate with China to develop Nepal together, thus ensuring peace in this region of the world.
When you follow this development from start to finish, you can monetize your knowledge and be a leading Pakistan observer.
This can be done by blogging, publishing books, guided tours, photography, backpacking,…the options are endless. You’ll make millions selling relevant products from Amazon.
If you work passionately and intelligently with great copy writing and IT skills, you’ll be rich, happy, and famous.
Just do it and correct course along the way.
Until 2006, the content was also a matter of controversy, often omitting important events and information, while glorifying military conquests and transgressions. This improved considerably after the 2006 revision.
Pakistan Studies should indeed be taught, though I believe that it still has a lot of room for improvement. Also, the same importance should be given to the politics, history, and geography of the rest of the world. Learning from past mistakes, rather than hiding from them, is how we can move forward.
Q.2 Descibbe the taxonomy of objectives of teaching Pakistan studies at Secondary level.
Objectives play an important level in teaching learning process. They are starting points. Nothing can be done without having any target to be achieved. Objectives serve as a guide for the evaluation of achievement. They are developmental representing “roads to travel” rather than terminal points. Therefore, the teacher of Pakistan Studies should keep continuity in the formulation of objectives and appreciation of the developments taking place in social, cultural and geo-political environment of the country. Main purpose of teaching Pakistan Studies is to promote the knowledge of the individual about himself, the country and the world around him, significance of nation building problems, development of social and moral consciousness that should lead to healthy living in egalitarian society. The curriculum of Pakistan studies is comprehensive in nature. A thematic approach has been adopted for all its constituent parts of history, geography, civics and economics of country but the chapters are not given in separate thematic strands.
Some of the chapters like ‘Resources’ and industrial development in Pakistan are unnecessarily lengthy and slightly difficult and boring for students, while others are normal in length and lead students from easy to difficult concept.
On the whole the course is theoretical in nature, not supported by various activities to be carried out by students so that the subject could be making interesting and consolidate the understanding of concepts around the topic. Activity is the natural urge of the child, while this need of the child is not incorporated to bring the student close to the real life situation.
No objectives are given in the beginning of each chapter. Contents are not devised properly due to lack of objectives.
In order to make the student familiar of social, cultural and geographical environment, study trips is the most important activity but we cannot see any provision for such trips.
A variety of audio-visual aids have not been recommended to be used in teaching of Pakistan studies. There is no indication which type of aid is prepared by teachers and students.
No pictorial representation i.e. pictures of important personalities and places are not provided. The book is not attractive for the students.
New social problems & issues will emerge with the passage of time but in this book there is no flexibility to absorb and accommodate such changes and development without disturbing its fundamentals and equilibrium.
Important project work is not given at the end of each unit as to ensure the participation of social children in various community based activities outside the school.
There is no provision of skill development for school children e.g. Map making, or making models of different form of landscapes.
Being teacher of Pakistan studies I noticed many students consider Pakistan studies as the most boring, dry and difficult subject. The need is to make it interesting so that they may not memorize the content instead motivated to develop strong intellectual and social skill to build a moral society. Textbooks, particularly at school level, serve as the basic source of information for students besides being the foremost expression of the objectives desired by the curriculum. Together they constitute the necessary institutional cohesiveness, and continuity that allows an educational system to act as a national social process to shape children’s’ minds (Hasanain & Nayyer, 1997). An analysis of the content materials shows that the textbooks used in public schools contain material that is impacted by political manipulations and according to Yvette (2000) none of the subject disciplines has been subjected to such torturous stretching and contracting as the field of Social Studies because it is used to create civic identity and inculcate patriotism. The national curriculum in Pakistan mostly tends to reflect the messages of the ruling powers and there are instances where formal education is used as a means to publicize and advocate their hidden agendas. In a study by Shahab and Baxter (2007) on how Social Studies curriculum helps to determine political and social attitudes found that certain textbooks used in the secondary schools of India and Pakistan had been modified to serve political ends. The textbooks were not written by a prejudiced mind but with a particular purpose. Thus, curriculum serves as a vehicle to present chosen perspectives in a structured way and the growth of intolerance, fundamentalism and extremism, while having many other sources like family, friends and mass media, is strengthened by educational curricula and teaching systems operational in a country. Since the available literature mostly offers content analysis of the text materials and presents an appraisal of what is stated in the curriculum documents, specific questions