Apna Business PK

Course: Educational Management and Supervision (6502)

Level: M.A/M.Ed (3 Credit Hours)                              Semester: Autumn, 2021


  1. 1 Discuss the different approaches of educational management and administration.


The four major types of educational management. The types are: (1) Centralized and Decentralized Education Management, (2) External and Internal Education Management, (3) Autocratic and Democratic Educational Management, and (4) Creative Educational Management. 1. Centralized and Decentralized Educational Management:

  1. Centralized and Decentralized Educational Management: This type of educational management refers to the centralization of the power and responsibility of educational administration, supervision and control which results in educational …
  2. External and Internal Educational Management: The External Management of educational programme means for those elements, factors and supporting agencies which provide opportunities and facilities for the smooth management of …
  3. Authoritarian/Autocratic and Democratic Educational Management: Just like centralized management authoritarian management plays its role. …
  4. Creative Educational Management: The creative management of every educational programme indicates the uniqueness of the head of the educational institution in which the programme is conducted.


Educational management refers to the administration of the education system in which a group combines human and material resources to supervise, plan, strategise, and implement structures to execute an education system. Education is the equipping of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, habits, and attitudes with learning experiences. The education system is an ecosystem of professionals in educational institutions, such as government ministries, unions, statutory boards, agencies, and schools. The education system consists of political heads, principals, teaching staff, non-teaching staff, administrative personnel and other educational professionals working together to enrich and enhance.At all levels of the educational ecosystem, management is required; management involves the planning, organising, implementation, review, evaluation, and integration of an institution.

Co-curricular activities

Co-curricular activities help students maintain a holistic education, expressing their interests and talents. The activities help foster a sense of social integration, and add a sense of commitment and belonging to one’s community and country. Co-curricular activities include science-oriented talent-development programmes, clubs and societies, sports, uniformed groups, and visual- and performing-arts groups. Co-curricular activities may also include advocacy, botany, personal-care, innovation, research-methodology and current-affairs groups.

Curriculum planning and development

Curriculum planning and development involves “the design and development of integrated plans for learning, and the evaluation of plans, their implementation and the outcomes of the learning experience”.It designs and reviews curriculum, promotes teaching and assessment strategies aligned with curriculum, formulates special curriculum programmes, creates clear, observable objectives, and generates useful assessment rubrics.

Curriculum development can be described as a three-stage process encompassing planned, delivered and experienced curriculum. It may be shaped by pedagogical approaches contributed by theorists and researchers, such as John DeweyLev VygotskyJean PiagetJerome Bruner, and Albert Bandura.


Curriculum development at the preschool level is based on several schools of thought. The Kindergarten was established by Friedrich Fröbel in Germany in 1837. Froebel described three forms of knowledge which he viewed as essential to all learning:knowledge of life, which includes an appreciation of gardening, animals and domestic tasks; knowledge of mathematics, such as geometry; and knowledge of beauty, which includes colour and shape, harmony and movement.The goals of Froebel’s kindergarten are to awaken a child’s physical senses through learning experiences and provide a common ground for individuals to advance.

Margaret and Rachel McMillan were social reformers in England who spent their lives trying to address poverty and founded the Open-Air Nursery School and Training Centre in London. Their goals were to provide loving care, health support, nourishment and physical welfare to children.Assistance was provided to parents to aid them in caring for, and interacting with, their children. Pedagogical models on how to engage and interact with young children were provided. The pedagogical principles of the Nursery School may be found in educational frameworks requiring teachers to nurture and teach a curriculum which covers an exploration of the world, aesthetics, music and movement, and literacy.

John Dewey formulated the theory of progressive education.His progressive-education philosophy embraces the idea that children should be taught how to think. Dewey was opposed to assessments, since they cannot measure whether or not a child is educated. The school community should offer learning opportunities which are interesting and meaningful and prepare individuals to live in a democratic society. Children learn through doing, cooperation, problem-solving and collaboration, with the teacher acting as a guide. Projects in Dewey’s curriculum encourage exploration, self-discovery and sensorial experiences which provide a holistic approach, focuses on the children’s interests, and are developmentally appropriate.

Montessori education was developed by Maria Montessori, who believed that children go through sensitive periods known as “windows of opportunity”. Everything in a Montessori classroom enhances and develops a child’s growth. Materials address children’s interests and the natural environment. The learning environment is focused on the child. The curriculum trains children to be responsive, and promotes a desire for skills mastery.

Waldorf education, created by the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, focuses on the whole child: body, mind, and spirit. The curriculum is designed to provoke thought processes, develop sensitivity, and enhance creative and artistic fluency.The Waldorf curriculum consists of storytelling, aesthetics (arts), practical work, imaginative play, and discovery of nature. Modern schools adopting Waldorf education are independent and self-governing.

The Reggio Emilia approach developed in the small north-Italian city of Reggio Emilia. Influenced by constructivist theories and the progressive-education movement, it is committed to uphold the rights of individuals. Key concepts in a Reggio Emilia school include a child’s right to education, the importance of interpersonal relationships amongst children, teachers and parents, and children’s interactions in work and play.Its curriculum emerges from the children’s interest, and is developed through projects and inquiry. Each individual plays an important role in the school, and parental involvement is a key aspect of the child’s learning and development.

