AIOU Course Code 6502-2 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

Course: Educational Management and Supervision (6502)

Level: M.A/M.Ed (3 Credit Hours)                              Semester: Autumn, 2021


  1. 1 Differentiate between direct instructions, monitoring and modeling. According to your opinion which techniques works better in secondary school students?


Direct Instruction?

Direct instruction is a type of instruction that involves a teacher presenting, lecturing, modeling, explaining, or otherwise leading the class. The teacher is at the center of the classroom, and students take notes, ask and answer questions, and demonstrate their knowledge through various assessments. The teacher’s goals and objectives are the driving force behind instruction.

With direct instruction, the teacher maintains complete control of the learning process. After deciding what content standards and lesson objectives students should meet, the teacher sits down to plan her lesson. All elements of the instruction are strategic, sequential, and teacher-led.

For example, when introducing the use of metaphor in poetry, the teacher might begin the lesson with a brief lecture about metaphor using a PowerPoint presentation to reinforce the content. Next, she might ask students to quietly read a section about figurative language from their textbook and answer some questions.

After collecting the students’ classwork, the teacher might provide students with several poems and ask them to write down all the metaphors they find. Finally, she may assign students to write an original poem using at least three metaphors for homework.

In general usage, the term direct instruction refers to (1) instructional approaches that are structured, sequenced, and led by teachers, and/or (2) the presentation of academic content to students by teachers, such as in a lecture or demonstration. In other words, teachers are “directing” the instructional process or instruction is being “directed” at students.

While a classroom lecture is perhaps the image most commonly associated with direct instruction, the term encompasses a wide variety of fundamental teaching techniques and potential instructional scenarios. For example, presenting a video or film to students could be considered a form of direct instruction (even though the teacher is not actively instructing students, the content and presentation of material was determined by the teacher). Generally speaking, direct instruction may be the most common teaching approach in the United States, since teacher-designed and teacher-led instructional methods are widely used in American public schools. That said, it’s important to note that teaching techniques such as direct instruction, differentiation, or scaffolding, to name just a few, are rarely mutually exclusive—direct instruction may be integrated with any number of other instructional approaches in a given course or lesson. For example, teachers may use direct instruction to prepare students for an activity in which the students work collaboratively on a group project with guidance and coaching from the teacher as needed (the group activity would not be considered a form of direct instruction).

Monitoring and modeling

The aim of Biological and Physiological Monitoring and Modeling is to develop novel models, sensors, methods and technological platforms that enable naval warfighters in austere environments during training and operations.

Monitoring and Evaluation are the two management tools that help in keeping a control on the business activities as well as raising the level of performance. Monitoring refers to an organized process of overseeing and checking the activities undertaken in a project, to ascertain whether it is capable of achieving the planned results or not. Conversely, evaluation is a scientific process that gauges the success of the project or program in meeting the objectives.

Difference Between Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and Evaluation are the two management tools that help in keeping a control on the business activities as well as raising the level of performance. Monitoring refers to an organized process of overseeing and checking the activities undertaken in a project, to ascertain whether it is capable of achieving the planned results or not. Conversely, evaluation is a scientific process that gauges the success of the project or program in meeting the objectives.

The primary difference between monitoring and evaluation is that while monitoring is a continuous activity, performed at the functional level of management, evaluation is a periodic activity, performed at the business level. To get some more differences on these two, check out the article presented below.

Definition of Monitoring

Monitoring is the systematic process of observing and recording on a regular basis, the activities carried out in a project, to ensure that the activities are in line with the objectives of the enterprise.

Monitoring takes into account optimum utilization of resources, to assist the managers in rational decision making. It keeps a track on the progress and checks the quality of the project or program against set criteria and checks adherence to established standards.

The information collected in monitoring process helps analyse each aspect of the project, to gauge the efficiency and adjust inputs wherever essential.

Definition of Evaluation

Evaluation is defined as an objective and rigorous analysis of a continuing or completed project, to determine its significance, effectiveness, impact and sustainability by comparing the result with the set of standards. It is the process of passing value judgement concerning the performance level or attainment of defined objectives.

In short, evaluation is a process that critically assesses, tests and measures the design, implementation and results of the project or program, in the light of objectives. It can be conducted both qualitatively and quantitatively, to determine the difference between actual and desired outcome.

