Course: Classroom Management (6403) Semester: Autumn, 2021 Level: ADE/B.Ed
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q.1 Write a comprehensive note on behaviourist theory of learning.
Behaviorism started as a reaction against introspective psychology in the 19th century, which relied heavily on first-person accounts. J.B. Watson and B.F. Skinner rejected introspective methods as being subjective and unquantifiable. These psychologists wanted to focus on observable, quantifiable events and behaviors. They said that science should take into account only observable indicators. They helped bring psychology into higher relevance by showing that it could be accurately measured and understood, and it wasn’t just based off opinions.
Watson and Skinner believed that if they were given a group of infants, the way they were raised and the environment they put them in would be the ultimate determining factor for how they acted, not their parents or their genetics.
Pavlov’s Dogs is a popular behaviorism experiment. A group of dogs would hear a bell ring and then they would be given food. After enough time, when the bell would ring the dogs would salivate, expecting the food before they even saw it. This is exactly what behaviorism argues—that the things we experience and our environment are the drivers of how we act.
The stimulus-response sequence is a key element of understanding behaviorism. A stimulus is given, for example a bell rings, and the response is what happens next, a dog salivates or a pellet of food is given. Behavioral learning theory argues that even complex actions can be broken down into the stimulus-response.
Behaviorism learning theory.
In the classroom, the behavioral learning theory is key in understanding how to motivate and help students. Information is transferred from teachers to learners from a response to the right stimulus. Students are a passive participant in behavioral learning—teachers are giving them the information as an element of stimulus-response. Teachers use behaviorism to show students how they should react and respond to certain stimuli. This needs to be done in a repetitive way, to regularly remind students what behavior a teacher is looking for.
Positive reinforcement is key in the behavioral learning theory. Without positive reinforcement, students will quickly abandon their responses because they don’t appear to be working. For example, if students are supposed to get a sticker every time they get an A on a test, and then teachers stop giving that positive reinforcement, less students may get A’s on their tests, because the behavior isn’t connected to a reward for them.
Repetition and positive reinforcement go hand-in-hand with the behavioral learning theory. Teachers often work to strike the right balance of repeating the situation and having the positive reinforcement come to show students why they should continue that behavior.
Motivation plays an important role in behavioral learning. Positive and negative reinforcement can be motivators for students. For example, a student who receives praise for a good test score is much more likely to learn the answers effectively than a student who receives no praise for a good test score. The student who receives no praise is experiencing negative reinforcement—their brain tells them that though they got a good grade, it didn’t really matter, so the material of the test becomes unimportant to them. Conversely students who receive positive reinforcement see a direct correlation to continuing excellence, completely based on that response to a positive stimulus.
The behavioral learning theory and the social learning theory stem from similar ideas. The social learning theory agrees with the behavioral learning theory about outside influences on behavior. However, the social learning theory goes a step further and suggests that internal psychological processes are also an influence on behavior. Students or individuals may see things being done, but the social learning theory says that internal thoughts impact what behavior response comes out.
Behaviorism doesn’t study or feature internal thought processes as an element of actions. Social learning argues that behavior is much more complicated than the simple stimulus and response of behaviorism. It suggests that students learn through observation, and then they consciously decide to imitate behavior. There are underlying emotions like peer pressure and a desire to fit in that impact behavior.
Behaviorist teaching strategies.
Teachers can implement behavioral learning strategy techniques in their classroom in many ways, including:
- Teachers may practice skills using drill patterns to help students see the repetition and reinforcement that behavioral learning theory uses.
- Question and answer. Teachers can use a question as a stimulus and answer as a response, gradually getting harder with questions to help students.
- Guided practice. Teachers can be directly involved in helping students go through problems to give them the reinforcement and behavior demonstration you want them to follow.
- Regular review. Reviews are important to behavioral learning theory. Going back over material and giving positive reinforcement will help students retain information much better.
- Positive reinforcement. Behaviorist classrooms utilize positive reinforcement regularly. This can be in the form of verbal reinforcement and praise, reward systems, added privileges, and more.
While behaviorism is a great option for many teachers, there are some criticisms of this theory. Behaviorism is best for certain learning outcomes, like foreign languages and math, but aren’t as effective for analytical and comprehensive learning.