Primary education

Curriculum development at the primary level focuses on the foundations of subjects, covering subject disciplines, knowledge skills and character development. Subject disciplines are the cores and foundations of language, science, humanities, the arts, technology, and social studies. Knowledge skills are personal skills and attributes such as communication, critical thinking, teamwork and judgement, which are developed through learning experiences based on the school’s pedagogical practices. Character development, according to Elliot Eisner, is the implicit curriculum: the school’s hidden agenda. Character traits and attributes include resilience, self-discipline, empathy and compassion, focusing on the social and emotional development of each student. The curriculum development is a springboard towards personal and social capability, ethical and intercultural understanding, and sound moral judgement.

Secondary education

Curriculum development varies at the secondary level, based on the course (or stream) in which a student is enrolled. Curriculum focuses on core subjects such as language, mathematics, science and the humanities. Learning experiences, strategic goals, national frameworks and school philosophy are also considered in curriculum development;schools consider values and progressive skills in the development of a holistic curriculum. Elective and vocational programmes are offered, which include social studies, art and music, design, and technology and computer studies.Specialized schools integrate programmes with corporate partners in information and communication technology, entrepreneurship, art, design, media and Da Vinci Learning. Enhanced programmes in sports, arts, and language are also offered.

Tertiary education

Curriculum at the tertiary education level involves specific course design and development. Griffith University describes planning as based on previously-collected evidence; the process also involves assessment, technologically-informed learning and discipline-based capabilities.[45] The process aims to prepare students for the workforce while enhancing their understanding of a subject. Griffith University considers four key elements in curriculum development: learning analytics, external peer review, peer-based professional learning and professional learning workshops.[45]

Educational technology

Educational technology involves the integration, planning, implementation and management of information and communications technology (ICT) for effective learning and teaching.[46] The educational-technology branch of an education system conceptualizes and develops ICT in education, integrating it with curriculum frameworks, staff development and management.

The focus of educational technology has shifted to online and web-based applications, learning portals, flipped classrooms and a variety of social networks for teaching and learning.[47] Although educational technology includes ICT, it is not limited to hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains including collaborative learning, learning theorylinear learning, online portal learning, and (where mobile technologies are used) m-learning. These domains contribute to a personalized learning model and promote self-directed learning, as students take charge of their education.

Educational Administration and Management is a comprehensive textbook for students pursuing B.Ed. and B.El.Ed courses, Educational Administration and Management aims at helping students understand the theories and processes of this subject, and thereby become effective leaders and managers of the educational system tomorrow. This book provides the historical perspective of educational Administration and explains the concept of Educational management in detail which will help the student to understand various educational aspects. It also describes the basic characteristics of educational planning and implementation. The host of student-friendly features such as exercises and questions will help students in their study and exam preparations.


  1. 2 What are aims and objectives of education management according to education policy 1979 in Pakistan?


National education policy 1979

  1. 1. WHAT IS THE POLICY? Problem solving rules and regulations are called policy. EDUCATION POLICY “Education policy refers to the collection of laws or rules that govern The operation of education systems” Education occurs in many forms for many purposes through many institutions For example Ø Early childhood education. Ø Kindergarten through 12th grade. Ø Two and four Year College or universities. Ø Graduate and professional education. Ø Adult education. Ø And job training. There for education policy can directly affect the education people engage in at all Ages. Areas subject to debate in education policy; especially from the field schools include. ØSchoolsize. Ø Class size. ØSchoolchoice. ØSchoolprivatization. Ø Tracking. Ø Teacher education and certification. Ø Teacher pay. Ø Teaching method. Ø Curricular content. Ø Graduation requirement. ØSchoolinfrastructure investment. And values that schools areexpected to uphold and model. Education policy analysis is the scholarly study of education policy. It seeks to answer questions about the purposeofeducation. The objectives (societal and personal) that is designed to attain the methods for attaining them and the tools for measuring their success or failure.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Education can be thought of as the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society. In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term socialization or enculturation. Children–whether conceived among New Guinea tribes people, the Renaissance Florentines, or the middle classes of Manhattan–are born without culture. Education is designed to guide them in learning a culture, molding their behavior in the ways of adulthood, and directing them toward their eventual role in society. In the most primitive cultures, there is often little formal learning, little of what one would ordinarily call school or classes or teachers; instead, frequently, the entire environment and all activities are viewed as school and classes, and many or all adults act as teachers. As societies grow more complex, however, the quantity of knowledge to be passed on from one generation to the next becomes more than any one person can know; and hence there must evolve more selective and efficient means of cultural transmission. The outcome is formal education–the school and the specialist called the teacher. As society becomes ever more complex and schools become ever more institutionalized, educational experience becomes less directly related to daily life, less a matter ofshowing and learning in the contextof the workaday world, and more abstracted from practice, more a matter of distilling, telling, and learning things out of context. This concentration of learning in a formal atmosphere allows children to learn far more of their culture than they are able to do by merely observing and imitating. As society gradually attaches more and more importance to education, it also tries to formulate the overall objectives, content, organization, and strategies of education. Literature becomes laden with advice on the rearing of the younger generation. In short, there develop philosophies and theories of education.
  3. 3. National EducationPolicy1979 A National Educational Conference was convened by the President of Pakistan, MrFazalIlahi Chaudhry, in October1977 for evolving a set of fresh recommendations for a new education policy which was later announced in 1979. Aims The major aims focused on: Ø Fostering deep and abiding loyalty to Islam, Ø Creating awareness that a Pakistani is also a part of Universal Muslim Ummah, Ø Inculcation of character in accordancewith Quran and Sunnah, Ø Providing equal opportunities to all citizens for cultural and religious development, Ø Development of creative and innovative faculties of people, Ø Functional literacy to all citizens, Ø Fostering discipline and promotion of scientific and technological education needed for socio-economic growth. Proposals ü Curricular revisions with a view to reorganising the entire content around Islamic thought. ü Possibility of merging the traditional Madrassah Education with modern education. ü Use of National Language as medium of instruction. ü Training for productive work. üMobilisation of community resource such as mosques, civic buildings factories etc. for education purposes; effective participation of community in literacy/education programme. ü Linking scientific and technical education with production. ü More emphasis on quality improvement and consolidation and opening new institutions only where demand is reasonable. ü Separate educational institutions for female students up to highest level with specially designed curricula.
  4. 4. Results ü Integrated curriculum was introduced. ü The medium of instruction reverted to English after eighth class. ü Secular subjects were introduced in the DeeniMadaris. ü Mosques were used as part of formal primary education system. Literacy Ordinances were introduced but not implemented..ü The non-formal approachto primary education through NaiRoshni Schools did not achieve its objectives. ü The Federal Government took over the financing responsibilities of universities all over Pakistan on the understanding that Provincial Government will reallocate the saved resources for the promotion of primary education.