Differences Between Monitoring and Evaluation

The difference between monitoring and evaluation can be drawn clearly on the following premises:

  1. By monitoring is meant a routine process, that scrutinizes the activities and progress of the project and also finds out the deviations that occur while undertaking the project. As against, evaluation is a periodical activity that makes inferences about the relevance and effectiveness of the project or program.
  2. While monitoring is observational in nature, evaluation is judgmental.
  3. Monitoring is an operational level activity, performed by the supervisors. On the other hand, evaluation is a business level activity performed by the managers.
  4. Monitoring is a short-term process, that is concerned with the collection of information regarding the success of the project. Conversely, evaluation is a long-term process, which not only records the information but also assesses the outcomes and impact of the project.
  5. Monitoring focuses on improving the overall efficiency of the project, by removing bottlenecks, while the project is under process. Unlike, evaluation stresses on improving the effectiveness of the project, by making the comparison with the established standards.
  6. Monitoring is usually carried out by the people who are directly involved in its implementation process. In contrast, evaluation can be conducted by internal staff of the organization, i.e. managers or it can also be carried out by independent external party, who can give their impartial views on the project or program.

This is important. You need to be in an environment with little to no distractions—an environment that will aid in keeping you focused on your assignments. The library has always been a reliable place to get some real academic work done, but if you prefer someplace else, just make sure that you’re set up for success. Your university may have other places on campus that will provide you with a nice little studying spot. While cafeterias may be quite busy, there are some university campus cafeterias that tend to have just enough silence for students to study while they grab a bite to eat.

You might get campus fever and decide to venture outside of your university to get some work done. Many students find little coffee shops with Wi-Fi that will let them sit there all day long for a buying customer. Outdoor parks and recreational centers, even the public library might be a nice change of scenery.

Even study lighting is also important. If you want to preserve your eyesight and maximize your time and energy, then choose lighting that will not cause eye strain or fatigue so you can keep your study session effective at any time of the day.

Establish rules when you’re in your study zone. Let people living with you know that when your door is closed, it means you do not want to be disturbed. Try not to respond to phone calls or texts, this will break your concentration and you will lose focus.

Let’s not forget about your home. No matter the size of your apartment or house, we recommend dedicating a little office space just for studying—away from any distractions.

  1. Avoid social media.

Speaking of distractions, nothing can sap away your time for a good 20-30 minutes like good old social media! Emails used to be the necessary evil in order to keep life going, but now people are communicating through social media platforms more than email or even talking on the phone! As a result, it’s pretty common to have a browser tab open just for social media. The problem with this is the alerts! As much as you may try to ignore it, you won’t be satisfied until you follow through with the alert—an alert that will most likely require a reply! In all likelihood, it will end up being a conversation that could’ve waited an hour—and now you’ve just added another 20-30 minutes to your study time! Congratulations!

3. Stay Away From Your Phone.

Distractions also include avoiding your phone. The best thing you can do is either put your phone on silent, turn off the alerts and flip it over so that you can’t even SEE them, or just turn the thing off! If it helps, place the phone out of sight so that you’re not even tempted to check your messages.
The world can wait. Your education is a priority and anyone who’s in your circle of friends should understand this. If you are absolutely adamant about keeping your phone nearby in case of an emergency, then allow yourself some study breaks so that you can dedicate a certain amount of time just for checking your alerts and messages.

4. No Willpower? Enlist the Help of an App.

Apps like Focus Booster and AntiSocial have your back!

AntiSocial blocks your access to a selection of websites with a timer that you select.

Focus Booster is a mobile phone app that relies on the Pomodoro Technique, where you work intensively for 25 minutes and then you break for five minutes. The app also includes productivity reports and revenue charts.

5. Take a break and take care of yourself.

Talking a little more about taking breaks, this really shouldn’t be an option. College is hard work, and just like any other kind of job, you deserve a break. Don’t be so hard on yourself. Working until the wee hours of the morning to complete an assignment might be great for that class, but it’s not for you or other academic courses. You MUST take care of yourself in order to give your academic career the attention it deserves. You’re paying to get an education—to learn. Running yourself into the ground without allowing time for your body and mind to rest is unacceptable.

  • Ophthalmologists will warn you that you need to remember to blink when working on a computer screen to save your sight. Give your eyes a rest by gazing into the horizon, preferably out of a window with natural light. Did you know that your eyes need exercise, too? Especially in today’s world where we are reading everything at such close distances. Keep your head in a neutral position and with just your eyeballs, look at the ceiling or a tree and try to focus. Go from corner to corner, focusing up, then do the same for the floor. Roll your eyes.
  • Your hands also need a break: learn to use the mouse with your other hand, put the keyboard in the most comfortable position, which is actually on your lap. Take a moment to stretch your wrists and fingers.
  1. 2 Discuss the role of libraries and instructional materials to improve the teaching learning process in classroom. Highlight the importance of budgeting to manage learning resources in school set up.


The origin of the first libraries can be traced to human efforts in the document collection. Favorite topics would depend on accessibility, acquisition, identifying the tools for arrangement in appropriate order, the trade in books, getting hold of materials, their physical properties, their language and its distribution, the part they play in education, the level of literacy and the finances. Other factors would include the areas of staffing, targeting special audiences, its inseparable role in the development of the cultural heritage of the country involved, not to speak of the involvement of private sponsorship, the Church or the government in its affairs. Digitization and computerization started playing a major role since its advent in the 1960s.