have been framed after examining the Social Studies textbooks used in the public schools over the past 30 years and probable explanations have been sought in order to reexamine the placement of Social Studies in the national curriculum. The cited literature tends to view Social Studies Curriculum in Secondary Public Schools of Pakistan on three counts: What was the idea of state perceived at the time of the creation of Pakistan in 1947? What was the influence of military regimes after the creation of Bangladesh in 1971 on reshaping Social Studies curriculum? What do Social Studies as a subject discipline mean in terms of imparting specific knowledge and skills to the students? Based on the assertions from the literature review the discussion is focused on allied and less addressed issues in Social Studies national curriculum, followed by suggestions for developing a pragmatic approach towards the teaching of this subject in secondary public schools of Pakistan. The relationship between an individual’s world view and his/her values and attitudes and perceptions is symbiotic (Preston& Herman, 1981). The same applies to the character of nations. An essential constituent of Social Studies is to transform children into productive individuals in the society and preparation for the role means to help them to understand the need for participation in decision making, the worth of an individual, rule of majority, rights of minority, personal conduct and responsibilities and respect for law and authority. Moreover, such issues as racism, class consciousness, discrimination, sexism, prejudice and ethnocentrism which are essentially ingrained in a multicultural society constitute the scope of Social Studies. The most significant tool to address these topics is through imparting knowledge or information by way of a well integrated curriculum. Presenting materials with undistorted pictures of reality is a real challenge for curriculum workers and textbook writers. Apparently, it is assumed that in Pakistan the challenge has been focused more towards aligning historical facts to suit and support political ideologies of the federal power. Is it so? That is a key area to concentrate by the curriculum workers.
Q.3 Critically analyze the curriculum of Pakistan Studies and forward suggestions for its improvement.
In order to create awareness among the students about the “Vision of Pakistan”, as given by our leaders during the freedom movement and after the emergence of Pakistan, the rationale of Pakistan’s creation is highlighted. This approach will, hopefully, bring an element of objectivity in explaining the creation of Pakistan. It will also educate the students about the nature of the state of Pakistan as envisioned by its Founding Fathers. This approach is also useful in educating the students about the taxonomy of the state and in motivating them to develop a sense of patriotism as well as an urge for creative reconstruction. • In view of aforementioned objectives, the course framework is sought to be issue-oriented. It seeks to cover Pakistan’s cultural heritage since ancient times, Muslim political thought over the centuries, constitutional development since 1947, political systems and its functioning, public policies and reforms, agro-industrial projects, urbanization, social change and transformation, political development and modernization, as well as the democratization process through resource development and management, good governance and mass socialization, mobilization and participation. This multidimensional course framework seeks to encompass wide range of issues pertaining to nation-building and state-structure in Pakistan, and provides awareness about the remedial measures for overcoming impediments inherent in our cultural and political fabrics. • The issues of human rights have been given equal weight, so as to provide guidelines for reshaping the Pakistani society on constructive lines, and ridding it of all sorts of evils, impediments, exploitation and oppression, as envisioned by Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. • Since a state cannot survive without a body of citizens integrated and united as a coherent nation, the issues concerning Pakistan’s march towards actualizing its vision of a modern-liberal Islamic republic have been dealt with in some detail. • This curriculum seeks to develop students’ analytical and critical capabilities and broaden their vision. This will enable them to craft careers of their own choice. This will be done through extensive seminars and research projects for the most part. The courses seek to inculcate in students qualities of hard working, futuristic outlook and initiative to excel by way of healthy competition. These courses will make the students most sought after persons in the job market and by the employers due to their perceptible outstanding merit in the fields of teaching and research. Following the extensive media debate and academic reiteration on the need to update the curriculum at all levels of education, the Government of Pakistan carried out measures in 2006 to improve the national curriculum for Pakistan Studies.These actions were based on the earlier studies and recommendations by the former University Grants Commission in 200 and then later by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) in 2003
The new curriculum, for secondary and higher school certificates, was implemented from 2007 to include the political history from pre-independence to the modern times, international relations, evolution of the country’s economy and demographics, diversity of regional cultures and languages, and the status of religious groups with specific reference to Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s views that he expressed at his speech of 11 August 1947 It also eliminates prejudice against non-Muslims, efforts have been made to exclude all such material that promotes prejudice against the non-Muslims of pre-independence India.