Other critics of behavioral learning say that the theory doesn’t encompass enough of human learning and behavior, and that it’s not fully developed. Other theories have come forward that take behaviorism further, implying that there are many additional factors to consider when evaluating behavior.
If you are hoping to one day become a teacher, it’s important to get the right degree and credentials to help you be prepared for success. It’s also important to understand learning theories to be ready to take on students and the classroom. When you understand more about psychology and how students learn, you’re much more likely to be successful as an educator.
Q.2 Describe the principles to modify and correct the behaviour of problematic students
Insist that students accept responsibility for their behavior. Try to remain courteous in the face of hostility or anger. Showing students that you care about them and their problems will help you earn their respect and establish rapport. Treat all students respectfully and politely.
Behavior modification is a means of changing behavior through various techniques used to replace undesirable behaviors with desirable ones. Behavior modification techniques have been used to treat both adults and children for various problems, such as enuresis (bedwetting), separation and general anxiety, various phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), etc. The methods use vary, but usually involve some form of positive or negative reinforcement. This concept had its beginning in 1938, when B. F. Skinner published his book The Behavior of Organisms, setting forth the principles of operant conditioning – that behavior could be shaped by reinforcement or the lack of reinforcement.
With behavior modification, you are not worried about the cause for the behavior, you are only using a method to change it. In this article, we will concentrate on modifying the behavior of children. Parents, teachers, and anyone who works with or spends time with children will find these child behavior modification techniques provide a successful approach to having children behave in acceptable and desired ways.
Using Positive and Negative Reinforcement for Behavior Modification
There are four main components of behavior modification generally recognized by experts in the field. You are probably familiar with each component, although you may not have used these terms before. We will look at each one and how parents and teachers can use them effectively in modifying the behavior of children at home and in the classroom.
Positive reinforcement is using a reward for positive behavior to make sure the child continues with the desired behavior. It is the most effective method of shaping behavior because it is the most pleasant. For example, praise and reward are both used in positive reinforcement.
Examples of Positive Reinforcements
- Your young child puts his dishes in the sink when he is finished eating and you tell him, “Good for you! You put your dish in the sink before I asked you to.”
- Your school-aged child earns time to play a favorite video game when homework is completed without arguing.
- Your teenager studies hard all semester and receives an A for a challenging subject. You take your teen out for dinner and a movie, or provide funds for a special date night.
Negative reinforcement is taking something unpleasant away to reinforce good behavior. You are not actually doing anything negative. For example, your child may choose to do their homework without being reminder to avoid nagging.
Examples of Negative Reinforcements
- You nag your son every night about getting chores completed. One night your son decides to do his chores right after school to avoid hearing you nag him.
- Your child has been misbehaving on the bus every day on the way to school. You decide to ride with him and when his friends ask why, he must tell them it is because he has been misbehaving or you tell them. He decides to behave, especially when you tell him next time he will sit on your lap!
- Your teenager complains about not wanting to go to school during the entire ride to school every morning. He hates country-western music, so you turn it on and play it loudly. Your teenager stops complaining and talks on the way to school so you won’t turn on country-western music.
Q.3 How effective lesson planning could be core element in instruction?
Effective lesson planning is at the core of a well-run classroom. Failing to plan your lessons or have a solid outline for the day can lead to disarray and disorganization on your part, which can in turn cause students to lose focus.
The strategies you use to create your lessons also play a role in how effective they are. Lessons that are planned efficiently can free up classroom time teachers can use to answer questions and address concerns.
According to Kelly Jackson at The Simply Organized Teacher, lessons should always be planned a week in advance. She warns against leaving the classroom on Friday without having everything in order for the upcoming week. By using all of her spare time to plan lessons on Thursday, she can spend Friday prepping materials. This allows her to take the weekend off from lesson planning, then walk into the classroom on Monday feeling prepared and ready.
Former teacher Lauren Salisbury agrees. ”In order to have a classroom where things run smoothly, it is essential to have prepared lessons in advance.” If you don’t think through all the details and steps of a lesson, you won’t be able to do so in the moment. The more effort put into planning lessons, the better the chances are of a successful lesson.