The earliest library records could be traced to cuneiform script 2600 BC clay tablets, the papyrus temple records from ancient Egypt, the Nippur libraries of 1900BC and the thirty thousand clay tablets from 700 BC in a classified library system in Nineveh, highlighting the scrupulous work on religion, administration and literary skills of the Mesopotamian scholars that will mesmerize the modern enthusiasts. Among these tablets was also “EnumaElish” or the “Epic of Creation” that presents the Babylonian concept of the “Epic of Gilgamesh.”

The inseparable relationship between the libraries and education started way back in the Byzantium or Constantinople (the ancient city of Thrace in modern Turkey’s Istanbul that, the Greeks founded in the seventh century). Monks wrote incessantly in Scriptoriums (Rooms in monasteries earmarked for manuscript writing), to preserve and accumulate the results of their Hellenistic thoughts on what became large libraries that were solely devoted to the monks’ education in spiritual advancement. Throughout Europe’s dark ages, most of the Greco-Roman classics were preserved by these monastery scriptoriums, reviving in its wake, the tradition of orthodox libraries and education models that, in turn, were instrumental in the progressive development of libraries and intellectual culture and learning that were inevitable with the vast resources at hand. 18th century history, educational materials and Buddhist scriptures, stored in “Pitakataik” a library that founded by King Mindon Min during the pre-colonial era as one of the eight structures that were established in honor of naming Mandalay as his capital), further reinforced the destinies of libraries with education. Library and education thus became symbiotically and inexorably dependent on one another. Over the years, we have learned that the library; education, literacy and national development always went hand in hand and have influenced everyone from the primary school students to the   highest levels of education, not to speak of the informal medium of adult literacy.

How Library Aesthetics affects Student Behavior

When a new library is being designed, “future proofing” it is an important ingredient in the criteria for success. Strong floors, good lighting and good ventilation will go a long way in promoting the adaptability and flexibility for posterity. Today, aesthetics are always built more around the personality of the people who will use it. In other words, people take priority over structures, unlike the earlier times when the collection of works in the library was considered paramount.

A beautiful building housing a library will rekindle the passions of the students, and entice their elements to experience the library in its new glory as a resourceful learning space in place of an outmoded structure that hardly offers them the atmosphere or environment for advancement in their own special disciplines. Though a conclusion is yet to come on the benefits of space well designed and its effects on the student population, indications are very much leaning to the affirmative.