  1. 3 Explain concept, nature and characteristics of supervision.


Element of direction: Supervision is one of the elements of direction besides motivation, leadership and communication. It is performed at all levels of management as it means guiding the efforts of employees and other resources to achieve the desired output. It is, thus, narrower in scope than direction. 2. Functions performed by supervisors:

Concepts are defined as abstract ideas. They are understood to be the fundamental building blocks of the concept behind principles, thoughts and beliefs.[1] They play an important role in all aspects of cognition.[2][3] As such, concepts are studied by several disciplines, such as linguistics, psychology, and philosophy, and these disciplines are interested in the logical and psychological structure of concepts, and how they are put together to form thoughts and sentences. The study of concepts has served as an important flagship of an emerging interdisciplinary approach called cognitive science.[4]

In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is:[5]

Concepts can be organized into a hierarchy, higher levels of which are termed “superordinate” and lower levels termed “subordinate”. Additionally, there is the “basic” or “middle” level at which people will most readily categorize a concept.[6] For example, a basic-level concept would be “chair”, with its superordinate, “furniture”, and its subordinate, “easy chair”.

Concepts may be exact, or inexact.[7] When the mind makes a generalization such as the concept of tree, it extracts similarities from numerous examples; the simplification enables higher-level thinking. A concept is instantiated (reified) by all of its actual or potential instances, whether these are things in the real world or other ideas.

Concepts are studied as components of human cognition in the cognitive science disciplines of linguisticspsychology, and philosophy, where an ongoing debate asks whether all cognition must occur through concepts. Concepts are used as formal tools or models in mathematicscomputer sciencedatabases and artificial intelligence where they are sometimes called classesschema or categories. In informal use the word concept often just means any idea.

Essential Meaning of nature 1 : the physical world and everything in it (such as plants, animals, mountains, oceans, stars, etc.) that is not made by people the beauty of nature She is a real nature lover. = She really loves nature. [=she loves to spend time outdoors]

Nature is a British weekly scientific journal founded and based in LondonEngland. As a multidisciplinary publication, Nature features peer-reviewed research from a variety of academic disciplines, mainly in science and technology. It has core editorial offices across the United States, continental Europe, and Asia under the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature. Nature was one of the world’s most cited scientific journals by the Science Edition of the 2019 Journal Citation Reports (with an ascribed impact factor of 42.778),[1] making it one of the world’s most-read and most prestigious academic journals.[2][3][4] As of 2012, it claimed an online readership of about three million unique readers per month.[5]

Founded in autumn 1869, Nature was first circulated by Norman Lockyer and Alexander Macmillan as a public forum for scientific innovations. The mid-20th century facilitated an editorial expansion for the journal; Nature redoubled its efforts in explanatory and scientific journalism. The late 1980s and early 1990s created a network of editorial offices outside of Britain and established ten new supplementary, speciality publications (e.g. Nature Materials). Since the late 2000s, dedicated editorial and current affairs columns are created weekly, and electoral endorsements are featured. The primary source of the journal remains, as established at its founding, research scientists; editing standards are primarily concerned with technical readability. Each issue also features articles that are of general interest to the scientific community, namely business, funding, scientific ethics, and research breakthroughs. There are also sections on books, arts, and short science fiction stories.

The main research published in Nature consists mostly of papers (articles or letters) in lightly edited form. They are highly technical and dense, but, due to imposed text limits, they are typically summaries of larger work. Innovations or breakthroughs in any scientific or technological field are featured in the journal as either letters or news articles. The papers that have been published in this journal are internationally acclaimed for maintaining high research standards. Conversely, due to the journal’s exposure, it has at various times been a subject of controversy for its handling of academic dishonesty, the scientific method, and news coverage. Fewer than 8% of submitted papers are accepted for publication.[6] In 2007, Nature (together with Science) received the Prince of Asturias Award for Communications and Humanity.

Characteristics of Supervision. The characteristics of supervision are discussed below: Element of Directing: Supervision is one of the four important elements of directing. The other three being – motivation, communication and leadership. Universal activity: Supervision is a very common activity, which is required at different levels of management.

Definition: Supervision implies one to one and prompt guidance provided to the employees, along with instructing, monitoring and controlling them when they carry out any task or job to check if they are working according to the organization’s plans and policies, in a timely manner. Besides this, supervision also involves resolving the issues and work-related problems of the employees.


