Apna Business PK

Course: Art , Crafts and Calligraphy (6410)

Semester:Autumn, 2021

 Level: B.Ed/PGD ECE


Q.1 Discuss the basic techniques and rules of landscape art in detail.


here’s something about a spectacular landscape that makes my fingers itch to capture its essence on canvas, to be able to create a landscape painting that generates the same intense emotion in someone who views the painting as the landscape did in me.

Don’t Put Everything In

You’re not obliged to include everything that you see in the landscape you’re painting simply because it is there in real life. Be selective, include the strong elements that characterize that particular landscape. Use the landscape as a reference, to provide you with the information you need to paint the elements, but don’t slavishly follow it

How to Paint a Landscape Using Acrylic Paint

Use Your Imagination

If it makes for a stronger painting composition, don’t hesitate to rearrange the elements in the landscape. Or take things from different landscapes and put them together in one painting. Obviously, this doesn’t apply if you’re painting a famous, readily identifiable scene, but the majority of landscape paintings are not of postcard scenes, but rather to capture the essence of a landscape.

Give the Foreground Preference

Don’t paint the whole landscape to the same degree of detail: paint less detail in the background of the landscape than you do in the foreground. It’s less important there and gives more ‘authority’ to what’s in the foreground. The difference in detail also helps draw the viewer’s eye into the main focus of the landscape painting.

It’s Not Cheating to Buy Green Paints

You’re not ‘cheating’ if you buy green paints in a tube rather than mixing your own. One of the main benefits of doing this is that it means you always have instant access to particular greens. But don’t limit yourself; extend the range of ‘ready-made’ greens by adding blue or yellow to it.

Know How to Mix Greens

To quote Picasso“They’ll sell you thousands of greens. Veronese green and emerald green and cadmium green and any sort of green you like; but that particular green, never.” The variety and intensity of greens that occur in nature are quite awesome. When mixing a green, use the fact that green has either a blue or a yellow bias as the starting point in determining the proportions you mix. But remember the shade of green something is in a landscape does change depending on the time of day and what was a bluish green this morning may well be a yellowish green this evening.

Each different blue/yellow combination will give a different green, plus the variations from the proportions of each you mix. With practice, it becomes instinctive to mix the shade of green you’re after. Take an afternoon to practice mixing your own greens, making a color chart to record which paints gave you what results. Also, experiment mixing with two blues and two yellows; and mixing blue or yellow to a ‘ready-made’ green.

Instant Muted Greens

Mix a little black with various yellows and you’ll see that it produces a range of muted (or ‘dirty’) greens and khakis. Remember to add the black to the yellow, not yellow to black; you need to mix in only a little black paint to darken a yellow, but it will take a comparatively large amount of yellow paint to lighten a black.

Do a Series

Don’t think that because you’ve painted a particular landscape once, you’re now done with it. Be like the impressionist Claude Monet and paint it again and again, in different lights, seasons, and moods. You won’t get bored with the scene, but instead, you start to see more in it. For example, the way a tree’s shadow tracks around it through the day, and how the different the light of the harsh midday sun is to that of sunrise and sunset. For further inspiration for painting the same scene again, take a look at the photos of landscape artist Andy Goldsworthy of a particular scene taken through a range of light conditions and seasons.


Q.2 What is clay modeling? Discuss in detail


The most easily recognized form of sculpting is clay modeling, that is, the creation of a 3-dimensional piece of art typically using some type of clay: Plastilina (oil-based clay), self-hardening (non-firing) clay, ceramic/pottery clay, wax or other polymer-based material. What is the definition of modeling in art?

Modelling clay or modelling compound is any of a group of malleable substances used in building and sculpting. The material compositions and production processes vary considerably.

Because the oils do not evaporate like water, oil-based clays remain malleable even when left in dry environments for long periods. Articles made from oil-based clays cannot be fired, and thus are not ceramics. Because rising temperature decreases oil viscosity, the malleability is influenced by heating or cooling the clay. Oil-based clay is not water-soluble. As it can be re-used, it is a popular material for animation artists who need to bend and move their models. It is available in a multitude of colors and is non-toxic. Readily worked in fine detail, oil-based clays are also suitable for the creation of detailed sculptures from which molds can be made. Castings and reproductions can then be produced from much more durable materials. Cars and airplanes may be created using industrial design-grade modelling clay.