Subsequently, the need was also realised to standardise the subject framework across the university degrees. As a result, in 2007, the Curriculum Division at the HEC revised the syllabus for the degrees of Bachelor of Science and Master of Science in Pakistan Studies.The new higher education course outline goes beyond the literature, politics, history and culture, and addresses the contemporary challenges of urbanisation, foreign policy and environment. The recommendations also imply the needs for training the teachers to improve their communication skills in accordance with the new structures.
According to the Sustainable Development Policy Institute report ‘Associated with the insistence on the Ideology of Pakistan has been an essential component of hate against India and the Hindus. For the upholders of the Ideology of Pakistan, the existence of Pakistan is defined only in relation to Hindus, and hence the Hindus have to be painted as negatively as possible’ A 2005 report by the National Commission for Justice and Peace a non profit organization in Pakistan, found that Pakistan Studies textbooks in Pakistan have been used to articulate the hatred that Pakistani policy-makers have attempted to inculcate towards the Hindus. ‘Vituperative animosities legitimise military and autocratic rule, nurturing a siege mentality. Pakistan Studies textbooks are an active site to represent India as a hostile neighbour’ the report stated. ‘The story of Pakistan’s past is intentionally written to be distinct from, and often in direct contrast with, interpretations of history found in India. From the government-issued textbooks, students are taught that Hindus are backward and superstitious.’ Further the report stated ‘Textbooks reflect intentional obfuscation. Today’s students, citizens of Pakistan and its future leaders are the victims of these partial truths’.
Q.4 Compare Unit and Textbook method for teaching Pakistan Studies. Which one can be better taught through Lecture method in a teachr education.
According to Ornstein & Hunkins (1998) the selection of subject matter for curriculum employs the seven criteria below. For the curriculum, the subjects needed for the curricular program or course.
- Self-sufficiency To help learners attain maximum self-sufficiency in the most economical manner is the main guiding principle of subject matter or content selection (Scheffler, 1970) as cited by Bilbao et al. (2008). Although the economy of learning implies less teaching effort and less use of educational resources, students gain more results. They can cope up with the learning outcomes effectively. This criterion means that students should be given a chance to experiment, observe, and do field study. This system allows them to learn independently. With this principle in mind, when the students return, they should present outputs from the activity.
- Significance The subject matter or content is significant if it is selected and organized for the development of learning activities, skills, processes, and attitude. It also develops the three domains of learning namely the cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills and considers the cultural aspects of the learners. Particularly, if your students come from different cultural backgrounds and races, the subject matter must be culture-sensitive. In short, select content or subject matter that can achieve the overall aim of the curriculum.
- Validity Validity refers to the authenticity of the subject matter or content you selected. Make sure that the topics are not obsolete. For example, do not include typewriting as a skill to be learned by college students. It should be about the computer or Information Technology (IT). Thus, there is a need to check regularly the subject matter or contents of the curriculum, and replace it if necessary. Do not wait for another 5 years to change it. Modern curriculum experts are after current trends, relevance and authenticity of the curriculum; otherwise, the school or the country becomes obsolete.
- Interest This criterion is true to the learner-centered curriculum. Students learn best if the subject matter is meaningful to them. It becomes meaningful if they are interested in it. However, if the curriculum is subject-centered, teachers have no choice but to finish the pacing schedule religiously and only teach what is in the book. This approach explains why many fail in the subject.
- Utility Another criterion is the usefulness of the content or subject matter. Students think that a subject matter or some subjects are not important to them. They view it useless. As a result, they do not study. Here are the questions that students often ask: Will I need the subject in my job? Will it give meaning to my life? Will it develop my potentials? Will it solve my problem? Will it be part of the test? Will I have a passing mark if I learn it? Students only value the subject matter or content if it is useful to them.
- Learnability The subject matter or content must be within the schema of the learners. It should be within their experiences. Teachers should apply theories in the psychology of learning to know how subjects are presented, sequenced, and organized to maximize the learning capacity of the students.
- Feasibility Feasibility means full implementation of the subject matter. It should consider the real situation of the school, the government, and the society, in general. Students must learn within the allowable time and the use of resources available.