Definition: Supervision implies one to one and prompt guidance provided to the employees, along with instructing, monitoring and controlling them when they carry out any task or job to check if they are working according to the organization’s plans and policies, in a timely manner. Besides this, supervision also involves resolving the issues and work-related problems of the employees.

It is a conjunction of two words – ‘super‘ and ‘vision‘ which refers to over and above and to see or view. In a nutshell, supervision means overseeing the activities of the employees.

Characteristics of Supervision

The characteristics of supervision are discussed below:

  • Element of Directing: Supervision is one of the four important elements of directing. The other three being – motivation, communication and leadership.
  • Universal activity: Supervision is a very common activity, which is required at different levels of management.
  • Continuous Process: Constant and frequent supervision is required by the employees to perform various tasks as well as to resolve issues related to the work or job which occur abruptly.
  • Direct Contact: The two parties involved in the process of supervision are – Supervisor and Subordinate. Hence, there is a direct and one to one contact between the two.
  • Overseeing work: Supervision is done with an aim of guiding as well as keeping an eye on the work performed by the employees, to ensure that they are working in an appropriate manner. Also, there are no deviations from the plans, policies and objectives of the concern.
  • Utilization of Resources: It facilitates optimum utilization of resources, which leads to the elimination of wastage and achieving maximum output at minimum cost.

Supervision aims to ensure that the employees work in an efficient and effective way, to accomplish the tasks satisfactorily, which is assigned to them, by their supervisor.


  1. 4 Explain the aims and objective of education system? Also discuss approaches of educational Planning.


Education is a purposeful and ethical activity and each activity as aspect has some aim before it. So, there is a close relationship between an activity and its aim.

An aim is a conscious purpose which we set before us, while   launching upon any activity. Just like that education is also unthinkable without aims. If there are no aims the educational process would not take place because an aim is a pre-determined goal which inspires the activity of education.

Aims act as basic directions while conducting a research or carrying out a project. It can be chunked into various objectives which help in reaching the aim easily. It has a long range perspective which reflects aspirations and ambition of the entity.

In the words of John Dewey “An aim is a foreseen end that gives direction to an activity or motivates behavior”.

Importance of Educational Aims

All our methods of teaching, our curriculum and our system of evaluation are shaped and molded according to our aim of education. It is the ignorance of right aims that has vitiated our educational system, its methods and its products, and has successfully resulted in the physical, intellectual and moral weaknesses of the race. There is a great necessity of aims in education because of the following reasons:

1.To direct efforts: Educational aims keep the teacher and the taught on the right track. They provide a line of action and guidance to the teachers. They give direction and zest to the work of the pupils. Educational aims help us to avoid wastage in time and energy.

2.To evaluate ourselves : The aim is a yard-stick with which we can measure our success and failure. They are necessary to assess the outcome of the educational process.

  1. To provide efficient administration : Aims are necessary for efficient school administration and organization. They help the school authorities in organizing, equipping, and administering the school.

Factors determining Educational Aims

Many factors have been contributing and do contribute to the determining of educational aims. These factors touch every phase of human life that was, that is or what will be.

1.Factors associated with  Philosophy of life : Aims of education are always  influenced by the philosophy of life of the people of that country.

  1. Factors associated with   Psychology: The aims of education should be according to the nature, needs, requirements, inspiration and interest of the learners.. The aims of education should relate knowledge with the activities of life.
  2. Factors associated with  Socio-economic problem: Besides, political ideologies, the social economic problems of a country, determine the aims of education
  3. Factors associated with  Political ideology : Political ideologies also help in determining the aims of education. The aims of education are fixed in accordance with the ideology of the state to uphold the right of state.
  4. Factors associated with   exploration of knowledge: Education has also to give due consideration to the advancements in knowledge as for as the question of educational aims are concerned.
  5. Factors associated with  Culture: It is the most important function of the education to develop and preserve the cultural heritage. The changing and developing pattern of cultural factors directly influence the aims of education.

Difference between Aim and Objective

The word aim is often misconstrued with objective, as they talk about what an individual or entity may want to achieve.

The following points are important, so far as the difference between aim and objective is concerned:

  • The term aim is described as the ultimate goal, which an individual or the entity strive to achieve. The objective is something a person/entity seeks to achieve, by continuously chasing it.
  • The aim of the entity reflects its long-term outcomes while its objectives indicate the short term targets of the entity. Aims are long term statement of purpose that may be achieved over a long period of time, say one or more years. Objectives are bound in a short and specified time say one teaching learning period or during teaching learning of one chapter.
  • Philosophy provides base to aims, while psychology provides base to objectives.
  • Aims are broader in sense. You may need to state a number of objectives to achieve one aim. In this sense objectives are narrower.
  • Aims relates with general direction or intent of an individual/ institution. Objectives are specific goal of an individual or institution.
  • Aim is a foreseen end. Objectives are influenced by aims The aim is related to the  mission and purpose whereas objectives are concerned with the achievements .
  • Aim answers the question, what is to be achieved? Unlike objective which answers, How it is to be achieved?
  • Aims are not time bound, i.e. there is no time frame within which the aim of the entity must be achieved as it is hard to say accurately, how much time it will take to achieve. On the other hand, objectives are always accompanied with a time frame, within which it must be achieved.
  • The most important difference between these two is on measurability. Aims may or may not be easily observable and measurable.


