ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q.1 How would you combine features to orchestrate the text for readers to provide proper guidelines? How can you use text features to convey meanings? Give proper examples.
The term text features is used in an academic setting to describe all of the components or features associated with an article or nonfiction text that are not considered the main text. The most common text features of a book include the table of contents, the index, headings, captions, bold words, illustrations, photographs, the glossary, labels, graphs, charts, and diagrams. Many of these text features can also be found in newspapers, magazines, or individual articles. Text features are used to help navigate and locate specific information provided in a nonfiction text in an easier and more efficient manner. Often times, authors put information in the text features that are not included in the body of the text, so it is imperative to understand how to use them effectively. Each text feature has a specific purpose in nonfiction material, while the overarching goal of every text feature is to quickly
and easily gain access to information. Text features make reading informational text and research materials more efficient. The table of contents and index allow the reader to quickly locate which pages of the book contain specific information; the knowledge can be acquired without having to read the entire book.Many times, information is depicted or documented in photographs or illustrations throughout the book accompanied by captions below each one. The bolded words in text are usually new vocabulary words that are often defined in the glossary or mini dictionary located in the back of the book. Lastly, visuals or data that match the information are often placed in graphs, charts, or diagrams. These three text features are very important because more often than not, the data is not actually written in the body of text. Each text feature used in a nonfiction source provides as much value as the actual text. The combination of text and text features presents informational material in an organized and structured format that readers can obtain with ease. Students should have the opportunity to learn about and use text features in every nonfiction material beginning in kindergarten. One simple introductory activity that even five-year-old students can complete is the idea of going on a scavenger hunt in the book for text features. Younger readers can look for bold words and photographs while upper grade readers can complete a checklist for every text feature located in the material. When we provide students with a variety of nonfiction sources, they can compare and contrast how text features are used to give information.
Another strategy to take this scavenger concept to the next level is to have students create an anchor chart of text features. Students can work in pairs or groups using magazines and newspapers to cut out each specific text feature. Then, they should organize them on chart paper or poster board, glue them down, and label each one. Thus, they are using a text feature to complete the assignment. Keep these child-friendly anchor charts on display for students to memorize each one.
In addition to recognizing and understanding the purpose of text features, students need to understand how to apply their knowledge of how to utilize the text features. Therefore, students should be provided with a book or article related to a science or social studies objective they already have background information about. Then, they can apply specific text feature tasks including using the glossary to find out the meaning of an unknown bold-faced word.
Students can also make a prediction of what information they think they will learn based on the titles of the chapters in the table of contents or the headings throughout the text. A higher-level thinking activity is to give students paragraphs and have them create the heading to match the content. Students can also create captions for photographs or illustrations. Each student can be assigned a particular section, chart, or diagram of a text and given the task of being an expert for the information from that visual or text. They are responsible for conveying the information to their classmates. When students are encouraged to actually use text features in reading nonfiction materials, in content areas, and in research projects, they see first-hand the benefit of how text features make understanding information so much easier. This is when they will automatically seek out text features in nonfiction materials to make the reading comprehension process that much simpler.
Q.2 Go to computer graphics program, make three different graphs. In a brief paragraph, explain the type of reader and the situation for which each graph would be appropriate.
- intgd=DETECT, gm, i, x, y;
- initgraph(&gd, &gm, “C:\\TC\\BGI”);
- circle(x, y, i*20);
- void main()
- //Initializes the graphics system
- // setfillstyle(random(i),random(30));
- struct time t;
- void display(int,int,int);
- void main()
- int i=0,gd=DETECT,gm,hr,min,sec;
- void display(int x,int y,int num)
- char str;
- outtextxy(90,250,”Digital Clock”);
Q.3 Select a website from your chosen field of study, that contains an article related to that field. Evaluate that site and write a descriptive abstract of that article for a nontechnical audience.
Food processing is any method used to turn fresh foods into food products.1 This can involve one or a combination of various processes including washing, chopping, pasteurising, freezing, fermenting, packaging, cooking and many more. Food processing includes traditional (heat treatment, fermentation, pickling, smoking, drying, curing) and modern methods (pasteurisation, ultra-heat treatment, high pressure processing, or modified atmosphere packaging). Some of the common methods are described below:
The food is heated to a high temperature. This process is called pasteurisation. Then, the food is packaged and stored in an air-tight can. Check our infographic showing the processing steps for canned tomatoes.
The breakdown of sugars by bacteria, yeasts or other microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. This means, no oxygen is needed for the process to take place (apart from oxygen present in sugar). Fermentation is notably used in the production of alcoholic beverages such as wine, beer, and cider, and in the preservation of foods such as sauerkraut, dry sausages, and yoghurt, but also for raising dough in bread production.
Food temperatures are reduced to below 0°C to decrease the activity of harmful bacteria. The process can be used to preserve the majority of foods including fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, and ready meals.