Oil-based clays are referred to by a number of genericized trademarks.

  • Plastilin (or Plasteline), which was patented in Germanyby Franz Kolb in 1880, was developed by Claude Chavant in 1892 and trademarked in 1927.[3]
  • Plasticinewas invented in 1897 by William Harbutt of Bathampton, England.
  • Plastilina is trademarked as Roma Plastilina by Sculpture House, Inc. According to their website, their formula is 100 years old. Roma Plastilina contains sulfur, and since certain moldmaking compounds do not set in sulfur’s presence, making molds of items made of industrial plasticineis difficult.
  • Clay Modeling. The most easily recognized form of sculpting is clay modeling, that is, the creation of a 3-dimensional piece of art typically using some type of clay: Plastilina (oil-based clay), self-hardening (non-firing) clay, ceramic/pottery clay, wax or other polymer-based material.

·         What is the definition of modeling in art?

  • Modeling refers to the technique of representing an object in a miniature form using clay or wax. Modeling is an additive process. The term also refers to the act of serving as an artist’s model. Modeling also means to plan according to a model. Category: Art Added by: laws-admin Edit this definition.


Q.3 Discuss the importance of recycling. Explain different recycling techniques which can be applied in everyday life


Recycling is very important as waste has a huge negative impact on the natural environment. Harmful chemicals and greenhouse gasses are released from rubbish in landfill sites. Recycling helps to reduce the pollution caused by waste. Recycling reduces the need for raw materials so that the rainforests can be preserved.

Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. The recovery of energy from waste materials is often included in this concept. The recyclability of a material depends on its ability to reacquire the properties it had in its original state.[1] It is an alternative to “conventional” waste disposal that can save material and help lower greenhouse gas emissions. It can also prevent the waste of potentially useful materials and reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reducing energy use, air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling).

Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the “ReduceReuse, and Recycle” waste hierarchy.[2][3] It promotes environmental sustainability by removing raw material input and redirecting waste output in the economic system.[4] There are some ISO standards related to recycling, such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2015 for environmental management control of recycling practice.

Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, cardboard, metal, plastic, tires, textiles, batteries, and electronics. The composting and other reuse of biodegradable waste—such as food and garden waste—is also a form of recycling.[5] Materials for recycling are either delivered to a household recycling center or picked up from curbside bins, then sorted, cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials for manufacturing new products.

In ideal implementations, recycling a material produces a fresh supply of the same material—for example, used office paper would be converted into new office paper, and used polystyrene foam into new polystyrene. Some types of materials, such as metal cans, can be remanufactured repeatedly without losing their purity.[6] With other materials, this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with producing the same product from raw materials or other sources), so “recycling” of many products and materials involves their reuse in producing different materials (for example, paperboard). Another form of recycling is the salvage of constituent materials from complex products, due to either their intrinsic value (such as lead from car batteries and gold from printed circuit boards), or their hazardous nature (e.g. removal and reuse of mercury from thermometers and thermostats).

Recycling has been a common practice for most of human history, with recorded advocates as far back as Plato in the fourth century BC.[citation needed] During periods when resources were scarce, archaeological studies of ancient waste dumps show less household waste (such as ash, broken tools, and pottery), implying that more waste was recycled in place of new material.[7]

In pre-industrial times, there is evidence of scrap bronze and other metals being collected in Europe and melted down for continuous reuse.[8] Paper recycling was first recorded in 1031 when Japanese shops sold repulped paper.[9][10] In Britain dust and ash from wood and coal fires was collected by “dustmen” and downcycled as a base material for brick making. These forms of recycling were driven by the economic advantage of obtaining recycled materials instead of virgin material, and the need for waste removal in ever-more-densely populated areas.[7] In 1813, Benjamin Law developed the process of turning rags into “shoddy” and “mungo” wool in Batley, Yorkshire, which combined recycled fibers with virgin wool.[11] The West Yorkshire shoddy industry in towns such as Batley and Dewsbury lasted from the early 19th century to at least 1914.