Bloom’  Benjamin’s  has  put  forward  a  taxonomy  of  educational objectives,  which  provides  a  practical  framework  within  which educational  objectives  could  be  organized  and  measured.  In his taxonomy Bloom  divided educational objectives into three domains.  These  are:

  1. Cognitive Domain  (Head oriented )
  2. Affective Domain ( Heart oriented )
  3. Psycho-motor Domain ( Hand oriented )

The Cognitive Domain

The  cognitive domain  involves  those  objectives  that  deal  with  the development of intellectual abilities and skills. These have to do with the mental abilities of the brain

Learning outcome in Cognitive Domain

The domain is categorized into six hierarchical levels , comprehension,  application,  analysis,  synthesis  and evaluation. These levels are of  hierarchical and increasing operational difficulties  that  achievement  of  a  higher  level  of  skill  assumes  the achievement of the previous levels. This implies that a higher level of skill could be achieved only if a certain amount of ability called for by the previous level has been achieved.

Knowledge Level

Knowledge or memory is the first, the lowest and the foundation for the development of higher order cognitive skills. It involves the recognition or  recall  of  previous  learned  information.   For  measurement purposes,  memory  or  knowledge  involves  bringing  to  mind  the appropriate material. This cognitive level emphasizes the psychological process of remembering. Knowledge is remembering or retrieving previously learned material.

Knowledge can also be classified into the following:-

  1. Specifics (taxonomy, facts, definitions etc.)
  2. Ways and means of dealing with specifics (rules)

iii. Conventions (styles, symbols practices, allegories)

  1. Trends and sequences (order or sequence)
  2. Classification and categories (classes, sets, divisions)
  3. Criteria (established facts and criteria)

vii. Techniques and procedures or Methodology.

viii. Universals and abstractions.

  1. Knowledge of principles and generalizations (laws, formulas)

x Knowledge of theories and structures (models, philosophies)

Comprehension Level

Comprehension is the ability to grasp or construct meaning from material. Comprehension is all about internalization of knowledge. It involvers making memory out of what is stored in the brain file. It is on this basis that what is stored inthe brain can be understood and translated, interpreted or extrapolated. It is only when you have known something that you can understand it.

Comprehension level is made up of the following:

  1. Translation:which  involves  the  ability  to  understand  literal messages across communication forms, changing what is known from one form of communication to another e.g. from words to numbers,  graphs,  maps,  charts,  cartoons,  pictures,  formulas, symbols,  models, equations etc.
  2. Interpretation:which  goes  beyond  mere  literal  translation  to identification of inter-relationships among parts and components of communication and interpreting and relating these to the main components e.g. to interpret a chart or graph etc.

iii. Extrapolation: which involves the ability to draw implications and ability  to  identify  and continue  a  trend,  isolate  or  detect consequences, suggest possible meaning and estimate possible effect.

Application Level

As per the hierarchic nature of the instructional objectives  it is not possible to understand unless it is known..  It  also  means  that  one  cannot  apply  what  he/she  do  not understand.  The  use  of abstractions  in a  concrete  situation is  called application. These abstractions can be in the form of general ideas, rules, or procedures or generalized methods, technical terms, principles, ideas and theories which must be remembered, understood and applied. Understanding before correct application is an essentiality.

4 Major Approaches to Educational Planning – Explained

1. Social Demand Approach:

This approach was used in the Robbins Committee Report on Higher Education in Britain. In India too, this approach is a popular one while opening new schools and colleges in particular.

In this method are involved the following steps:

4 Major Approaches to Educational Planning – Explained!

  1. Social Demand Approach: This approach was used in the Robbins Committee Report on Higher Education in Britain. …
  2. Social Justice Approach: This approach emphasizes justice to the disadvantaged sections of society and is based on Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.
  3. Rate of Returns Approach: According to this approach, investment in education should take place in such a way that the returns from the investment are equal to the returns …

Educational Planning

Educational planning, in its broadest generic sense, is the application of rational, systematic analysis to the process of educational development with the aim of making education more effective and efficient in responding to the needs and goals of its students and society.

The main approaches and techniques of relating educational planning to development planning, which are in use or recommended by various authorities are set out below. Usually combinations of methods are in operation

1. Social Demand Approach

The first approach of educational planning, which may be called the social method is in general use, but is scarcely a method at all, and is a starting point from which improvements must be devised. This method takes educational needs in terms of the current demand for education at the different levels and projects them on the basis of population increase, age distribution, long-term national or social goals (inarticulate or defined) and on the basis of what is known about state and consumer preferences for education. Among such goals and preferences are universal literacy, universal compulsory primary education, and cultural objectives. The stress is upon education as social infra-structure for development purposes, and as an end in itself. The financial implications of these targets are then considered.

The usual result is that the funds required for the educational expansion are found to be larger than those available either to launch or to sustain it, on the basis of projections of national income and revenue. A compromise is struck, and what is deemed to be a feasible plan emerges, cut down to the funds expected to be available. This is the traditional approach, and may work satisfactorily in high-income countries, although even in these, concern over flagging rates of growth and ever-increasing competition in export markets is leading to increased emphasis on the contribution of education to technological progress and productive efficiency

2. Manpower Requirement Approach

The second approach of educational planning, which we may call the manpower approach, is based on the fact that, as we saw earlier, the main link of education with economic development is through the knowledge and skills it produces in the labor force. To the extent that the educational system produces qualified people in the right numbers and places, the major part of the economic and social contribution of educational planning is achieved, provided that in so doing the educational system has not consumed so great a proportion of resources as to set back the development plan itself. Various methods exist of estimating future manpower requirements and the demand they will make on the education system.