Modified atmosphere packaging
Air inside a package is substituted by a protective gas mix, often including oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen – gases that are also present in the air we breathe. They help to extend the shelf life of fresh food products – usually of fruits, vegetables, meat and meat products, and seafood.
Food is heated and then quickly cooled down to kill microorganisms. For example, raw milk may contain harmful bacteria that cause foodborne illnesses. Boiling it (at home) or pasteurising (on a large scale) is crucial to ensure it is safe to consume. Apart from dairy products, pasteurisation is widely used in preservation of canned foods, juices and alcoholic beverages.
A process of heat and chemical treatment of food to help preserve it by exposing it to smoke from burning material such as wood. Smoked foods usually include types of meat, sausages, fish or cheese.
Food additives play an important role in preserving the freshness, safety, taste, appearance and texture of processed foods. Food additives are added for particular purposes, whether to ensure food safety, or to maintain food quality during the shelf-life of a product. For example, antioxidants prevent fats and oils from becoming rancid, while preservatives prevent or reduce the growth of microbes (e.g. mould on bread). Emulsifiers are used for instance in improving the texture of mayonnaise, or stopping salad dressings from separating into oil and water.
Grain crops, for example wheat and corn, are not edible in their natural state. Processing techniques, such as milling and grinding, turn them into flour, after which they can be made into breads, cereals, pasta and other edible grain-based products. There are 3 types of flours depending on the processing level, choose wholegrain when possible. You can learn more about the journey of grain to bread in our ‘Gain on grain’ infographic. Processing improves or even ensures food safety by removing harmful microorganisms. The main methods are pasteurisation, air-tight packaging, and the use of preservatives. Processing and packaging technologies help to answer modern day time-constraints by providing a range of convenient foods: ready meals, bagged salads, sliced and canned fruits and vegetables that take little time to prepare and can be consumed “on the go”. A healthy diet means eating a variety of nutritious foods from different food groups, including fresh fruits and vegetables, grains and cereals (opting for wholegrains when possible), proteins, dairy and healthy fats. Most foods consumed nowadays are processed at least to some degree, but not all processed foods are the same. For example, fruit canned in fruit juice will be a better option than fruit canned in a sugary syrup. Therefore, when chosen mindfully, processed foods can be incorporated into a healthy and balanced diet.
Less processed foods such as frozen fruits and vegetables provide valuable sources of nutrition, with greater convenience and lower price. Chopped, frozen, and canned foods in natural juices (fruit) or water (veg or fish), are therefore good alternatives for busy people having limited time to shop for or cook from a fresh produce.
Q.4 Throughout one’s career, one has to give oral reports to explain the results of investigations, propose solutions to the problems, report on the progress of projects, make changes to policy, create business plans, etc. Which steps would you follow, while preparing an effective oral presentation?
An oral presentation is more than just reading a paper or set of slides to an audience. How you deliver your presentation is at least as important in effectively communicating your message as what you say. Use these guidelines to learn simple tools that help you prepare and present an effective presentation, and design PowerPoint slides that support and enhance your talk.
Preparing an Effective Presentation
An effective presentation is more than just standing up and giving information. A presenter must consider how best to communicate the information to the audience. Use these tips to create a presentation that is both informative and interesting:
- Organize your thoughts. Start with an outline and develop good transitions between sections. Emphasize the real-world significance of your research.
- Have a strong opening. Why should the audience listen to you? One good way to get their attention is to start with a question, whether or not you expect an answer.
- Define terms early.If you are using terms that may be new to the audience, introduce them early in your presentation. Once an audience gets lost in unfamiliar terminology, it is extremely difficult to get them back on track.
- Finish with a bang.Find one or two sentences that sum up the importance of your research. Design PowerPoint slides to introduce important information. Consider doing a presentation without PowerPoint. Then consider which points you cannot make without slides. Create only those slides that are necessary to improve your communication with the audience.
- Time yourself. Do not wait until the last minute to time your presentation. You only have 15 minutes to speak, so you want to know, as soon as possible, if you are close to that limit.
- Create effective notes for yourself.Have notes that you can read. Do not write out your entire talk; use an outline or other brief reminders of what you want to say. Make sure the text is large enough that you can read it from a distance.
- Practice, practice, practice.The more you practice your presentation, the more comfortable you will be in front of an audience. Practice in front of a friend or two and ask for their feedback. Record yourself and listen to it critically. Make it better and do it again.
Microsoft PowerPoint is a tremendous tool for presentations. It is also a tool that is sometimes not used effectively. If you are using PowerPoint, use these tips to enhance your presentation:
- Use a large font. As a general rule, avoid text smaller than 24 point.
- Use a clean typeface.Sans serif typefaces, such as Arial, are generally easier to read on a screen than serif typefaces, such as Times New Roman.