Industrialization spurred demand for affordable materials. In addition to rags, ferrous scrap metals were coveted as they were cheaper to acquire than virgin ore. Railroads purchased and sold scrap metal in the 19th century, and the growing steel and automobile industries purchased scrap in the early 20th century. Many secondary goods were collected, processed and sold by peddlers who scoured dumps and city streets for discarded machinery, pots, pans, and other sources of metal. By World War I, thousands of such peddlers roamed the streets of American cities, taking advantage of market forces to recycle post-consumer materials into industrial production.[12]

Manufacturers of beverage bottles, including Schweppes,[13] began offering refundable recycling deposits in Great Britain and Ireland around 1800. An official recycling system with refundable deposits for bottles was established in Sweden in 1884, and for aluminum beverage cans in 1982; it led to recycling rates of 84–99%, depending on type. (Glass bottles can be refilled around 20 times.[


Q.4 Discuss different assessment and evaluation techniques in arts and crafts in detail


The basic difference between assessment and evaluation lies in the orientation, i.e. while the assessment is process oriented, evaluation is product oriented. The article presented to you describes all the distinguishing points between these two.

Assess and evaluate are words closely enough related to be used in defining each other. However, there are differences in educational assessment and evaluation processes. When assessing students, instructors gather, summarize, and interpret data to determine which strategies to implement to further enhance the learning experience. They assess students’ readiness to learn, preferred learning styles, past experiences with content and barriers to learning. Assessment sources may be both subjective (self-assessment checklist) and objective (pretest). Assessment may be structured (interview) or informal (questions during lecture).

Through assessment, the instructor understands the cognitive, psychomotor and affective learning needs of the student in order to determine the next educational steps. When evaluating students, instructors gather, summarize, and interpret data to determine the student’s mastery of content and the effectiveness of the teaching strategies. They evaluate students’ understanding of new concepts, ability to perform certain skills and the evolution of values. As a formal process, evaluation occurs at preset time intervals throughout the course and curriculum. Evaluation criteria are set and agreed upon by all instructors before implementing educational activities. Students must know in advance when to expect evaluation and what criteria will be evaluated.

Through evaluation the instructor determines the effectiveness of the educational activities. The process of evaluation provides the instructor with valuable information to guide feedback to the student. The difference between assessment and evaluation lies within the intent of use. Choose assessment when you wish to determine educational strategies. Use evaluation when you want to understand your students’ performance so you can shape knowledge, belief and behavior.

Assessment is defined as a process of appraising something or someone, i.e. the act of gauging the quality, value or importance. As against, evaluation focuses on making a judgment about values, numbers or performance of someone or something. Assessment is made to identify the level of performance of an individual, whereas evaluation is performed to determine the degree to which goals are attained.

The basic difference between assessment and evaluation lies in the orientation, i.e. while the assessment is process oriented, evaluation is product oriented. The article presented to you describes all the distinguishing points between these two.

Content: Assessment Vs Evaluation

  1. Comparison Chart
  2. Definition
  3. Key Differences
  4. Conclusion

Comparison Chart

Meaning Assessment is a process of collecting, reviewing and using data, for the purpose of improvement in the current performance. Evaluation is described as an act of passing judgement on the basis of set of standards.
Nature Diagnostic Judgemental
What it does? Provides feedback on performance and areas of improvement. Determines the extent to which objectives are achieved.
Purpose Formative Summative
Orientation Process Oriented Product Oriented
Feedback Based on observation and positive & negative points. Based on the level of quality as per set standard.
Relationship between parties Reflective Prescriptive
Criteria Set by both the parties jointly. Set by the evaluator.
Measurement Standards Absolute Comparative


Definition of Assessment

Assessment is defined as a methodical way of acquiring, reviewing and using information about someone or something, so as to make improvement where necessary. The term is interpreted in a variety of ways, i.e. educational, psychological, financial, taxation, human resource and so on.