3. Education-Output Ratio Method

The third method is based on the capital-output ratio approach and might be called the education-output ratio method. It relates the stock of educated people and the flow of children and students completing education at the different levels directly to the national output of goods and services without passing through the intervening stage of making manpower forecasts. A series of linear equations are set up relating the stock of persons who have completed a given level of education, and the number of students at each level, to the aggregate volume of production. These equations will show how the structure of the educational system should change with different growth rates of the economy. This method is developed by Professor Tinbergen.

4. Aggregate Method of Educational Planning

The fourth is the aggregate method of educational planning. This method tries to relate educational needs to the whole demand of society for education rather than to the level of output or to manpower, and is based on norms and patterns which emerge from an empirical study of the educational situation in countries at different stages of development. Among them are (a) the proportion of GNP devoted to education globally and (if possible) by sector; (b) the proportion of public expenditure devoted to education and its different sectors; (c) the proportion of over-all investment devoted to education; (d) the proportion of the population enrolled at the different educational levels; (e) the above information corrected by estimates of wastage; (f) the proportions of the school-age and student population enrolled at different levels.


  1. 5 Elaborate the process of project planning. Also discuss its salient features and flaws in project planning at school level in Pakistan.


A project consists of five different phases: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and closure. Planning is the second phase of the project life cycle, where a plan after the initiation phase is made so the process of execution may begin. The project plan serves as a roadmap for the entire process of project management.

Project planning ensures project success and timely delivery, a crucially important function in any technical organization. Striving toward a perfect plan will help increase the probability of customer satisfaction and their trust in the organization for future investments. It’s the most crucial step in the reduction of risk and project failures. After all, no one gets points for a brilliant idea if the execution ultimately fails.

There are some necessary steps to project planning that can help yield a successful and efficient process. We can refer to different project planning tools like Gantt chart, PERT chart, or Critical Path Method when forming a project plan.

The following tutorial covers the basics of project planning, its fundamentals, why it’s so important for organizations, some popular tools used for project planning, and basic steps. We’ll also look at some opportunities to learn about these tools in more depth.

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What is Project Planning?

A project consists of five different phases: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and closure. Planning is the second phase of the project life cycle, where a plan after the initiation phase is made so the process of execution may begin. The project plan serves as a roadmap for the entire process of project management.

Project planning involves:

·         Defining Objectives

The definition must include what the project is comprised of, its main aim, what it intends to accomplish, and what marks its closure

·         Explaining the Scope

The explanation provides details on what the project intends to solve and who will benefit from the project

·         Scheduling Tasks

Each task is given a start date, an end date, and provides an estimate of how much time a task would take to complete

·         Generating Progress Reports

The document includes the work to be performed, deliverables, and the intended outcome of the project

Project Planning Fundamentals

Project Planning refers to defining fundamentals such as the following:

Determination of Scope, Cost, and Resources

  • The process of determining the scope, cost, and resources help estimate the time required to complete the project, the number of people needed, and the skill set required
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) helps this process by dividing the whole task into smaller, manageable segments

Identification of the Problem

  • A variety of techniques, like surveys or meetings, are used to collect information to assess problems
  • There can be multiple problems; then, the project team selects the issue that requires the most immediate attention

Identification of Stakeholders 

  • Identification of stakeholders gives a clearer image of the real problem, specifically which function or people might be affected by the project
  • Stakeholders work with the project team and contribute to the project’s success

Definition of Project Objectives

  • A plan is made, keeping in mind the various expectations of the stakeholders
  • The success of the project entirely depends on how much of the expectations the project is able to meet
  • Why Project Planning?

Project planning ensures monitoring of the budget and schedule at every step. The project plan includes a schedule that guides team members in completing their tasks and helps them in knowing which tool they will need and when. It also helps the team stay engaged for higher project performance. The project plan ensures there is the active participation of all the team members and allows them to have an opportunistic approach towards their work.

Project planning ensures timely testing of the output at every step. When successfully implemented, everyone on the project team can foresee problems before they happen. This creates efficiencies and ensures the successful execution of the plan.

Additionally, project planning helps analyze, prioritize, and ensure an appropriate plan for all kinds of risks. Proper planning ensures that if there is more than one risk, they can be prioritized and dealt with accordingly. This step ensures that nothing will fall apart and the plan makes it easy for the project team to remember all the crucial details and deadlines.

Project Planning Tools

Project planning tools help everyone concerned keep track of project requirements and deadlines. Some of the most popular project planning tools include the following:

Gantt Chart

  • Gantt chartsare an industry standard that helps in tracking both time and interdependencies between tasks
  • Gantt charts are an essential tool to show different phases, jobs, and resources involved in project management

Critical Path Method (CPM)

  • Critical Path Method(CPM) is a crucial tool for determining the progress of the project to ensure that the project is on schedule
  • CPM helps in determining the essential or critical path by finding out the longest stretch of dependent tasks

PERT Chart

  • The Program Evaluation and Review Technique(PERT) helps in analyzing the tasks to complete the project and the time required to complete those tasks
  • PERT simplifies the planning and scheduling of large and complex projects

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

  • Work Breakdown Structure(WBS) is a process of organizing the team’s work into manageable sections
  • WBS is a hierarchical structure of the deliverables needed to complete the project

Project Documentation

  • Project documentationis created during the project lifecycle, which involves project scope, its schedule, and the risk analysis
  • Project documents help in better understanding and risk analysis of the project

Project Planning Steps

There are seven essential project planning steps:

1. Identify and Meet Stakeholder

The stakeholders might include the project manager, the customer, or the team. The first step is to identify and meet the stakeholders to discuss their expectations and establish the project scope.