An additional benefit of good lesson planning is that it inspires teachers to do what they do best. In turn, students tend to respond to a well-prepared teachers by wanting to learn and remain focused, according to the team at Teachable Math.
Part of good lesson planning is filling any of your own knowledge gaps regarding the subject material. “This gives the teacher confidence when delivering the lesson in the classroom. A confident teacher inspires respect from students, which in turn reduces discipline problems.”
Lesson plans are also important for outlining your classroom objectives, which can help you evaluate whether or not students are on track. Outlining expectations also keeps you and your students focused and motivated throughout the lesson, says teacher Geri McClymont.
“What exactly do you want your students to be able to do by the end of the lesson? This should be clearly communicated to your students orally at the very beginning of the lesson and posted in a highly visible location in your classroom.”
These objectives should be the focus of the lesson. Using SMART goals (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound) can also maximize the effectiveness of your time throughout the lesson.
Merge Your Lesson Plan with Classroom Management
There are a number of classroom management practices that can keep students focused and engaged regardless of the lesson being taught. Planning a lesson is only half the battle, and teachers must include both strong delivery and effective classroom management if they want students to really engage, says principal Jemi Sudhakar.
“It is also important to realize that the best planned lesson is worthless if interesting delivery procedures, along with good classroom management techniques, are not in evidence.”
Teachers should research how they want to deliver their lessons in a way that engages students. Then, these techniques must be structured and implemented in a way that students can receive. Consistency is key in maintaining a well-behaved classroom through lesson plans, Sudhakar adds.
Teaching students strategies and processes for learning can ensure that they stay on task throughout the day.
“This is more than just talking about your homework policy, late work, and absences. It is revealing to your students how you are going to create — with them — a highly effective, low-maintenance, learning team,” says educator Ben Johnson.
For example, Johnson explains to students how he uses a strategy like Cornell Notes, and tells them why: it’s a system that summarizes the main points of a lesson and makes for a good review. Teachers have strategies for teaching the way they do, and this is something that should be shared with students so that they know what they’re doing and why.
You might also choose to design a lesson plan around activities that keep students interested. “The more senses the students use, the more engaged they will be and less likely to disrupt,” writes Angie Torre on the blog Spanish Mama. She suggests interactive notebook activities, Google Drive activities and lessons that require students to listen, draw and follow directions. Other ideas include charades and competitions that require movement.
Use Engagement to Manage Lessons
Physically taking part in lessons shows students you’re involved in their learning and reduces their inclination to act out. Let’s say students are working on a group exercise, for example. Sitting at your desk may give them more opportunities to misbehave and get off track, since you aren’t immediately at hand.
This is why education writer Janelle Cox suggests that teachers take the time to monitor students by walking around the classroom and being available for questions. Moving around provides teachers an opportunity to ask students critical thinking questions, which helps strengthen their comprehension of the task at hand.
It’s also important to change your pattern of moving around the room, suggests Dave Foley at The National Education Association. While you should always face your students when teaching, varying your routine as you move makes it difficult for students to anticipate where you’ll be next, and reduces disruption.
Maintaining active involvement in the classroom also provides opportunities for positive reinforcement. Be sure to praise students on what they’ve done well as you move around the classroom and note their behavior. Such actions improve academic and behavioral performance, says Marcus Guido at educational software company, Prodigy Game.
Moreover, sincere praise inspires the class, boosts self-esteem and helps students understand which behaviors you’d like to see. Carving out time for praise in your lesson plan ensures that you make this beneficial practice a normal part of your school day.
Effective lesson plans also anticipate discussion and reflection by students. It isn’t enough to simply teach a lesson and expect students to absorb it; they need to engage with the material. According to Kelli Cedo and Lorena Kelly at Education Updated, it’s important to create space for thinking and discussion.
“Students must have an opportunity to apply their thinking independently. This should be part of the lesson and can be whole-group, mini-group, or individual work,” they write.
Having prompts in your lesson plan can ensure you’re always prepared to ask questions when students need a push to the next level. It’s essential that students have an opportunity to apply their thinking independently.
Q.4 What are the main sources of disruptive behavior of students?
There are many reasons why children may become disruptive including personal issues such as anxiety, depression, eating disorders and other emotional problems, or learning or behavioural issues.