The Importance of Instructional Materials

One of the innovations in the educational system is the introduction of several new teaching strategies at different levels of education. English language is a study connected with all other subjects and all aspects of human life to enable people live a fulfilled, free interaction and achievement in life. It involves a study of people in relation to the social, academic, economic, cultural, physical and psychological lives. It has to do with all round development of human beings to enable them become useful citizens in the society. Kochhar (2012) saw Economics as a portion of the Social Sciences selected for instructional purposes applied to include anything pertinent to the immediate purpose of learning and adapted to the level of comprehension of the students. Therefore, the importance of instructional materials cannot be underestimated in developing students‟ skills in English as a second language. Since instructional materials are the devices developed to assist teachers in transmitting, organized knowledge and attitudes toward learners within an instructional situation (Nwachukwu, 2006). Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning in order to promote teachers‟ efficiency and improve students‟ performance. The Usefulness of Instructional Material in Language Teaching Although teachers use different instructional materials to motivate learning by using textbooks, charts, models, graphics, real objects as well as improvised materials (Awotua-Efebo, 2001). The success of achieving what they are met to achieve in an instructional situation depend on the suitability of the instructional materials, adequacy and effective utilization of the materials (Olaitan&Agusiobo, 1994). The effectiveness of instructional materials in promoting students‟ academic performance in teaching and learning is indisputable. It provides the much needed sensory experiences needed by the learners for an effective and meaningful behavioural change. Instructional materials are meant to improve the quality of education for effective academic performance of students in schools. The performance of the students on the intended learning outcomes provide the validation – loop on the success of the interaction and instruction. Omabe (2006) asserts that instructional materials are central in the teaching and learning of English language because they are used to compliment efficiency of a teacher, and effectiveness in lesson delivery. Esu, Enukoha and Umoren (2004) affirmed that instructional materials facilitate learning of abstract concepts by helping to concretize ideas and stimulate learners‟ imagination. Moreover, instructional materials help to increase active participation in the learning process while saving teacher‟s energy, reducing the teacher centeredness in teaching. In the same vein, Mathew (2012) states that the use of instructional materials make teaching effective as it enables learners to participate actively in classroom instruction. All these views suggest that the use of instructional materials can improved students‟ performance. Olumorin, Yusuf, Ajidagba and Jekayinfa (2010) also observe that instructional materials help teachers to teach conveniently and the learners to learn easily without stress. They assert that instructional materials havedirect contact with all the sense organs of the students. Kochhar (2012) supports this view by saying that, instructional materials are very significant learning and teaching tools. He adds that there is need for teachers to find necessary and relevant instructional materials to complement classroom interaction and textbooks in order to broaden and arouse students‟ interests in the subject. Problem Statement The performance of students in English language especially in Senior Secondary Schools is not encouraging (Onileowo, 2016). It was observed that the poor performance of students in English language is unconnected with non-utilization of suitable instructional materials. Many teachers go to classes to teach subjects as liberal arts without any materials to assist the learners. No language laboratory, tape recorders among others to facilitate second language learning. Learning is facilitated when the learners make use of at least three of the sense organs namely: seeing, hearing and touching. Literature in pedagogy and instructional communication have explained and illustrated the effectiveness of instructional materials as a tool for improving students‟ performance in the learning of difficult concepts like language (Ibe-Bassey, 1991; Etim, 1998; Ikot, 2008). Gender differences in students‟ performance in language have been a global concern and some researches have been undertaken in many parts of the globe in this respect. Although some researchers have found that there are no significant differences in male-female performance in English language at any level of education, most have identified gender differences (Atovigba, 2012). In fact, it has been the general belief in most parts of the country that male students tends to perform better compared to the female students in school subjects and non-academic activities. Gender differences and the use of instructional materials have been reported in several studies. Gender is one of such factors to have considerable effects teacher‟s use of instructional materials and also on students‟ academic performances school subjects. However, studies concerning teachers‟ gender and the use of instructional materials have revealed that female teachers‟ use of audio, visual and audio-visual instructional materials was due to their limited access, skill, and interest. Arisi (1998) submitted that female teachers were found to use instructional materials more frequently than the male teachers in terms of the improvisation of instructional materials. Similarly, Markauskaite (2006) revealed significant difference between males and females in the use of instructional materials. In making use of any instructional materials, such materials must be previewed, that is, having full knowledge of the material; prepare the environment where it will be used; prepare audience by means of making sure that the materials to be used will attract attention, arouse, motivate and provide the rationale that could be used in the beginning, middle or end. The effectiveness of utilizing appropriate instructional materials in teaching and learning of English language is not void of quality instructor (Ntasiobi, Francisca &Iheanyi, 2014). Studies on learning theories and skill acquisition also emphasised on the use and effect of instructional materials on learners‟ cognitive domain as it revealed that a single approach or strategy cannot adequately explain the concept of how people learn, how materials should be used, how the various interactions affect learning and how best to organize the teaching and learning process (Nsa, 2012). The development of cognitive and psycho-productive competences in learners has a lot to do with the constructivist and the pragmatic theories. Constructivists‟ theory is based on the assumption that learners can learn to construct or develop knowledge as they attempt to make sense out of their experiences in the teaching learning situation. The constructivists maintained that the goals of instruction must be stated in such a way that they will help to develop learning and thinking and to focus on learners‟ active construction of knowledge-base and also to encourage active enquiry. This study is therefore concerned with how empirically the effects of visual and audio instructional materials on the performance of students in secondary schools.

Highlight the importance of budgeting to manage learning resources in school set up.

A budget can be defined as an itemized listing of the amount of all estimated revenue or income which the school anticipates receiving, along with a listing of the amount of all estimated costs and expenses that will be incurred during a given period of time (Wango Geoffrey, 2009:211). A school budget can be defined as a document or statement outlining a school’s revenue (income) projections against expenditure. A school budget can also be defined as a financial plan of funds that a school expects to receive and the expenditure it will take to achieve its educational objectives.

The head teacher is charged with the prime duty of preparing a school budget. The budget is drawn based on the Board of Governors (BOG), School Management Committee (SMC) and Parents Teachers Association (PTA) resolutions on the school development and operations. A well-prepared budget should consist of three key components namely: revenue plan, expenditure framework and educational strategy which is a long term plan. A budget is important to an educational institution in the following ways: First, Budgeting ensures that actions are carried out according to a budget plan.

Through the use a budget as a standard, the school ensures that programmes are implemented according to set plans and objectives. The actual performance is measured against budgeted performance. Secondly, a budget facilitates proper administration of financial revenues and other school resources. A budget is the basis for accounting for funds spent to achieve educational objectives. The budget also inspires confidence in the parents, education officials and the school community about the school’s leadership and general management.

Fourthly, budgeting facilitates a systematic plan for evaluating the quality and quantity of services needed in a school. Next, a budget helps in the attainment of purposes. The budget states clearly the purposes for which the school was founded. Sixth, a budget confers authority to head teachers to source for funds and expend it on approved expenditures. Finally, it enables teachers to obtain fairly accurate estimates of receipts and expenditures. These estimates help in balancing the budget and thus prevent budgetary deficits.