2. Define Scope

Project scope involves determining a list of specific project goals, deliverables, budgets, and deadlines. Project scope helps in establishing boundaries of the project and responsibilities of each team member.

3. Set and Prioritize Objectives

The objectives are set and prioritized once the expectations of stakeholders become certain. More exquisite detail to initial ideas is given, which serves as a reference point throughout the project.

4. Determine Deliverables 

Deliverables are the reason why the projects are created. It is one of the most critical steps of the project planning to determine what these deliverables will be and how they will be delivered in time.

5. Create a Project Schedule 

The project schedule outlines when different tasks of a project are supposed to begin and end. The project schedule helps measure the project progress and set up progress reports.

6. Risk Analysis

Identifying risks and considering how to deal with them is an essential step in project planning. Specific steps to prevent risks from happening or limiting their impact should be considered.

7. Set Progress Guidelines 

There must be a communication plan to update the stakeholders regarding the project progress. This can be done monthly, weekly, or daily so that all involved members can monitor the progress.


Salient features and flaws in project planning


Planning is firmly correlated with discovery and creativity. However, the manager would first have to set goals. Planning is an essential step what managers at all levels take. It needs holding on to the decisions since it includes selecting a choice from alternative ways of performance.

Scope and nature of Planning

The planning function of management has some special features. These features cast enlightenment on its scope and nature.

  • Planning focuses on achieving objectives: Companies are set up with a common goal in view. Explicit purposes are placed out in the projects along with the ventures to be initiated to accomplish the goals. Therefore, planning is helpful.
  • Planning is a primary function of management: Planning puts down the foundation for other operations of management. All other managerial duties are conducted within the structure of the ideas outlined. Consequently, planning leads to other operations. This is also mentioned as the supremacy of planning.
  • Planning is continuous: Plans are outlined for a particular period of time, perhaps for a period, a quarter or a year. At the completion of that period, there is a requirement for a new policy to be formed on the support of new conditions and future circumstances.
  • Planning is futuristic: Planning typically includes looking forward and outlining for the future. The idea of planning is to coincide future results efficiently to the valid advantage of an association. It means glancing into the future, investigating it and foretelling it. Planning is, therefore, perceived as a forward-looking capacity based on predicting.

Also Check: What is the Planning Process? 

Limitations of Planning

The limitations of Planning are furnished below:

(1) Planning Leads to Rigidity

  • The plans are rigid in nature and have to be complied with throughout the organisation.
  • Such rigidity of plans may be internal as well as external.
  • Internal rigidity relates to plans, policies, programs, rules, and methods, etc.
  • External rigidity relates to political, industrial, technological, legal and economic changes, etc.
  • Example: A super speciality hospital has fine branches in a city. Whatever the top management of the hospital decides the head of the branch of the hospital and their subordinates have to follow. Though on occasions they know they could have done better on their own but the plan laid out provides rigidity to their approach.

(2) Planning May Not Work in Dynamic Environment

  • The environment in which a business survives is dynamic as it keeps on changing.
  • It is difficult for an organisation to access future trends, the taste of customers, natural calamity, competitors’ policies and effects of changes in the different components of the environment.
  • The organisation has to constantly adapt itself to changes because it is difficult to forecast the future changes with absolute accuracy.
  • The dynamic environment may sometimes lead to failure of plans.
  • Example: Nestle, a very successful producer was very proactive in deciding strategies for Maggi noodles. Maggi noodles were in a lot of demand but they were off the shelf due to political and legal dimensions. This was due to the high content of lead in Maggi noodles.

(3) Planning Reduces Creativity

  • Planning is mostly done by the top management and other members
  • like middle and lower levels of management have to follow these plans.
  • They can’t deviate or change the plans made by their seniors.
  • Under such circumstances, employees become orders following machines and don’t involve creative thinking from their side.
  • Such rigidity to comply with the laid plans kills the creativity of some talented persons.
  • Example: The need for a branch of a renowned shoe manufacturing company sees a lot of scope in customized shoes. The top management is not interested in this idea as the company manufactures standardised shoes.

(4) Planning Involves Huge Cost

  • Formulation of plans can be too much costly because there is a lot of time and money is involved.
  • Some costs are incidental in nature like- expenses on boardroom meetings, discussions with professional experts and preliminary investigations to find out the feasibility of the plan.
  • Checking the accuracy of facts and scientific calculations may involve lots of time.
  • Sometimes, cost incurred may not justify the benefits derived from the plans; it may leave a harmful effect on the enterprise.
  • Example: Companies like IBM spend a lot of research. Many world-class levels give their advice to this company and change their fee. However, without so much of painstaking such a huge company won’t be able to sustain itself. So planning in case of IBM becomes necessary.

(5) Planning is a Time-consuming  Process

  • Planning is a very lengthy process as it consumes a lot of time for collection, analysis, and interpretation of data.
  • Due to such a lengthy process, sometimes decisions get delayed, opportunities are lost and there is not much time left for the implementation of plans.
  • Example: Health is wealth Ltd. plans to organise 25 health checkup camps on the World Health Day and send a requisition to the top management but management could send its approval just a day before and the sales manager could organise only 5 camps and thus huge opportunity is lost. Here the implementation was delayed.