Definition of Evaluation

The term ‘evaluation’ is derived from the word ‘value’ which refers to ‘usefulness of something’. Therefore, evaluation is an examination of something to measure its utility.


Q.5 Write detail note on the following:

  1. Portfolios
  2. Different painting mediums


A portfolio is a collection of financial investments like stocks, bonds, commodities, cash, and cash equivalents, including closed-end funds and exchange traded funds (ETFs). People generally believe that stocks, bonds, and cash comprise the core of a portfolio. Though this is often the case, it does not need to be the rule. A portfolio may contain a wide range of assets including real estate, art, and private investments.

You may choose to hold and manage your portfolio yourself, or you may allow a money manager, financial advisor, or another finance professional to manage your portfolio.


  • A portfolio is a collection of financial investments like stocks, bonds, commodities, cash, and cash equivalents, as well as their fund counterparts.
  • Stocks and bonds are generally considered a portfolio’s core building blocks, though you may grow a portfolio with many different types of assets—including real estate, gold, paintings, and other art collectibles.
  • Diversification is a key concept in portfolio management.
  • A person’s tolerance for risk, investment objectives, and time horizon are all critical factors when assembling and adjusting an investment portfolio.

Understanding Portfolios

One of the key concepts in portfolio management is the wisdom of diversification—which simply means not to put all your eggs in one basket. Diversification tries to reduce risk by allocating investments among various financial instruments, industries, and other categories. It aims to maximize returns by investing in different areas that would each react differently to the same event. There are many ways to diversify. How you choose to do it is up to you. Your goals for the future, your appetite for risk, and your personality are all factors in deciding how to build your portfolio.


Regardless of your portfolio’s asset mix, all portfolios should contain some degree of diversification, and reflect the investor’s tolerance for risk, return objectives, time horizon, and other pertinent constraints, including tax position, liquidity needs, legal situations, and unique circumstances.

Managing a Portfolio

You may think of an investment portfolio as a pie that’s been divided into pieces of varying wedge-shaped sizes, each piece representing a different asset class and/or type of investment. Investors aim to construct a well-diversified portfolio to achieve a risk-return portfolio allocation that is appropriate for their level of risk tolerance. Although stocks, bonds, and cash are generally viewed as a portfolio’s core building blocks, you may grow a portfolio with many different types of assets—including real estate, gold stocks, various types of bonds, paintings, and other art collectibles.

  1. Different painting mediums

There are many different types of painting mediums used all over the world during different time periods. Different mediums are used for different purposes and give different results. It is important to understand the differences in the mediums to be able to select the most suitable one for your desired style and work.

In this post, I will be talking about different types of painting mediums normally seen in art. I will give a short introduction to the medium, its ingredients, the basic material needed to get started and the pros and cons of each medium.


This medium is fast drying, water-soluble in liquid state and water-resistant when dried. By varying the ratio of acrylic paint and water, acrylic painting can have results similar to watercolour or oil painting. Acrylic paints are usually water-based, meaning soluble in water. Depending on the concentration of acrylics in water, the drying time of acrylic paint can vary from a few minutes to a few days.


  • Acrylic binder
  • Pigments

While mixed with water, the binder and pigments are suspended in water. As water evaporates out of the mixture, the pigments and binder bonds together, forming a solid layer. This is why acrylic paint should be stored in closed containers to prevent them from drying.


You will need a few materials to start painting with acrylic paint, the basic ones you’ll need are:

You can paint with acrylics straight out of the tube, it can create a painterly effect like oil painting. You can also add mediums or water to dilute the paint to make them thinner.

Remember to keep your paint which you’ve squeezed out on a palette wet to prevent them from drying during your painting process

Pros and cons


  • Fast drying. Unlike oil paints, they can dry very fast. So you can apply new layers without having to wait for too long.
  • Non-toxic. No harsh chemicals since you can just mix the paint with water.


  • Fast drying. Some people like to work slow using certain painting technique that only works for slow drying mediums. In this case, oil painting may be a better option. However, there are mediums out there that you can get to slow down the drying time of acrylic paint.


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علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔


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