  1. 3 Critically examine the need and uses of different kinds of schools records which are used at secondary level?


The records are the evidences which reflect: aims and objectives of the institute. Records also show its origin and growth and philosophy of the institution. As a social institution, school is answerable to parents, managing committee, education department, community and to pupils. Every school is required to keep an accurate and complete account of each and every pupil on its rolls and submit periodically report based on these records.

Records are again essential for furnishing the Department of Education with an overall picture of the school, which is based on facts and figures. These data are utilised for planning future programmes in budgetary form.

A school has to maintain computer records of each student. These records will reveal progress that each student has made and also show the weakness and strengths of the educational programme. Where computer facility is not available these records can be prepared manually with the assistance of teacher and administrative staff.

The records can broadly be classified under the following six headings:

(i) General Records

  1. General register
  2. Log book
  3. Visitors’ book
  4. Staff record
  5. Public relations record

(ii) Records of Teachers

  1. Service book
  2. Attendance register
  3. Leave register
  4. Register of private tuitions of teacher
  5. Confidential record
  6. Teacher’s diary

(iii) Records of Pupils

  1. Attendance register
  2. School leaving certificate
  3. Cumulative record card
  4. Admission record
  5. Performance record.

(iv) Equipment Records

  1. Dead stock register
  2. Laboratory register
  3. Library register
  4. Stationery issue book
  5. Stock and issue of sports material
  6. Inventories of infrastructural facilities

(v) Statistical Data:

Statistical information related to pupil enrolment, sex-wise distribution of pupils, pupil-staff ratio, cost per student, failure records etc.

(vi) Financial Records”

(1) Daily cash book

(2) Ledger

(3) Contingency register

(4) Register of fee collection

(5) Register of donations received.

In the school the emphasis must shift from examination to education. Teachers and children should concentrate on the real purpose of the school and take examination in their stride. Much greater credit can be given to the actual work done by the students from day-to-day, of which
careful and complete records should be maintained. Moreover, in assessing his progressed and his position, factors other than academic achievement should be given due weight his social sense, initiative, truthfulness discipline, co-operation leadership etc.

  1. Objectives of School Records:
  2. To help the School:
    (i) To locate each pupil quickly.
    (ii) To have available the facts significant about each pupil.
    (iii) To explain and remove undesirable conditions.
    (iv) To find if all legal requirements are met.
    (v) To determine if any administrative or other changes are desirable.
    (vi) To make important investigation and case studies possible.
    (vii) To find if school funds are adequate and wisely expended.
    (viii) To reduce retardation and failure to the minimum.
  3. To help the Class-room Teacher:
    (i) To known pupils when the school year begins.
    (ii) To determine what work a pupil is capable of doing.
    (iii) To provide learning activities suitable to each pupil.
    (iv) To formulate a basis for the intelligent guidance of pupils.
    (v) To explain the behaviour characteristic or unhappy conditions of any pupil.
    (vi) To make possible the development of unusual capacities or exceptional talents.
    (vii) To identify and make proper provisions for mentally slow.
    (viii) To make assignments to committee work and monitorial positions.
    (ix) To make periodic reports correctly and in time.
    (x) To be properly informed when conferring with parents and others about pupils.
  4. To help the Pupil:

(i) To receive fair consideration in his classification.
(ii) To do his best in making a good record.
(iii) To make a progress in accordance with his ability.
(iv) To secure development of his natural capabilities.
(v) To secure transfer of correct information to other schools when desired.
(vi) To receive proper adjustment and guidance.

  1. Types of School records:

School records and registers can be broadly classified under the following heads :

  1. General Records: (i) School Calendar, (ii) Log Book, (iii) Visitors’ Book, (iv) Service Registers, (v) Admission and Withdrawal Register, (vi) Transfer Certificate Book, (vii) General Order
  2. Financial Records: (i) Acquittance Roll, (ii) Contingency, (iii) Contingent Order Book, (iv) Free Collection Register, (v) Abstract Register of Fees, (vi) Bill Register, (vii) Register of Donations, (iii) Register of Scholarships, (ix) Boys’ Fund Register.
  3. Educational Records: (i) Pupils Attendance Register, (ii) ‘Teachers’ Attendance Register, (iii) Class Time-Table, (iv) General Time-table, (v) Teacher’s Monthly Programme of Work, (vi)
    Monthly Progress Register, (vii) Terminal Examination Result Register, (viii) Headmaster’s Supervision Register, (ix) Private Tuitions Register, (xi) Cumulative Records.
  4. Equipment Records :(i) Stock Book of Furniture and School Applicance, (ii) Library Catalogue, (iii) Accession Register, (iv) Issue Books, Register of Newspapers and Magzines received, (v) Stock and Issue Register of Sports Material.
  5. Correspondence Records: (i) ‘From’ and ‘To’ Registers, (ii) Peon Book, (iii) Memo Book, (iv) Notes File of Department Orders, (v) Register of Casual Leave Granted.
  6. Account Books: (i) Cash Book for Daily Receipts and Expenditure, (ii) General Ledger or Classified Abstract of the Monthly Totals, (iii) Remittance Book, (iv) Register of Pay Bills.
  7. Special Registers Maintained by the Basic Schools :(i) Craft-work Record, (ii) Community Activity Records, (iii) Production Register, (iv) Producers’ Register, (v) Art Work Record, (vi) Hobbies Record, (vii) Physical Education Programme Records, (viii) Scholar-ship Subjects Achievement Records.