(6) Planning Does Not Guarantee Success

  • The success of an enterprise is possible only when plans are properly drawn up and implemented.
  • Plans become meaningless if it is not translated into action.
  • Managers have a tendency to rely on previously tried and tested successful plans.
  • It is not necessary that a successful plan in the past will bring success in the future also as every business organisation survives in a dynamic and uncertain environment.
  • Plans must be implemented in the light of changing environment otherwise it may lead to failure of the business.
  • Example: In a paint manufacturing company, the top management very meticulously chalked out a great plan. The whole company worked out on the plan in a much focused manner. However, with the entrance of a competitor with better paint quality the whole plan failed. The reason for the failure was the dynamic conditions which were not in control of the organisation.

Features of Planning

(1) Primary Function

  • Planning precedes other function because it lays down the base for all other functions of management.
  • All other management functions like organising, staffing, directing and controlling are performed within the framework of the plans drawn.
  • Without planning other functions of management is not possible.
  • Planning is the basic function of management and it is also referred to as the “Primacy of Planning”.
  • Example: After having set the objective of 2400 refrigerators the company organizes the work, then staffing is done in which the required types of employees are recruited and selected, then they are motivated and supervised through directing and ultimately their performance is controlled leading towards the achievement of the objective. However, we can see that without setting the objective of selling 2400 refrigerators, other functions were not possible.

(2) Achieving Objectives

  • When we make plans, we focus on two things, specific goals to be achieved and activities involved to achieve these specific goals.
  • These specific activities become objectives to achieve goals and objectives are quantifiable.
  • Planning cannot be done in the absence of objectives.
  • In the absence of planning, employees would be working in different directions and the organisation would not be able to achieve its desired goals.
  • Example:
    If a firm decides to sell 2400 refrigerators in six months. If sales don’t materialize, the enterprise may think for better ways like sales discount to achieve the final objective. We can see that without the objective of selling 2400 refrigerators no planning is possible or applicable.

(3) Futuristic/ Forward-Looking

  • Planning means looking ahead and meeting future events effectively.
  • Planning is regarded as a forward-looking function based on forecasting.
  • On the basis of forecasting, future conditions and events are anticipated and plans are prepared.
  • Example: Ø On the basis of sales forecast, plans are drawn how much to produce, how to market the product, how to make it available in the market, how to make the customer aware about the product, etc.Ø All these steps are directed towards a future that is why they are futuristic. Sales forecast helps a company to look forward.

(4) All Pervasive

    • Planning is required in all types of organisations and at all levels of management. However, the scope of planning differs.
    • Top-level managementplans for the organisational as a whole. They think from the perspective of the whole organisation.
    • Middle-level management thinks from the perspective of their departments and are involved in departmental planning.
    • Lower level management plans for the day-to-day operations of the concern.

Example: A student may plan for his monthly test, a husband may plan to give surprise gift to his wife on the occasion of the anniversary, the CEO of a company may plan to launch a new product in the market, a sales manager may plan to achieve his sales target, a worker may plan for his production schedule, etc.

(5) Continuous Process

    • Planning is an ongoing process and plans are prepared for a specific period of time.
    • These may be prepared for a day, week, a month, a quarter or a year.
    • At the end of a specific period, new plans are drawn and revised regularly on the basis of feedback on previous plans, new requirements, and future conditions.

Examples: If plans are prepared during a recession period and during its execution, the market plunges into a boom, then planners need have to make several changes for the period or to work on a different strategy to achieve the desired goals. A company plans to sell 5000 cars but due to floods, the original plan cannot be implemented. The company will require changing its plans to achieve its sales target. So we can see that in both the above examples planning is not discontinued even for a while.

(6) Decision Making

    • Decision making means choosing the best alternative among the alternatives available.
    • Planning cannot be imagined in the absence of alternatives.
    • If there is no alternative available then there is no need for planning.
    • A thorough analysis of all the alternatives helps us choose the best one

and hence the need for planning arises.


  • Where there is no alternative – if a firm has to import raw materials and if there is only one agency like State Trading Corporation (STC) to get it, then the firm has no choice but to import the material through STC.
  • Where there are alternatives – if an import is free and there is more than one import agency included in this task then the importer has the choice to purchase from any agency at competitive prices.

(7) Planning is Mental Exercise

  • Planning is the outcome of a mental process rather than wishful thinking and guesswork.
  • Planning is a thinking process and it is separate from organisational activities.
  • It is based on logical reasoning, facts, foresight, vision, intelligent imagination, and sound judgment.
  • Example: All the great CEOs like Tim Cook of Apple, Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook have an immense capability to imagine. Then these people make sound judgments and help their companies attain phenomenal success.
1 Mark Questions
Q.1 What Would Happen if Objectives Are Not Set in the Planning Process?
Answer: In the absence of objectives, employees working at different levels of management would be working in different directions and the goals of the organisations cannot be achieved.
Q.2 What is Primacy of Planning?
Answer: Planning precedes all other functions of management like Organising, staffing, directing and controlling. So, planning becomes a primary function of management.
Q.3 What is the Role of Lower Level Management in the Process of Planning?
Answer: Lower level management plans for day-to-day operations of the organisation.
Q.4 When Planning is Not Required? Explain.
Answer: Planning is not required when there is no alternative to achieve the objectives.
Q.5 How Does Planning Create Rigidity?
Answer: Planning creates rigidity by putting an adverse effect on the initiative taken by the managers.
Q.6 in Spite of Many Advantages, State How Planning Can Be Detrimental?
Answer: Planning can be detrimental if it is not dealt with flexibility or is dealt with rigidity.



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