- Use bullet points, not complete sentences. The text on your slide provides an outline to what you are saying. If the entire text of your presentation is on your slides, there is no reason for the audience to listen to you. A common standard is the 6/7 rule: no more than six bulleted items per slide and no more than seven words per item.
- Use contrasting colors. Use a dark text on a light background or a light text on a dark background. Avoid combinations of colors that look similar. Avoid red/green combinations, as this is the most common form of color blindness.
- Use special effects sparingly. Using animations, cool transition effects, sounds and other special effects is an effective way to make sure the audience notices your slides. Unfortunately, that means that they are not listening to what you are saying. Use special effects only when they are necessary to make a point.
When you start your presentation, the audience will be interested in what you say. Use these tips to help keep them interested throughout your presentation:
- Be excited. You are talking about something exciting. If you remember to be excited, your audience will feel it and automatically become more interested.
- Speak with confidence. When you are speaking, you are the authority on your topic, but do not pretend that you know everything. If you do not know the answer to a question, admit it. Consider deferring the question to your mentor or offer to look into the matter further.
- Make eye contact with the audience. Your purpose is to communicate with your audience, and people listen more if they feel you are talking directly to them. As you speak, let your eyes settle on one person for several seconds before moving on to somebody else. You do not have to make eye contact with everybody, but make sure you connect with all areas of the audience equally.
- Avoid reading from the screen. First, if you are reading from the screen, you are not making eye contact with your audience. Second, if you put it on your slide, it is because you wanted them to read it, not you.
- Blank the screen when a slide is unnecessary. A slide that is not related to what you are speaking about can distract the audience. Pressing the letter B or the period key displays a black screen, which lets the audience concentrate solely on your words. Press the same key to restore the display.
- Use a pointer only when necessary. If you are using a laser pointer, remember to keep it off unless you need to highlight something on the screen.
- Explain your equations and graphs. When you display equations, explain them fully. Point out all constants and dependent and independent variables. With graphs, tell how they support your point. Explain the x- and y-axes and show how the graph progresses from left to right.
- Pause. Pauses bring audible structure to your presentation. They emphasize important information, make transitions obvious, and give the audience time to catch up between points and to read new slides. Pauses always feel much longer to speakers than to listeners. Practice counting silently to three (slowly) between points.
- Avoid filler words. Um, like, you know, and many others. To an audience, these are indications that you do not know what to say; you sound uncomfortable, so they start to feel uncomfortable as well. Speak slowly enough that you can collect your thoughts before moving ahead. If you really do not know what to say, pause silently until you do.
- Relax. It is hard to relax when you are nervous, but your audience will be much more comfortable if you are too.
- Breathe. It is fine to be nervous. In fact, you should be all good presenters are nervous every time they are in front of an audience. The most effective way to keep your nerves in check aside from a lot of practice before hand is to remember to breathe deeply throughout your presentation.
- Acknowledge the people who supported your research. Be sure to thank the people who made your research possible, including your mentor, research team, collaborators, and other sources of funding and support.
Q.5 Many referencing methods are used by the researchers. Discuss APA and MLA and its usage in detail.
The MLA system is a parenthetical system: i.e. bracketed references in the body of your essay are linked to full length citations in the bibliography at the end of your essay. The bracket in the body of the essay contains only the author’s surname and the page number or numbers you are referring to. For example: There are a number of different referencing styles or conventions but there are four that are used most widely. A bibliography compiled according to MLA conventions lists items alphabetically by the author’s last name. Each entry should include, in the following order: the author’s name in full, the title of the book, the place of publication, the publisher, and the date. The APA system is also a parenthetical system but the bracketed references in the body of your essay are: the author’s surname, the date of publication and the page or page numbers you are referring to. A bibliography compiled according to APA conventions lists items alphabetically by the author’s last name. Each entry should include, in the following order: the author’s surname, their first initial, the date of publication in brackets, the title of the book, the place of publication and the publisher.
Title page and header
In APA, a separate cover page is required. It lists the title of your paper, your full name, your institution and department, the course the paper is for, your instructor’s name, and the due date, all centered and double-spaced. Title page and header In APA, a separate cover page is required. It lists the title of your paper, your full name, your institution and department, the course the paper is for, your instructor’s name, and the due date, all centered and double-spaced.
In MLA, your last name and the page number appear as a running head at the top of every page, both right-aligned. An APA header also includes a right-aligned page number. In manuscripts that will be submitted for publication, you should also include an APA running head with a shortened version of your paper’s title (up to 50 characters long), all in capitals and left-aligned.
Block quote formatting
Block quotes are long quotations that are set on a new line and indented as a block, with no quotation marks. In APA, any quote of 40 words or longer should be formatted as a block quote. In MLA, block quote formatting is used for quotes of more than four lines of prose or more than three lines of verse. In both styles, the in-text citation is added after the period at the end of a block quote.