A stock list of registers should be prepared in the school. On the outer cover of each register, the following particulars should be written directly :
(i) The name of the school.
(ii) The serial number of the register.
(iii) The name of the register.
(iv) The number of volume.
(v) The number of pages of the volume
(vi) The opening and closing dates.

  1. Maintenance of School Records
  2. Stock List: In every institution, a stock lists of registers should be prepared.
  3. Particulars: On the outer cover of each register, the following particulars should be written:
    (i) The name of the school,
    (ii) The Serial No. of the register,
    (iii) The name of the register,
    (iv) Number of the volume.
    (v) The number of pages in the volume and dates on which the volume was opened and



  1. 4 Explain function and responsibilities of school administration.


School Administration is… in an educational setting Planning, organizing,directing, and controlling human or material resources. 3. MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF ADMINISTRATION 1. Planning of school programs and activities 2. Directing school work and formulating and executing educational policies 3.

Functions of Educational Administration

1. Development of Human Personality:

As educational administration is a process of human relationship it is much more influenced and controlled by the various factors that are essential for having smooth administration of an educational programme. These are: philosophical, psychological, sociological, historical and political.

So it is necessary to highlight here that educational administration is different from other types of administration as it considers every human resource as an asset and valuable potential through which the development of their personality as well as of the programme will be ensured. So development of human personality should be the first and foremost function of educational administration.

2. Provide and Ensure Proper Utilisation of Human and Material Resources:

Before organizing any educational programme it should be the first task and responsibility of the educational authority to involve and activate all the human resources who are directly or indirectly linked and involved in this process. Because due to their activeness and readiness they would be able to utilize the material resources properly. For this purpose it is the responsibility of educational administration to see that all the parts are co-ordinated into a whole.

3. To Make the Learner Active in the Educational Programme:

It is an established fact in the modern educational theory and practices that the child or educand is the central figure of every educational programme. To actualize this it should be the responsibility of educational administration to frame rules for admission and promotion for the students. Besides this, there must be description for the children or students in accordance of their variety of needs, requirements, capacities and demands and implement them accordingly in a socially desirable and acceptable manner.

4. Provide Adequate Physical Facilities:

The educational administration has to pay deep insight with the problems of provision and maintenance of the school plant, equipment’s, play materials, library, hostel building and other co-curricular activities etc. Because without this facility the administration of any educational programme will never be a successful one.

5. To Adhere the Legal Provision of the Programme Strictly:

It is an as usual practice that a set of rules and regulations have been strictly framed for every programme in the joint venture of the competent authorities and the legal advisors dealing in the concerned field. The same situation occurs in the field of educational administration.

In this field the types and standards of educational institution, powers and functions of the controlling authorities, their responsibilities and obligations have been set accordingly. Here it is the task of educational administration to see whether these works are being done according to rules and regulations meant for these.

6. Decision Making In Respect of Finance:

It has been revealed from the research findings of a noted economist that the educational system must contribute to national economy by improving human and material resources in the long run.

For this, it is the responsibility of the educational administration to concern with the following things as its functions in this regard:

(a) Problem of income and expenditure, their accounting and auditing.

(b) To take decisions about the sharing of the cost of education among the centre and the states.

(c) To frame rules for budgeting, spending and controlling of funds and resources.

(d) To see that education is being made within the financial and human resources available in the country.

(e) To see that education is duly financed to provide equality of opportunity in the field of education.

(f) Attempts must be made to provide special groups facilities of physical activities, libraries and reading rooms.

7. To Keep and Maintain Co-Operation with the Society:

As education is imparted in a social institution to the social elements it should keep relationship with the society. It is the function of educational administration to co-operate with the members of the society in their programme as well as need their co-operation while organizing an educational programme.

Then the educational administration of any programme will be meaningful. Because education is essentially a social affair and the educational institution may be a school or a college is charged by society, with the responsibility of training and bringing up the youth. So education is not an isolated activity rather it is related to life and society. To make the society worth living, educational administration should develop co- operation with society.