Do not give them a topic that is impossible to finish. For example, you have only one week left to finish the unit but then, the activities may take a month for the students to complete. Thus, this requirement is not feasible. Do not offer a computer subject if there is no even electricity in the area, or there are no computers at all. Further, feasibility means that there should be teachers who are experts in that area. For example, do not offer English for Business Communication if there is no teacher to handle it. Also, there is a need to consider the nature of the learners. The organization and design of the subject matter or content must be appropriate to the nature of students.
Scope refers to both the breadth and depth of content and includes all topics, learning experiences and organizing threads found in the curriculum plan. Scope not only to cognitive learning but also affective learning and some would argue spiritual learning (Goodland & Zhixin Su, 1992). Sometime the scope of a curriculum is narrow, consisting of just a simple listing of key topics and activities. For examples, ‘the mathematics syllabus is overloaded’, and ‘scientific literacy of secondary school students is low’. When we talk of scope, we are concerned with such questions like ‘How much science should students in primary school know? Another one, ‘What is the level of mathematics required of students before they graduate from secondary school? In this case, when curriculum developers are engaged in deciding how much content should be included, they are determining the scope of the curriculum. According to Ornstein & Hunkins (1998), when deciding about the scope of curriculum, the following guidelines may be useful; the usefulness of the content selected, students abilities, amount of content, and balance in the content selected between cognitive, psychomotor and affective or spiritual outcomes
Sequence refers to the organization of content and the extent to which it fosters cumulative and continuous learning. Curriculum developers should know, ‘Do student have opportunity to make connections and enrich their understanding of content?’ it is important that the sequencing of content lead to cumulative development of intellectual and affective processes. The sequence of content and experiences should be based on the logic of the subject matter and the way in which individuals learn. It should be based on psychological principal and understanding of human development and learning. The following are some principles indentified as a guidelines in sequencing the curriculum: (Ornstein & Hunkins,1998, Taba, 1962, Bruner, 1960). a) Simple to complex – content is organized going from simple components to complex components depicting interrelationships among components. Optimal learning occurs when students are presented with easy, often concrete and to more difficult and abstract content. b) Spiral – in ‘spiral curriculum’ concepts may be introduced on a simple level in early grades, and then revisited with more and more complexity and applications later on (Bruner, 1960). c) Prerequisites – It works on the assumption that bits of information or learning must be grasped before other bits of information can be understood. d) Whole to part – content is better understood if an overview (whole) is first presented to show the connections between the parts. e) Chronology – This is a useful organizer for sequencing content especially in subjects such as history, political science and world events. f) Vertical organization – This simply means that content and skills are arranged so that they build on one another; that they align with the general sequence of cognitive development. They indicate what students have learned and what they will learn later. g) Horizontal organization – It involves how skill and content that are taught during one level or one period of time relate to another. For example, in a social science course, we might consider particular issues from a historical, sociological, political and economic point of view.
Q.5 Elaborate the concept of Supervised Study. How can you apply it effectively in a Pakistan Studies class?
Teaching is a skilful activity which is based on an interaction between the teacher and the learner. It applies knowledge, and scientific principles for setting an environment to facilitate students’ learning. Curzon (2004) describes that teaching involves the provision of those conditions that directly promote effective learning. It is through teaching that student becomes familiar with the values and mannerism advocated and given priority by the society. Whether the teacher is teaching at elementary level, secondary or higher secondary level he/she has not only to impart knowledge (information) but he/she needs certain skills for dealing with students. Researches conducted on teaching show that learning atmosphere that is conducive for concept understanding gives better results in successful learning. A good teacher not only intellectually challenges students in concept understating, but also supports the students in their generating knowledge on the basis of learn material. “Teachers act as facilitators or coaches, using interactive discussions and “hands-on” learning to help students learn and apply concepts in subjects such as science, mathematics, or English. As teachers move away from the traditional repetitive drill approaches and rote memorisation, they are using more “props” or “manipulatives” to help children understand abstract concepts, solve problems, and develop critical thought processes” (BLS, 2009). For the process of teaching- learning some terms like supervised study, textbook method and teaching techniques are often use synonymously. In fact there is difference between the three terms. Supervised study are used for achieving specific teaching objectives. Teaching techniques are teaching tactics used by teacher during any textbook method. Difference between textbook method and teaching strategy is that textbook method involves only presentation of learning content. Whereas teaching strategy involves educational philosophy to be