Poverty has been cited as a source of disruptive behavior in students. Children coming from poverty stricken family tend to exhibit disruptive behavior and they rarely concentrate in class. They are mostly challenged since they spend most of their time to think where they can get the next meal to keep them going.
Before a child joins school he/she usually has a well developed behavior acquired from home and it’s environ. Most children are lucky enough to be brought up feeling valued and loved by our parents, but sadly this is not always the case. If a child feels starved of attention and care from its parents, this can lead to some very negative consequences. For example, the child may not have been able to learn the usual rules about which behaviors are socially acceptable and which are not, leading to disruptive behaviors. Such students cause a lot of problems to the teacher and entire class leading to prolonged arguments and fighting in class. Another possibility is that the child may also begin to seek the attention that they desire in other areas, such as in the classroom. In order
to attract attention, they may display disruptive behaviors. Another cause of misbehavior may come from overprotective parents who do not anything incase their children’s do something wrong (Bear, 2005).
2. Peer pressure (Bad influences on a student’s local community)
Another cause of children’s misbehavior comes from local community or where the child is brought up from. Children who are brought up in environment where there is a lot of violence and drug use tend to acquire the same behavior. Most of this students get involve with drug peddlers and who supply the same drugs to other students. Their behavior may be influenced by what they see in their community and environment.
3. Poor teaching
Another cause of bad behavior by students in class may be due to poor teaching methods by the teachers. One of the first things that a teacher has to think if a student is disrupting the class is “is it me?” Even the most disruptive students will sit for hours on computer games or other hobbies that they enjoy, so maybe it’s just that the lessons aren’t interesting enough.
Poverty has been cited as a source of disruptive behavior in students. Children coming from poverty stricken family tend to exhibit disruptive behavior and they rarely concentrate in class. They are mostly challenged since they spend most of their time to think where they can get the next meal to keep them going. Furthermore, children from poor family tend to steal things from other students such as book and food for them to sell. This causes disturbance in the class making them learning difficulty for other children (Rosen, 2005).
5. Teachers’ negative attitude towards student
The attitude of the teachers towards the students matters a lot for effective teaching to take place. Most students notice when the teachers do not show acceptance and understanding towards their needs and challenges. This may cause friction between the teachers and students in class. Most students may rebel against the teacher through making noise and avoiding their class. Students may also not share their challenges with the administration with in time may cause strikes and school unrest.
6. Repeating change in subject teacher
Constant change of subject teacher in the same class and term may cause unrest in the class. Schools that change class teachers for specific subject every time may make students loose confident in the subject. Different teachers come with different mode of teaching and understanding their students. The students also have their way of understanding specific teacher. This balance gets easily disturbed when the administration keeps on changing subject teacher for the students. The students may find it hard understanding new teachers which may cause distress and interference of the class.
7. Repeating the same class for students
Making students repeat same class may cause the students to have disruptive behavior. Students who repeat the same class may easily disturb other students causing problem in class. Students should not be made to repeat same classes.
8. Classroom poor conditions (lack of Lighting, ventilation, sounds etc.)
The condition for most schools lack basic facilities such as lack of lighting, ventilation and desks. Students are made to share desks and books, which in most cases causes fighting between the students. Lack of ventilation and proper lighting may make students uncomfortable and uneasy which may result into bad behaviors in class.
Some psychological problems of a student
Psychological well being of the students is affected by many factors in the school. Children who are abused by their parents tend to have psychological problem and withdraw from the rest of the students. This may cause the students to be violent and cause problems for the other students in the class (Walker, Ramsey, and Gresham, 2004).
Programs that can guide and counsel students engaged in disruptive behavior
1. Teachers in control of discipline
Teachers feel free to deal with their own problems themselves, although more senior members of staff may still be involved for serious offences. This offers opportunity for teachers to react to student’s challenges and offer guidance and counseling. The students would also develop respect for the teachers and their authority. Teachers should only involve senior teachers on matters that they cannot solve or more serious crime.
2. Using different method of teaching
The teacher can use various method of teaching to increase the motivation and morale of the students. Using different method of teaching provide opportunity for the students to learn from each other.
