Course: Classroom Management (6403)
Semester: Autumn, 2022 Level: ADE/B. Ed
Assignment No. 2
Q.1 Discuss the application of classical conditioning in teaching and learning?
Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a type of unconscious or automatic learning. This learning process creates a conditioned response through associations between an unconditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus.
Put another way, classical conditioning involves placing a neutral stimulus before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov’s classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus (sound) with the unconditioned stimulus (food), the sound of the tone alone could produce the salivation response.
Classical conditioning involves forming an association between two stimuli, resulting in a learned response. There are three basic phases of this process.
Phase 1: Before Conditioning
The first part of the classical conditioning process requires a naturally occurring stimulus that will automatically elicit a response. Salivating in response to the smell of food is a good example of a naturally occurring stimulus.
During this phase of the process, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) results in an unconditioned response (UCR). Presenting food (the UCS) naturally and automatically triggers a salivation response (the UCR).
Q.2 Describe the nature of problematic students further discuss the causes of students’ bad behaviors?
Reports of problematic behaviors are on the rise nationally, not only in the classroom but in society at large (Kowalski, 2003).
Some of these immature, irritating, or thoughtless behaviors or “classroom incivilities” include:
o lateness or leaving early
o inappropriate cellphone and laptop usage in class
o side conversations
o disregard for deadlines
o grade grubbing
o sniping remarks
These behaviors are not just instructors’ pet peeves; they have real costs including:
o distracting other students and instructor in class
o reducing student participation
o lowering other students’ and instructor’s motivation in or out of class
o affecting fairness in grading
o using instructor or TA time unproductively
o feeling disrespected as a fellow learner or authority figure
In order to limit or deal effectively with these behaviors, it is important to understand the factors that cause or facilitate them.
The cause can be:
o contingent on individual student situations
o structural to the course
This distinction is important because it orients us towards the causes we can control.
Q.3 Define classroom management. Further discuss the effects of lesson planning on students’ learning
refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers use to keep students organized, orderly, focused, attentive, on task, and academically productive during a class. When classroom-management strategies are executed effectively, teachers minimize the behaviors that impede learning for both individual students and groups of students, while maximizing the behaviors that facilitate or enhance learning. Generally speaking, effective teachers tend to display strong classroom-management skills, while the hallmark of the inexperienced or less effective teacher is a disorderly classroom filled with students who are not working or paying attention.
While a limited or more traditional interpretation of effective classroom management may focus largely on “compliance”—rules and strategies that teachers may use to make sure students are sitting in their seats, following directions, listening attentively, etc.—a more encompassing or updated view of classroom management extends to everything that teachers may do to facilitate or improve student learning, which would include such factors as (a positive attitude, happy facial expressions, encouraging statements, the respectful and fair treatment of students, etc.), (for example, a welcoming, well-lit classroom filled with intellectually stimulating learning materials that’s organized to support specific learning activities),
Q.4 Discuss the classroom problems in detail?
are one of the adequate problems faced by teachers and a good teacher has the courage to overcome all these challenges bravely.
Some of the common faced by teachers include lack of teamwork, minimal personal time, working towards long term goals, arguments and student excuses, etc.
Addressing these common can not only help to improve teacher retention rate but also enhance success rates of student and the ultimate quality of education.
o Unlike in the past when teachers can’t just finish off their syllabus and typically evaluate the students.
o The situation is more challenging today. They will have to handle multiple roles in the classroom.
o Updating the subject to new demands, correcting materials, content presentations, managing field trips as well as bringing in new creative approaches to meet the present educational trends are a few among them.
o Teachers are finding it really challenging to handle multiple roles as they lack enough time for planning.
o Preparing, planning and executing tasks expected out of them add a lot of pressure and the lack of time doubles it.
Q.5 What is the concept of interpersonal skills? Describe in details about the effective interpresonal skills in teaching?
Interpersonal skills are the behaviors and tactics a person uses to interact with others effectively. People use interpersonal skills all the time when dealing with others, whether in the workplace, in social situations, or within a family.
In the business world, the term generally refers to an employee’s ability to work well with others. Interpersonal skills range from ways of communicating and listening to attitude and deportment.
- Interpersonal skills are behaviors we use to interact with others effectively on the job and in the larger world.
- Some people are born with good interpersonal skills but everyone can learn, develop and improve them.
- Expressing appreciation, resolving disputes, and listening well are all interpersonal skills worth practicing.
- Excellent interpersonal skills in the workplace can enhance camaraderie, improve working results, and support career development.
- A lack of solid interpersonal skills can put an employee at a disadvantage where group involvement, desired assignments, positive reviews, and job advancement are concerned.