followed, objectives that to achieved, learning principles on which learning is based, constructing desired activities needed for achieving teaching objectives, and tactics for providing motivation and feedback for learners. Hence teaching strategy has broad scope than textbook method or teaching technique. Just as there are too many people to learn likewise there are too many strategies to teach. It is the teacher who decides which teaching strategy is the best for achieving specific objectives and needs of the lesson. The researcher traced out following some supervised study from literature review in the shape of internet exploring, reading books, articles encyclopedias and other literature available in the area of supervised study that are generally used teaching students of secondary level. In Pakistan studies is taught as a compulsory subject from secondary to bachelor level in Pakistan. The researcher has been herself teaching this subject for a long time and had observed other teachers of Pakistan studies teaching this subject. However, the researcher decided to find out what the real situation in the field is? Keeping in view the situation the researcher decided to conduct a research study to find out the textbook method being used by teachers for teaching of Pakistan studies. Generllay according to the nation curriculum for Pakistan studies 2006 the following supervised study has been suggested for teaching of Pakistan studies: 1. Lecture, 2. Discussion, 3. Inquiry, 4. Cooperative learning Lecture Strategy Lecture strategy is the most effective way of teaching new concepts to students. It is the most commonly used traditional teaching strategy is lecture. It may be called classical and a teacher-centred teaching strategy. In lecture the teacher presents factual material in a logical manner. “It is very traditional method. Its history goes back to the period when there was no printing. Knowledge communicated by the teacher to a student orally. The teacher depended upon his memory and transmitted the knowledge orally to his students” (Sharif Khan and Akbar 1997). Unit method are usually based on experiences, which inspire students to believe what the teacher is saying. Unit method is also useful for large classes. Unit method is an effective mean of conveying detailed information on any topic. Unit method could prove very effective strategy for creating enthusiasm and excitement about the field. In lecture strategy the teacher has full command over the class. Students are totally in control of the teacher and they do not know what will happen next. It the teacher who plans the lecture. While uniting the teacher talks on such material which students do not know so the teacher seems knowledgeable and gets high ratings. In lecture strategy the teacher is the entire time active and goes on speaking for a long time. Students in this time are passive and mostly just listen to the teacher whatever he/she is saying. That’s why Quina (1989) observes that in recent years lecture has been disregarded and maligned by some educators. Much empirical research has been amassed to show shortcomings of the lecture as an instructional vehicle. In order to make lecture strategy interesting it is essential to following elements should be included in lecture: 1 It should be understandable, clear, and concepts should be illustrated with the help of examples from real life. 2 Sequence the content logically, sequentially and systematically building upon previous knowledge; 3 Ask questions to check whether the learners are active, provoke the learners to ask questions; maintain eye contact with the learners to assess whether they are following or not whether they are interested or bored; 4 Having seating arrangement in which all can see the aids equally and hear the lecture. A circular seating arrangement, or if too many stunts a double circle is useful. 5 It should be understandable, clear, and concepts should be illustrated with the help of examples from real life. 6 Opportunities should be provided for students through asking questions, suggestions, and reactions, for the purpose of full participation on the part of students. 7 The teacher should avoid providing every bit of information/facts in single lecture rather the teacher should refer important related material during the lecture and should guide about the source from students can get it. Discussion textbook method is also a traditional method. It can be effective if it is well planned having a good start, middle and an end. Discussion involves free and interactive dialogue between teachers and students. According to Dhand (1990): “Discussion involves a cooperative effort to solve problems. During the discussion process, students are given the opportunity to express their opinions and receive feedback. Students are not encouraged to simply passively accept what they hear. Discussion involves an organised but free exchange of ideas”. A successful discussion depends on that all students participate in it and responses and ideas are accepted and considered. Students and teachers should be open-minded to consider and listen to each other’s viewpoints and to accept those that are different from their own. Discussion strategy is often favourable in secondary school level especially for teaching of social sciences. Discussion not only helps students to learn their text material but also develops their thinking power and a positive attitude towards learning, tolerance and regard for other’s opinions and interpersonal relationship. Discussion can be controlled through posing different kinds of questions directly related to the topic. There should be agenda for discussion around which the whole discussion should revolve. Questions should be asked in multiple rather than in straightforward answers. At the same time it is a fact that discussion method is not practicable for more than 20 people. It cannot be useful for large classes. It also needs a careful planning and questions outline by the teacher to lead discussion. If organised and planned well discussion textbook method can prove a good method for teaching learning process.