3. Teaching social problem solving for students
The direct teaching of social problem solving is now a common feature of programs for preventing and resolving discipline problems, as well as for treating students with the most serious antisocial behavior. Although these interventions vary in the strategies emphasized, they share a common focus on teaching thinking skills that students can use to avoid and resolve interpersonal conflicts, resist peer pressure, and cope with emotions and stress. The most effective are those that include “a range of social competency skills…and that are delivered over a long period of time to continually reinforce skills.
4. Teacher to Move around the class
Your presence is extremely powerful. Don’t stay stagnant at the front of your class. Move around and don’t allow the children to become distracted. Talk to them about their task. Give them deadlines. For example say: “I’d love to see two more ideas by the time I come back as your ideas are really interesting.” Then walk and visit another child/pair but make sure you come back.
Q.5 What is behavior group management theory and how it can be applied in classroom management?
Behavioral Management Theory The behavioral management theory is often called the human relations movement because it addresses the human dimension of work. Behavioral theorists believed that a better understanding of human behavior at work, such as motivation, conflict, expectations, and group dynamics, improved productivity.
In contrast to scientific management, with its focus on optimizing man as a machine, behavioral management focuses on worker behavior and motivations. Specifically, behavioral management theory is concerned with how to manage productivity by understanding worker motivation, including expectations, needs and interests, and group dynamics. Behavioral management theory is sometimes referred to as the human relations movement due to its focus on the human dimension of work. Theorists who contributed to behavioral management include Mary Parker Follett, Elton Mayo, and Abraham Maslow.
Mary Parker Follett
Figure 1. Mary Parker Follett
Although she was a contemporary of Taylor and the Gilbreths, author and advisor Mary Parker Follett had a very different frame of reference and her ideas form the basis of our understanding of modern organizational behavior. A former social worker, she understood power dynamics and stressed the importance of human psychology and human relations rather than a mechanical or scientific approach to work and management-employee interactions. In its biography, ThoughtCo. notes that “Follett was one of the first people to integrate the idea of organizational conflict into management theory.” And, indeed, her idea of conflict as a place of opportunity is even more relevant today. Specifically, Follett proposed that conflict, rather than requiring compromise, could be a stimulus for innovation. In an essay written in 1924, Follett coined the terms “power-over” and “power-with,” differentiating between coercive and participative power and demonstrating how “power-with” can be greater than “power-over.” Although her work is rarely or only marginally covered, her ideas have shaped theories in psychology and management, including Abraham Maslow’s work. For perspective, management consultant Peter Drucker, whom BusinessWeek referred to as “the man who invented management” called Follett the “prophet of management” and his “guru.”
Follett’s theory of management included the following principles:
- Genuine power is not “coercive” (power over) but coactive (power with)
- True leaders create group power rather than expressing personal power
In 1924, Australian sociologist Elton Mayo, who later became an industrial research professor at Harvard, began a series of studies that demonstrated that employee motivation is heavily influenced by social and situational factors. Mayo’s findings, referred to as the “Hawthorne Effect,” marked a radical change in motivational theory and management practice.
For example, Frederick Taylor’s principles focused on individual workers and how to optimize that person’s work performance. The Hawthorne studies observed workers in a social context—as part of a group—and determined that employee performance is influenced by not only innate ability but by the work environment and their co-workers. Specifically, the studies found that management attention and engagement with workers and the group dynamic had more of an impact on productivity than factors such as lighting or benefits.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
In his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation,” psychologist Abraham Maslow proposed what is considered the classic theory of needs: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. He proposed that people are motivated by five categories of needs: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization. These needs are represented as a pyramid, with basic physiological needs such as food, water and shelter at the base and the need for self-actualization at the top.
Maslow further classified the bottom four levels of the pyramid “deficiency needs,” noting that “a person does not feel anything if they are met, but becomes anxious if they are not.” He classified the fifth level “a ‘growth need’ because it enables a person to ‘self-actualize’ or reach his fullest potential as a human being.
Maslow proposed that human behavior is purposeful and is motivated by the desire to satisfy needs and that lower-level needs must be met before a person can focus on the next level of needs. A need that is satisfied no longer motivates. An unmet need is a primary motivator. Thus, Maslow’s hierarchy provides managers with a visual representation of employee motivation.