8. To Deal With the Problem of Curriculum Construction:

Curriculum is the means through which the goals of an educational programme can be realized in one point and the students become able to achieve their goals and aspirations of life in another point. So the curriculum of any educational or academic programme should be perfect and appropriate which creates a problem in the educational process. This can be solved by proper and effective educational administration.

It is an important function and responsibility of the educational administration to prepare a broad, balanced, dynamic, flexible, utilitarian curriculum for each stage of education with the view to enable the individual to equip with the change as time and situation demands.

School Administrator?

School Administrators oversee administrative tasks in schools, colleges or other educational institutions. They ensure that the organization runs smoothly and they also manage facilities and staff.

What does a School Administrator do?

The duties of school administrators may vary depending on the size and type of school they work in. For example, school administrators in small day care centers (where they may be the only member of the administrative team) have different scope of responsibility than at a large college (where they may specialize in a specific area). Generally though, School Administrators manage budgets, handle logistics and act as a point of reference for everyone in the school.

School Administrator responsibilities include:

  • Coordinating all administrative processes.
  • Managing budgets, policies and events.
  • Resolving conflicts or other issues as they occur.

What are the qualities of a School Administrator?

School Administrators are capable planners, possess good judgment, and are skilled in handling relations with various people (staff, parents, students, regulatory bodies and the public). A great School Administrator also has an attention to detail and conflict management skills.

If you like this School Administrator job description, see our other education job descriptions, too. We also have the most updated list of teachers job boards.

Job brief

We are looking for a School Administrator to manage all administrative tasks in our school.

As a School Administrator, you’ll need to wear many different hats; the planner, the problem-solver, the educator and the counselor being a few of them. You should have the skills to communicate with various people, handle budgets and logistics, and keep all educational programs running.

If you’re up to the task, and you’re also committed to high-quality education, we’d like to meet you.


  • Manage budgets, logistics and events or meetings
  • Handle scheduling, record-keeping and reporting
  • Ensure the school complies with relevant laws and regulations
  • Develop and run educational programs
  • Hire, train and advise staff
  • Counsel students when needed
  • Resolve conflicts and other issues
  • Communicate with parents, regulatory bodies and the public
  • Have a hand in the creation of the school curriculum
  • Implement actions that improve the school and the quality of education (e.g. building renovations, new guidelines for students, new subjects)
  • Help shape and uphold the vision of the school


  • Proven experience as a School Administrator
  • Experience as an educator is a plus
  • Knowledge of administrative processes of schools
  • Ability to use computers (e.g. MS Office) and education management systems
  • Excellent communication skills
  • Outstanding organizational ability
  • Attention to detail
  • Problem-solving and conflict resolution skills
  • Good judgment and decision-making aptitude
  • Degree in Education or similar field; post-graduate degree is a plus


  1. 5 Discuss the scope of CIIPP model in evaluation. Critically examine the pros and cons of using this model for evaluation of our educational system?


CIPP is an evaluation model that requires the evaluation of context, input, process and product in judging a programme’s value. CIPP is a decision-focused approach to evaluation and emphasises the systematic provision of information for programme management and operation.

CIPP evaluation model is a Program evaluation model which was developed by Daniel Stufflebeam and colleagues in the 1960s. CIPP is an acronym for Context, Input, Process and Product. CIPP is an evaluation model that requires the evaluation of contextinputprocess and product in judging a programme’s value. CIPP is a decision-focused approach to evaluation and emphasises the systematic provision of information for programme management and operation.

The CIPP framework was developed as a means of linking evaluation with programme decision-making. It aims to provide an analytic and rational basis for programme decision-making, based on a cycle of planning, structuring, implementing and reviewing and revising decisions, each examined through a different aspect of evaluation –context, input, process and product evaluation.[1][2]

The CIPP model is an attempt to make evaluation directly relevant to the needs of decision-makers during the phases and activities of a programme.[1] Stufflebeam’s context, input, process, and product (CIPP) evaluation model is recommended as a framework to systematically guide the conception, design, implementation, and assessment of service-learning projects, and provide feedback and judgment of the project’s effectiveness for continuous improvement.[1]

Four aspects of CIPP evaluation

These aspects are context, inputs, process, and product. These four aspects of CIPP evaluation assist a decision-maker to answer four basic questions:

  • What should we do?

This involves collecting and analysing needs assessment data to determine goals, priorities and objectives. For example, a context evaluation of a literacy program might involve an analysis of the existing objectives of the literacy programme, literacy achievement test scores, staff concerns (general and particular), literacy policies and plans and community concerns, perceptions or attitudes and needs.[1]

  • How should we do it?

This involves the steps and resources needed to meet the new goals and objectives and might include identifying successful external programs and materials as well as gathering information.

  • Are we doing it as planned?

This provides decision-makers with information about how well the programme is being implemented. By continuously monitoring the program, decision-makers learn such things as how well it is following the plans and guidelines, conflicts arising, staff support and morale, strengths and weaknesses of materials, delivery and budgeting problems.[1]

  • Did the programme work?

By measuring the actual outcomes and comparing them to the anticipated outcomes, decision-makers are better able to decide if the program should be continued, modified, or dropped altogether. This is the essence of product evaluation.[1]

Using CIPP in the different stages of the evaluation[edit]

The CIPP model is unique as an evaluation guide as it allows evaluators to evaluate the program at different stages, namely: before the program commences by helping evaluators to assess the need and at the end of the program to assess whether or not the program had an effect.

CIPP model allows you to ask formative questions at the beginning of the program, then later gives you a guide of how to evaluate the programs impact by allowing you to ask summative questions on all aspects of the program.

  • Context: What needs to be done? Vs. Were important needs addressed?
  • Input: How should it be done? Vs. Was a defensible design employed?
  • Process: Is it being done? Vs. Was the design well executed?
  • Product: Is it succeeding? Vs. Did the effort succeed?

Information on a variety of instruments useful for doing assessment is given below. 1. Tests a. Commercial, norm-referenced, standard examinations b. Locally developed written examinations (objective or subjective designed by faculty); c. Oral examinations (evaluation of student knowledge levels through a face-to-face interrogative dialogue with program faculty). 2. Competency-Based Methods a. Performance Appraisals – systematic measurement of overt demonstration of acquired skills b. Simulations c. “Stone” courses (primarily used to approximate the results of performance appraisal, when direct demonstration of the student skill is impractical). 3. Measures of Attitudes and Perceptions (can be self-reported or third party) a. Written surveys and questionnaires (asking individuals to share their perceptions of their own or others’ attitudes and behaviors including direct or mailed, signed or anonymous). b. Exit and other interviews (evaluating reports of subjects’ attitudes and behaviors in a face-to-face interrogative dialogue). c. Focus groups 4. External Examiner (using an expert in the field from outside your program – usually from a similar program at another institution – to conduct, evaluate, or supplement the assessment of your students). 5. Behavioral Observations – including scoring rubrics and verbal protocol analysis (measuring the frequency, duration and topology of student actions, usually in a natural setting with non-interactive methods). 6. Archival Records (biographical, academic, or other file data available from college or other agencies and institutions). 7. Portfolios (collections of multiple work samples, usually compiled over time). The following pages elaborate on these approaches.

Norm-Referenced, Standardized Exams Definition: Group administered, mostly or entirely multiple-choice, “objective” tests in one or more curricular areas. Scores are based on comparison with a reference or norm group. Typically must be obtained (purchased) from a private vender. Target of Method: Used primarily on students in individual programs, courses or for a particular student cohort. Advantages: • Can be adopted and implemented quickly • Reduce/eliminate faculty time demands in instrument development and grading (i.e., relatively low “frontloading” and “backloading” effort) • Objective scoring • Provide for externality of measurement (i.e., external validity is the degree to which the conclusions in your study would hold for other persons in other places and at other times – ability to generalize the results beyond the original test group.) • Provide norm reference group(s) comparison often required by mandates. • May be beneficial or required in instances where state or national standards exist for the discipline or profession. • Very valuable for benchmarking and cross-institutional comparison studies. Disadvantages: • May limit what can be measured. • Eliminates the process of learning and clarification of goals and objectives typically associated with local development of measurement instruments. • Unlikely to completely measure or assess the specific goals and objectives of a program, department, or institution. • “Relative standing” results tend to be less meaningful than criterion-referenced results for program/student evaluation purposes. • Norm-referenced data is dependent on the institutions in comparison group(s) and methods of selecting students to be tested. (Caution: unlike many norm-referenced tests such as those measuring intelligence, present norm-referenced tests in higher education do not utilize, for the most part, randomly selected or well stratified national samples.) • Group administered multiple-choice tests always include a potentially high degree of error, largely uncorrectable by “guessing correction” formulae (which lowers validity). • Summative data only (no formative evaluation) • Results unlikely to have direct implications for program improvement or individual student progress • Results highly susceptible to misinterpretation/misuse both within and outside the institution • Someone must pay for obtaining these examinations; either the student or program. • If used repeatedly, there is a concern that faculty may teach to the exam as is done with certain AP high school courses. Ways to Reduce Disadvantages • Choose test carefully, and only after faculty have reviewed available instruments and determined a satisfactory degree of match between the test and the curriculum. • Request and review technical data, especially reliability and validity data and information on normative sample from test publishers. • Utilize on-campus measurement experts to review reports of test results and create more customized summary reports for the institution, faculty, etc. • Whenever possible, choose tests that also provide criterion-referenced results • Assure that such tests are only one aspect of a multi-method approach in which no firm conclusions based on norm-referenced data are reached without cross-validation from other sources (triangulation.) • Review curricula and coursework to assure that faculty do not teach to exam

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